-f-fV ff - or the' '
CbliimI com j!rI page.
$5,008, 'next session $S,000 more, very soon it
would amount to a formidable torn, for which
we woold ret verr little return.
Mr. Judd opposed the appropriation on the
gronnd of its uncertainty.
Mr.' Ktawebunabala etrongly advocated the
measure. V -
Motion to postpone loft. .
Jlr. Lyons moved to amend to $2,500. Lost.
Mr. Koakana, amended to $2,000. Lost.
Amount of $5,000 as in the bill. Passed.
Ates TI.'H. Keknanaoa, II. H. "Lunalilo,
Tbeir Exe's. Nabaolelaa, Kanoa. Domini"
llutabison, de Varigny, Phillips, Hons. Bifh
op, kalakaua, KamaVan, Kahanu, Jones, Kui-
belani, nam, iinoaes, uoyc., laKaieua, ivc
wehnnahala. Mahelona 20.
Noes lions. Kaeo. Hitchcock, Una, Lyon:,
Kumaboi,Ialemanu, Pilipo, Martin, Keliipio,
Nakila. Hopu, Nabaku, Kame, Mood, Judd,
AVilder, Koakann, Kaukaha, Xnndscn 10.
Snnnort of military $82,000 SO.
Mr. Hitchcock mored that the Committee
consider the minority report of Military Com
mittee and insert the figures $63,538 in the
place of $82,006 50. He said we hare before
us two armies, one of 80 soldiers and another
of 10,000 children. We were called to give
$82,000 to the first to enable them to hold a
gun according to Hardee, and to keep the pro
found peace, lor the other we were cailea
upon to appropriate $66,000 to educate them
in reading, writing and the other important
elements of a book education. One item that
he obnerved was that -a military instructor
was to be paid $.1,000. lie did not profess
much acquaintance with military affairs, but
be was of opinion that the Sergeant-major
was the one to do the drilling. Sow would
the Ministers be willing to bat c this go before
the world, that wc so small a nation, unable
to cope with the great powers, appropriated
more for a lew soluiers man lor me euucauon
of the entire nation.
II. H. Lunalilo agreed entirely with Mr.
Hitchcock, and he further amended to place
the sum at 510,000.
Mr. Nahaku supported the majority report
Tery strongly, he thought the $82,000 was not
a cent too much.
Mr. Koakann said that the object of these
soldiers was to keep up the dignity of the
King, he was of opinion that he could do it
with 20 men better than it was uone now.
He amended as follows : regular appropriation
$10,000 ; cavalry' of Honolulu $2,500 ; rifles
$l.S00jBrtilcry"Sl,O0O. Total appropriation
Slj.HOO. lie objected very ttrongly to the
soldiers doing various work around the couu-
try. Their duty was at the Palace, and there
they should Btay.
II. H. Lunalilo objected very strongly to
the item of $15,000 for a ntw battery. What
could the proposed battery do against such
vessels as the Ueindecr or JJohungo? Could
we 'expect to 1 successful? He objected to
increasing the pay of soldiers.
Mr. Koakanu said that a good deal had
been remarked about tho dignity of the King.
The first iteuTof the bill was $43,000 to sus
tain the dignity of the crown. These remain
ing items of the soldiers, etc., were for their
own merits, not for the dignity and state of
the King. If a man is to be Mlied, he will
die whether be receives $1 or $2.50 a month.
JIe thought that the soldiers were mere par
ticular about tbeir dignity and pay, than their
Gov. Dominis said that every one knew the
disadvantage of having the battery upon
Punchbowl, and for that reason the majority of
the Special Committee bad inserted a sum to
purchase a new battery. He advocated sup
porting the soldiers on the ground of use at
home, not for foreign war. The use of sol
diers was well illustrated in 1852.
The item $82,006 50 was put and lost.
Mr. Hitchcock's amendment was put and
'Cummittec rose, report approved, and tho
Twr.xTV-FiFTH Dav, Saturday, May 16.
Assembly met at 10 A. M. H. H. M. Ke
knanaoa in the chair.
After prayer by the Chaplain, the minutes
of the preceding day were reid and approved.
Petitions. Mr. Judd presented a petition
from Koolanpoko, praying thaf'parcnta send-
in! children In Kfdprt Krlirtnlt mav bn KYMnnt
from school tax; that all District Judges be ' Men-el Island or Bank, 295" 3", 17131 E, (douM
exemnt from TWMonal taxes : that cattle be 1 full, Lieut. JUper"s Epitome.
taxed twenty-live cents; that sheen be taxed I
$2 and $1 bead ; that all prostitutes be taxed
$12 ;-that Government teachers be men; that
bachelors be exempt from school tax : that
constables receive one-half of the fines of
Police Court ; that $800 be appropriated for a
Court House at ICoolau ; that the Government
pay one-half of the expense of English schools,
Referred to a Select Committee, consisting of
Hons. Halemanu, Koakanu, Mahelona, Hopu,
Mr. Koakanu presented a petition from Ko
loa, prayiBg that mares be taxed $5 ; that
three District Judge? be appointed lor Kauai ;
that the salary of Kauai Circuit Judge l
$1,200; "to refund the fines of por theives ;
that a leper hospital be erected. Kcferred to
former Select Cnmmitlee.
Mr. KnutUcn presented a petition from
Waimca, praying lor assistance in keeping up
an English school in that District ; and that
parents sending children tu English school be
exempt from school tax. Referred to Educa
tion Committee. Another petition praying
for a new scow upon the Waimea river; that
rights of fishing be granted to the whole peo
ple ; that a new road be made from the land
ing up the valley ; that a wharf be built at
the landing. Referred to Committee on In
Mr. Kiiwchunahala presented a petition
from -Honolulu, praying that the House recon
sider the bill to amend Section 1, Chapter 42
of the Penal Code ; and to permit Hawaiians
to purchase liquors.
Mr. Koakann moved to indefinitely postpone.
He said that said section and chapter did not
keep native Uawaiians from drinking. It
merely -restrained the foreigners who sold
liquors. Indefinitely postpone, ayes 28, noes 8.
Reports ok CouMmrns Special commit
tee for examination of petitions from soldiers,
reported that there was no reasonable ground
of complaint, except that they were sent to do
work not of a military nature.
Resolutions. Mr. Koakanu offered a reso
lution that the Committee on Accounts draw
$100 for each member, and sufficient to pay
the present bills ef the House. Carried.
Also a resolution that the Committee on
Finance be instructed to Inquire whether any
officer of the government draws two salaries.
Mr. Kalakaua moved to indefinitely pott
Mr. Koakann said that be did not bring this
forward to annoy any one, but to let the pub
lic see what was done with the money.
Motion to indefinitely postpone was lost,
and the original resolution was carried.
Mr. Koakanu offered a resolution that the
Finance Committee be'instructed to inquire if
the acting Finance Minister drew the salary.
His Ex. Phillips said that as it would save
the time of the House, be would answer now.
He had not received the salary, but it bad
)een paid to the order of Mr. Harris.
On motion of His Ex. de Varigny, the order
of the day was taken up.
Order or mi Dat. A bill to admit copper,
etc., free of duty, was read and ordered to en
grossment. House adjourned.
TwEsrrr-SiiTii Dat, Moxdat, Mav 18.
Assembly met at 10 A. v., U. II. M. Kekua
naoa in the Chair. Prayer by the Chaplain,
and Journal of the preceding day read and
Reports or ConxinrES. Special Commit
tee to examine the GbremmentPresa, report
ed that the list -of expenses and TeccipU were
in regular order, but they recommended that
the press be sold or let out to private parties.
They were of opinion that including the Gov
ernment printing there was enough printing
work in Honolulu to support two papers. As
for the salary 'of a Director, the Committee
were divided, part were in favor of $1,000, and
part 'for' $2,000 per annuti; the Minister of
Interior, who was on the Committee, declined
giving an opinion. The total receipts for the
past two years were $32,746.09, and total ex
Jobs and Advertising....... 13,756.00
Subscription to -Gazette..'. 3,434.89
Subscription to A Otoa 3,989.44
Salary of Director, 11 year $3,000
per annum...... ............,..$ 4,500.00
Salary of Editor of An Otoa .... 2,080.00
Book-keeper for C months...... ....... 550.00
Wages of office hands. 17,883.01
Materials Z 5,328.38
Commission to agcntsf .Ati Oloa.... 277.10
Sundry bilis in town 2,070.47
.Cash on hand March 31, 1868 .- 47.13
. Total. $32,746.09
With reference to.appropriations for the next
period, the Committee called attention to the
fullowing items : -
Kent of ofiice ...$ 2,000.00
Wear and tear of Press 2,000.00
Paid by dep't of Finance $SS7.75
" Interior. 312.00
" For. Affairs- 114.50
Board of Education 577.25
Attorney General 17.50
Government Appropriation 11,200.00
Exp. of Gov't Press to the conntry...$17,000.00
The Committee recommended-the following
Salary of Editor of Gazette $4,000.00
" Au Oloa 2.000.00
For Government Printing 5,000.00
Total appropriation...". $11,000.00
Hesolutio.is. Mr. Pilipo offered a resolu
tion that the Assembly instruct the Ministers
to insert every session in the Appropriation
Bill, the pay of each ofhcerunderOoverntnent.
Mr. Xabali u introduced a bill to extend the
powers of Circuit Judges, Rejected.
Mr. Pilipo introduced a bill to amend section
1,493 of the Civil Code.
Mr. Keawehunabala offered a resolution that
a list of laws in contravention to the standing
Codes be furnished. Passed.
His Ex. Hutchison gave notice of a bill to
Mr. Kuihclani gave notice of a bill in regard
to disputed land boundaries.
, OimcR pr tub Dav Was taken up, on
motion of Jlr. Upa. Appropriation Bill was
House went into committee of thewbolc for
its consideration. Mr. Koakanu calletMo the,
chair. Items passed as follows :
Salary .Minister or Interior, $10,000.
Salary 1st Clerk, $1,000.
2d Clerk, $3,000.
Governor of Oahu, $3,600.
Governess of Hawaii, $2,000.
Governor of Kauai, $2,400.
Lieut. Governor of Hawaii, $2,000.
Salary Clerk Governor of Oahu, $600.
Clerk Govcrnurof Maui,$GQ0. Item amend
ed to $SC0. Passed.
Clerk Gotcrncss of Hawaii. $2,000.
Mr. Lyons amended to $1,200. He said that
it nas his intention to hale amended the item
for Lieut.-Governor to $3,000, for all offices
should bp paid according tu their value, there
fore, he mored to suspend the rules and recon
sider the vote upon the salary for Lieut.-Gov.
The salary of clerk was.altogethcr dispropor
tionate to those of other islands.
Item at $2,000 passed.
Salary Clerk Governor of Kauai. $600.
Mr. Knudscn amended to $1,000.
Mr.-Kcauehunabala moved tw reconsider the
items of the Clerks of Hawaii and Maui. Lost
He then n.ocd to reconsider the Hem of sal
ary of the Clerk Govtrnorof Kauai. Carried.,
Motion that the item paES at $600 as in the
Mr. Kaukaba amended to $1,000. Item at
Salary Postmaster General, $5,000.
Mr. Kuihelani amended to $4,000.
31r. Nakila amended to $1,600.
Item passed at $5,000. Ayes 22, nays 15.
Committee rose, reported progress, and re
The House then adjourned.
Positions of lslniid, Iloclts ami Slioali,
some or mem bill, Tery ImperrectJy
ascertained, from Long lbO, going;
"Westward. By Opt. DlMU. SMltn.
The Marshall, Gilbert, and Caroline groups, and
the 31arianaa or Liulrone Inland are not taken in
yet. They w ill form anotber list. Forgotten in my
last : KrusCMtem Iiock, Lat 229-1 'J X, Long 175 3?
West. Authority, Admiral Kruscnstern.
,?tll!?d!, W-'u":uio. 309 N, Kii? E,
RIoxleM-o, 19 -iV X, 157 c 04" E, (doubtful). Riper.
Urou;btoa Jtocks, 315ft hign,33sis' Jl, lSSlO" E,
U. 15. Exploring Ex!edition.
yatniiio Iblaud, (Middle), 33 00' K, 140 E, Raper.
South Inland, 32 30 K, 140 03 E, Krusenstern and
ronatidin Island or Rock,
30 SO' X, 140 00" E,
Ravonaj Island or Rock, 3201' X, 140 E, French
Eniilh I.laud or Rock, 31 1P N, 133 50" E, IL JI.
Sail Rock, or Lot's Wife, S9 4r N, 140 22 E, U. S.
Malabriga Islands, 27 W Jf, 145 25' E, Raper,
Grampoa Itland, 10' X, 146 40' E, Raper,
Sulphur Island, volcanic, 24 4S1 X, 141 20 E, Ra-
I'JeiT'Tolcanlc 24 48' X, 111 24' E, Xapoleon 3rd,
San Alesandro Island, volcanic, S3 14' X, 141 0 18'
Dionlslo Inland, volcanic, 2422X, 111 2SE, Raper,
Uootu Islands, extending Xortb and South 42 miles.
rarrjr'B Group, Xorth Rock, 27 45' X, 142 07' E,
Kater Island, Xorth Rock, 27 31 X, 142121,
Peel Island, south-west Islet, 27 02 X, 142 10' E,
Port Lloyd, (l'eel Island), 27 00 X, 112 11' E, Ra
Ier. Bailey Islands, south islet, 25 30 X, 112 WE,
lUper, (not veil ascertained).
Rosariu Island. 27 16 X, 140 60 E, Raper, (not
well ascertained). r
Keudrick Wand. 2435' X, 134 E, RapVr, (not
Rom Island, 24 2S X, 130 40 E, Raper,, (not well
Borodino Islands, north one, 2602 X, 131 15 Ra
per. -i ,
Parece Telia, Sail Rock, 2030 X, 136 06 E, Captj
Barraa Rock, 21 42 X, 140 55' E, CapL Barras,'
Lindsay Rock, 18 20 X, 141 "20 E, Capt. Lindsay,
CotuwaUie, Smyth, Sybilla, Petrel or Caspar Rico
Ketj; with islets S.S.K. and X.X.W., 20 miles;
XorthernnuMf rluuip of rocks in 1st. 14 41 X,
long. 168 00 K. Lieut. Brooke, U. S. X.
Halcyon or Wake's Island, ou which the Llbelle was
wrecked in 15f entrance to lagoon boat-pasage,
10 10' X, 1C6 30' E. This Hand or reef is placed
lnl ll"X, hj the U. S. apUrfng Eapedition,
but by Opt Wood. Capt. Careill and Capt Eug
liah, who have jmt visited Cue wieck, aa above.
.Marcus Island is maiked doubtful on mostcharts, but
Uol't. Uillett, lu the Morning Star, in U64, passed
near an island In lit. 21 04' Xj lone. 154 02 E.
Marshall or Jardine Islands, (2 small), 21 40 X,
151 35 XL Some whalemen atOnu that tbey hare
landed pa these rtcks; others aert that tbej have
sailed over this portion without aeeing an) thing.
Assumption Island, 3K)0 ft high, 19 41' X, 145 27
Ulaccas Rocks. 20 10' 145 25 E. Raper.
Faralou Island, 2030 X, 145 12 E, Spanish Cor
Guy Kock, 2u3U X. 14530 E, Raper.
Gngan Island, 18 4S' X, 145 40' E, Raper.
Paean Island, 1815' X, 145 48' E, Raper.
The three laat positions are not well ascertained,
- In my first Hat I stated that the Pearl and Hermes
Reef extended Xorth and South SO miles. East and
West Co miles. Tbe-U. S. &. Lackawanna makes the
cirrnmference of the shoals 42 miles. 3Ir.Whitney.
Latitude and longitude of N.E. point correct.
Fo3moxs colli sot ax rocst satLan ores, sex- no
TaAci or SAAP, SHOALS OX KOCXS.
"X. Lit, E. Lou.
.'. 23 22 162 W
Decker Island... ,
Dafceirta. . .......
Lamira Island. . .
Wake Beef... j ...
20 10 il65'2U
i 23 12 160 in
20 10 164 09
20 23 1C6.51
IS 47 ' 163 30
..... 17 10
. 15 02
(lb it etmlinued.
New Seeds for Hedges. H. Fosbrooke
has just received from Victoria, V. I., per
Hubert Co tra, a quantity of gone or furze
seed, which he has for sale. The gorze
make a good fence, and Is impervious to
both sheep and cattle. Farmers and graziers
have now au opportunity of testing tbe de
sirability of the gorze for that purpose. It
has been brought here at the requestor a
grazier who is well satisfied as to Its ulilify.
The Old Curiosity Shop has also for sale,
fresh flower and vegetable seeds.
Bale of Papers....... ...
Cash on hand, March 31, 1866..
Hi iu HUM ft 1 7171V1H7
A Y A A (tAIMIFj
WiiA' UtlJUl I i-t.
J. MOTT SiUTU,
Director of the Government Press.
WEDNESDAY, MAT? 20, 18C8.
Mr. R. W. Meyer'bas been appointed Boad
Supervisor for the Islands of Molokai and
Lanai, in conformity with Section 103 of the
The Rev. Mr. Makuakanc has been licensed
to perform tbe Marriage Ceremony on the
Island of ILswaii.
F. VT. IICTCIItSOX,
Home Office, May 18, 1SC8. . Minister of Interior
The visit of H. R. II. tbe Doke of
Edinbnrgh, to Australia has been brought
suddenly to an unhappy termination. On
the 12th of March while on a visit to
Sydney, the Prince was shot in the
back by one Fnrrell, known to be con
nected with the Fenian organization, and
dangerously wounded. The wound fortu
nately is not fatal, and under advice of
his medical attendants, he has sailed for
Europe. From the Adelaide Observer,
we learn that Hi3 Royal Highness, had
accepteu the offer of the II. R. X. S. X
Company to place the steamship Morpeth
at his dieposal to convey him to New
castle anil Morpeth. The Prince, and his
Excellency the Enrl of Belmore, accom
panied by their respective suites were to
leave Sydney at 11 i. m. on Wednesday,
4th March, and return to Sydney on the
the evening of Friday the Ctb. The
news which we gave last week from a
Melbourne paper, that the Galatea, would
visit Honolulu has been confirmed by
despatches received by mail on Saturday
by H. 15. M. Commissioner and Consul
Qeneral, au'd but -for the. attempt upon
his life, the Prince would have arrived
here during thesiimmer.
His reception and stay in Australia,
have been marked, up to this last coward
ly assault,' by tho utmost zeal of the
people to welcome. and entertain him
Their papers are filled with accounts of
his progress through the Colonies. AH
mannpr of presentations were made to
him, addresses of welcome were delivered,
balls and parties were given,, and other
exhibitions of loyalty manifested, yet amid
this universal demonstration of loyalty,
one hand has been lifted to take the life
of their rnyal visitor, a breach of hospi
tality to be execrated not only by the
people where it occurred, but by every
nation, to whose knowledge the dastardly
act shall come. '
The world has been astonished and
shocked, at the crimes, which have been
perpetrated in tho natno of Ireland, by
that organization which pretends to make
her political future, their.especial care and
who arrogate the shapeing o her des
tinies. Tho very name of Fenian i3
already an execration, anil a word of
reproach in the estimation of all good and
true men, and associated with the blackest
crimes which are generated in unholy
hearts. That i3 not a good cause, or
worthy of success, which employs the
assassin's bullet, the incendiaries torch,
and tho stealthy attack of the coward,
whose warfare, leads its combatants not
to the bar of public opinion for righteous
judgment, but to the criminal's dock. It
blows up a Clcrkenwell prison, it thrusts
combustibles under a Palace, it murders a
member of Parliament, under the very
dome of the Legislative Halls, and it
strikes a Prince in a far distant land,
without tho least possibility that his
death can elect any good purpose what-
The excitement in Canada, over the
murder of McGce, brings out the bittetest
denunciations of Fenianism, and a deter
mination "to stamp it out, and doubtless
in England if there has been any leaning
towards leniency to this misguided organ
ization, it will disappear under the, fresh
provocation and outrage winch lias been
perpetrated in Australia.
The impeachment trial is drawing to a
close. The President's counsel, .Nelson,
on the 23d of April, made bis argument,
followed on the 2."illi by Uroesbeck.
On the part of the managers, on the
27th and 28th, replies were made by
Stevens and Williams.
On tbe 28th, Mr. Evarts for the Presi
dent commenced the closing, argument,
and on the 30th had not concluded,-but
stated lie would close on the next day.
Mr. Sumner offered an order on the
25th that the Senate proceed to vote on
tbe several articles at 12 o'clock on tbe
day the final arguments wete concluded.
And on the 28th an order pioviding that
on the final judgment of the Senate, ques
tions arising thereupon shall bp decided
by a majority.
Neither of these orders btve been
adopted, but are laid ot er for action, until
the closing of tbe argument's. IT passed,
tbe decision of the Senate may be arrived
at on the same day that the arguments are
closed. But it is believed that the deci
sion will speedily follow the closing of tbe
debate, and probably onr next mail will
place us in possession of the result.
X scene occurred in tbe Senate on the
28th between General Butler and Judge
Nelson, growing out of the withdrawal of
Judge Black, one of the President's coun
sel. II is defection, is ah'edged to have oc
curred from the refusal of the President to
seize the island of Aha Vela, a guano
island, off the coast of San Domingo, in
wbduJorTge'l act was ntercsted. Judge
;"t- a -it,-., . v.
rel50naccn?ed General Boiler to bavo re-
commended the seizure to the President,
after the commencement of the impeach
ment proceedings. On the 2Stb, Senator
Sumner introduced a resolution, that Mr.
Nelson having'used improper language in
this tribunal, uud calculated to provoke a
duel, and oisrespectful to the Court, he
deserved the "censure of Hie Senate.
The consideration of this resolution was
laid over, and tbe next day, after Nelson
had made'some remarks, disavowingany
intentional disrespect for the Senate, but
admitting that be referred to a duel, Re
verdy Johnson moved to lay tbe resolution
on the table, which was agreed to 31 to 10.
This ended tbe quarrel, and Mr. Evarts
proceeded with his argument.
On the 1st of May Mr. Stanbury follow
ed Mr. Evarts, and on tbe 4th Jlr. Bing
ham commenced the final argument for the
There is not the slightest indication of
what the verdict of tho Senate will be.
The Herald has a dispatch stating that
Senator Fessenden and others, of tho Re
publican party, were decided In the opinion
that "a sufficient case had not been made
out by the Mauagers to, warrant a removal
of the President. But the dispatches of
the Herald must be received with many
grains of allowance.
Tbe Republican Nominating Conven
tion meets on the 20th, and though Gen.
Grant will be nominated by acclamation,
yet there seems to be a movement, among
the moderate Republicans and Conserva
tive Democrats, to nominate Judge Chase.
-There has been a Cabinet crisis in Eng
land. The Prime Minister does not assent
to the policy on the Irish Church, as em
bodied in Mr. Gladstone's resolutions, the
first of which passed on tho 1st of May by
The Queen not only declined, the resig
nation of Disraeli, but urged him not to
dissolve the Parliament. The Liberals
bitterly denounce the action of the Cabi
net in holding their places after tbe adverse
vote, and assure them that no Irish or
Scotch Reform Bill can be devised by the
Ministry, which will bo acceptable to the
Tbe situation 13 unusual. Parliamsnt
is nea its close, and the opinion that it is
not in accord with the electors' is so strong
that the Government desire those reforms
to go to the people before being decided
The debate on the Irish Church question
is fixed for the 7th of May.
Tho war in Abyssinia has been brought
to a successful close. The latest dispatches
state that tbe army was not far from
Magdala, and that an attack on this strong
hold of King Theodore would soon- be
Tho advance reached Antalo on the 2d
of March, Gen. Napier having previously
had an interview, and made an ally of
Kassai the Prince of Tigre.
The great difficulties of the expedition,
to be overcome, were not so much' the
forces ofthq Abyssinian King, as the rug
gcdnes3 of tho country, its poverty of for
age and supplies, and the deadly effects of
the climate. These obstacles were great
est on the march from the sea cbast to the
high table lands, since gaining which, the
progress of the expedition bos been rapid
' The assault resulted in the capture of the
city, the death of Theodore and capture of
all bis treasure and the release of the
European captives, sixty in number.
Not the least obstacle in the prosecu
tion of this war has been the nncertajnty
regarding -its objective point, where the
enemy would be found, whether he wpuld
accept battle, and whether the captives
whose release was sought, would not be
butchered, when Theodore should find
himself in danger of defeat. This war
has been pronounced by many as hopeless
and' ur.advisable, and that it would be
fruitless in its results, but the conquest
has been complete, and all tho objects
sought have been secured. The Prime
Minister of England declared in Parlia
ment, that "the conquest of Abysiuia,
was only equalled by that of Maxico by
That this was not extravagant eulogium
on the campaign, is evident from a glance
at the history of expeditions into that
couutry. A late writer says':
"That King Theodore will avoid a battle,
and probably rely on Ilia natural difficulties
"resented by the burning heat, the almost
impassible mountalos, and the immense dis
tances which must be traversed before atiy
important blow can be struck. It has been
in tills manner that nearly all preceding ex
peditions into the interior-ot Ulrica tiavu
been defeated, and our best hope of success
Isin tbe extraordinary pains which have been
taken 10 collect and iurnlsb adequate sup
'In the oldest historical work in existence
namely, that1 of Herodotus wc have an
account of an attempt to penetrate into what
was Ibeu called Ethiopia, which is tbe north
ern part of Abyssinia, made by a powerfuL
army, which almost perished In the attempt.
.This was tbe army of the Persian, command
ed by Cambjses. We arc told that before he
had pcrforpied a fifth part uf his intended
expedition the provisions which he bad with
him were totally consumed; that the beasts
which carried the baggage were then eateu
bv the soldiers along with grass and any oth
er herbs that could be found In the desert,
and that finally Cambyses was compelled to
return to Thebes, In upper Egypt, without
evt;r having seen Ibe enemy, but leaving a
large part of his army in the desert destroyed
by hunger and tbirsL Anotber army of SO,-
rVlfl ,.... I.T..1. I. a ..: inln n ,fltr..r..n
of the mmucountrvnerisbedrntlrelr. no one
retnrritm: to tell the taie of its destruction. ,
"From that time to (he present, there have ,
.ueeii nuinerousaiieinpis uiaue uyiueureeKS,
the Koiniins. the Arabs, the Portnfrnese. tbe
Turks, and Egyptians to conquer the same !
country, out Uey nave ail jaueu. Jiostoi,
them lallcd-from the same natural difficulties 1
which caused tbe failure of the first expedl-1
lion described by Ilerodnf na 2,SC0 years ago.
Nature never seems to change in any respect
in the. African Wilderness, and prutubiy our
best chance of success Is that the British
army is advancing into tbe Interior through
an entirely new line of country lo tbat taken
by the armies of other nations. The nso of
the sea, and of steam-power npon it, gives
usNfacllitIes for approaching the mountain
! chain and tabic lands of Abyssinia which no
.other power ever possessed?' ,
. F" .
Tbe telegram states that General Na
pier will at once return to the coast.
Some have supposed that the primal
'cause of , the Abyssinian war was an offer
of marriage lo Queen Yictoria from Theo
dore, but the London Times denies that
any offer, save that of a friendly alliance,
.was ever made. by. Theodore. - . -
The King of Abyssinia insulted and de
tqihed as hostages, an English Consul and
ohersubjects, and even a Special jCngjish
Envoy, and this flagrant art could not be
overlooked, or its subjects' be left unpro
tected by England. Theodore's grievance
undoubtedly -grew out of the treaty rela
tions of England with Egypt, which pow
er desired and attempted to obtain poscss
sion of Abyssinia, and England was re
garded by Theodore tu .an ally to the
scheme, but his immediate anger and con
sequent effort for revenge, was caused by
his letters being suffered to lay in the For
eign Ofiice. unanswered.
We commend to our readers the sound
arguments of the following letter from one
of our prominent business men :
Honolulu, May 19, 18G3.
To the Editor or tue Hawaiian Gazette :
Sm : The Importance' of the question of
the proposed subsidy to the California, Ore
gon and Mexico Steamship Company, must
be my apology for opcnlngagaln this- subject.
Tbe opposcrs of It brought up.their battery
in last week's Commercial AdvertUtr, many of
the shots were well directed, whilst from
one gun uot only did tbey come thick and
fast, but the supply of ammunition seemed
inexhaustible. - It might eerm a hopeless
task w here so mauy propositions- are ad
vanced as in tbe letter of If. A. 'P. C, some of
tneiu ueiug ratiier startling ones, una involv
ing the prliiciples of political economy, and
commercial legislation us well as commercial
detail, to expect to discuss them Intelligent
ly wjthiii reasonable limits. A little classi
fication, however, may assist us In dealing
with them, and perhaps enable us to appre
ciate tbeir bearing on tbe question before us.
Tbe motives and actions ot tbe ministers br
tbe ministry, the insinuations about impro
per influences I need not refer to. I pro
pose now to dicuss "measures not, men."
Tbe axiom laid down by II. A. P. C. " that
political dependency will follow' the com
mercial dependency of this country," hardly
requires serious argument. All that com
mercial dependency means or can mean In
our case Is, that we shall do most of our
trade, by exchanging our products with Sun
.Francisco, rather tiian Boston. What barm
cau accrue to this country, politically or
commercially. He admits this result is
" natural and inevitable," and in tbe regular
course of trade, but objects to our paying to
hasten IL If it is natural nd Inevitable, and
he might bavc added, profitable and good,
why should we not! It is only too evident that
in all this argument of "commercial depen
dency and political dependency," H. A. P. C.
is merely pointing to a danger, or rather
holding up a bugbear, which does not alarm
him, but which lie hopes may have the effect
of frightening sbme of ourLcgisIators who
might otherwise be favorable to the subsidy.
Such arguments as " that it was derogatory
to the dignity of this government to eubsi
dlze vessels not under it oicn flay;' may be
safely Jeft to the common sense ot the Legis
lature. There arc several points howcvcrln the let
ter of II. A. P. C. which renuire a tnore careful
'reply. Tbe one which occurs to us nstbe
most important is in cuect tins: "it this
company intend to run two steamers at a loss
for two years, are they not probably going to
make it up atlenrards, by exorbitant rates,
or by demandinga higher subsidy, or both?"
I think we may assume that they would do
so, f they could. But I would ask what are
their Chances f what is the possibility of tbeir
raising the rate of freight or passage for any
considerable time, at the end of two years,
above what tbe planters and merchants make
up their minds is a fair thing to pay? Is it
not evident that wc should have a line of
sailing packets, on in a few months at farth
est, and we should never trust tho steam
company again. If they ask for a higher
subsidy, that is no reason why they should
get it, unless indeed the public found the
benefits from two years experience so great
that they could be willing lo pay more. If
then this company have calculated upon mak
ing up their losses for two years, by subse
quent monopoly and extortion, they bare
merely overreached themselves. It Is ;.(
He, however, that they may have reckoned
upon the increase of freight and passengers
at the end of two years, enabling tbem to do
without the subsidy at all and the calcula
tion would not be an unreasonable one it
only requires an Increase pf ten passengers
and flltyons of freight per trip both ways
to make np the whole $25,000 wanted. How
much'Wrill the completion of the Pacific Kail
way help them out? If the calculation
pruvc a wrong one, tbe loss la theirs not
ours. In line, wc arc on the right side of the
hedge, we have the best or the bargain, and
tbe sooner we close It the better. A good
deal has been said about guarantees, and It
Is hinted this company would not stick to
their bargain if they found it did not suit
them. Well, what guarantees have we now?
They can withdraw at any moment by an
arrangement with the American Govern
ment. ' But by taking our i'SifiOQ tbey bind
themselves to us, while now we have not a
word to say. It really seems to me fortunate
Tn no fhnt thU fnmrvtnt- ,IM lint. i,k fhit
SIOO.OOO they first nsked and run their bouts
once a month, for, as the matter now stands,
nCQIC III H J'l'SlllUII UJ felt UVILI.1 UllUHIUIU-
datlon, to limit the freight to1 six dollars per
tun, and oblige tbem to get our consent be
fore they can withdraw. On the very worst
supposition of flagrant breach of contract,
we lose nothing, for it is only proposed to
pay for what we get, say at tho end of a cer
tain term. Butalteroll the reasonable chan
ces are, tbat having gone so far, having got one
boat running and another ready, tbat with a
subsidy from this Government and a contract
with it, the company would ran tbe boats
remilarlr. even at a considerable loss for two
years. In the hope of a greatly Improved traf-
ne at last, as ine matter sranas now, run
ning once In 35 days only, it ran neither ba
satisfactory to tbe company nor to the public
Weare trnly reminded by H. A-. P. C aud
others, tbat the unestion is-narrowed down
to one of eighteen trips a year instead of
ten, or, that It is between having a steamer
ever thirty-five days supplemented by a
targe nnrouer oi Eauin vessels, aim a steam
evcy twenty or twenty-one days supple
mented by a ninch smaller number ol failing
vessels. It Is further observed, that on this
-account and Irom tho way we do our busi
ness fdrawimr siralnut shipments) that the
calculations of saving in. Interest that have :
been madu arc reduced down to s small I
figure. It -'may be worth while lo follow ,
this up a little. Let us take tbe case of J be j
Dlanter8 contract with the Refinery Compa
ny. It was agreed to take payment, for tbe
sugars In bills at ninety days date,' because
tbey would have bad to sell on sixty days
credit in San Francisco anyhow and the
Refineries could not calculate ou receiving
our sugars in Ban Francisco In less than
thirty days. Had we had a steamer running
every twenty days when tbe planters made
that contract, tbey would pnly have had to
fillntv tn tliM VtMflni-rfr flOfi1 ftjrs fl4 fill (int.
' " ' , -' J -. . . .- J . --- - ,
muu time nr mc iapu.c u,n, mu ni.um
have-got eeventy-ave day b'lls for their su-I
srars. Worth halt oer cent, mora cash in Ho
nolalu than ninety day bills. Tbe planters
might bare saved $2,210 clear cash on this
one saic ul iu,wiutwv iva. u iuoj, a
steamer' evert tfilrtv-live days wonld have
Kft tht.tnjio better pflTtban tbey wernwllh-
our any siearnrr ai an, jor uiev nuuiu iuso
Jnst the fifteen days Interest, by having to
wait thirty-five days instead ot twenty tor
tbe next steamer, lt would be no advan
tage, it will ber observed, to ship by an in
termedlate sailing vessel, however many
there might be, as the Refinery would In I
that case hare to give tbe ninety day bill
again. The consideration 61 this case shows
us in a practical manner how a regular fre
quent and rapid communication with San
Francisco sares U3 interest or makes us dol-
urll snow us toat tnc mci
ur business, or drawing against shlpDlcnts
docs not affect the Interest question tfcat
an. actual loss of time on the ocean, although
it may bo concealed from observation oy
mercantile devices cannot be saved except
by steam. And it also explain!, what In
deed we 'all feel 'to be the case, that no
number of intermediate sailing vessels can
be any substitute whatever for a steam ves
- - - .
tbese arguments about "frequent11 trips
sel at rczuiar intervals. ine iaiiacy in
consists in Ignoring the fact tbat unless tbey
t -, t .. i i it. r. . . ,,.
arc nt the same time rapid ana regular, ine
advantage of frcqucncyls nullified.' Indeed
to a certain extentthe more we have of them
tho worse wc are off In the particularres
It Is only right to observe that on the 10,
000,000 ponnds or so of sugar already bargain
ed for the Planters here cannot get back the
half per cent already lost by them for want of
more rapid communication, but tbeir con
tract expires at the end of this y ear, except
In rase of "the Reciprocity treaty going Into
effect, when another contract comes Into
force for two years. If the Reciprocity Trea
ty does go Into effect, It strikes me tbat we
shall have two steamers put on the route
any way, and It might then become a ques
tion whether the $25,000 a year might not be
better spent on a thorough system Of Inter
Island stcam-commnnlcitlon, unless It be
considered tbat It is worth the money to bind
tbe Ocean Company and to limit the rates or
With reference to tbe observation tbat It Is
usually found too expensive to carry sugar
and molasses bv steam, and that they do uot
do It from the West Indies or Mauritius to
Europe, I will Just remark, that the con
veyance of freight by steam Is difficult and
expensive, or impracticable, according as the
distance Is Increased, and that It wonld never
suit any Government to subsidize vessels
enough to carry the immense sugar crops
of those countries so far by steam. It so
happens that our little crop cau be carried by
two of the smallest steamers that conld well
be subsidized for ocean travel, and tho Amer
ican Government have agreed to pay $33,-
000 a year towards enabling us to have our
sugar and molasses carried by steam. Why
shouldn't we, by the payment of u" small ex
tra sum, reap the full advantage of it.
Having so far, met the objections urged
against grantlfig this subsidy, If was tny In
tention to have enlarged upon some of the
many great advantages of a frequent, regular
and rapid stc-am-couimnolratlon with the
principal source of supply and demand. It
however looks so like assumption to begin
to explain what everyone knows, that I hesi
tate to go Into these questions at any length.
1 will therefore, taking my cue from the let
ter of H. A. P. C, merely observe "that It
was shown before the Committee," or rather
let us say, attempted to be shown, tbat It
was a great comtort, pleasure and conveni
ence to get our letters and news quickly and
regularly that San Francisco connected us
with the restof the civilized world, that this
is tbe last and. only link wanting In the chain
of universal steam-lines thai It would he
preposterous for us to rcluse to connect If
we can; that It would lead to direct orders
from San Francisco, and to contracts with
manufacturers, dealers and others there fdr
our produce, thus saving commission, that It
gives a fillip toall our enterprise. by enabling
us to'gct quickly whatever wo require to
carry them on that It helps us to get the
top of the market In San Francisco for all
our produce, anil thus raise our 'average
firlce, that we can keep smaller stock of
mportcd goods, that we can do more busi
ness with tbe same capital, or the same bus
iness with less capital, that wc can turn
over our profits oltener or give tho advan
tage to the consumer, that the market will
be more, regularly supplied and scarcity or
jery high prices prevented, aud thus reduc
lugthe average price to the consumer, tbat
It facilitates our business with Europe and
with all the world that In fine It lies at the
very root of commercial prosperity, and
that it is the most direct cut towards attain
ing the end and object of all commerce, by
the cheapening of what its mint, to buy, and
enhaiieiuy the value of vhat tee hare to tell, it
assists us " to buy In tbe cheapest and sell
in the dearest market" the first principle of
the " wealth of nations" also that It would
assist us In our competition with San Fran
cisco in getting the whaleshlps, helping to
supply ns with what wc most lacked. In tbat
competition, by lowering the cost of money,
facilitating the getting of supplies, the char
tcilng of ships fur their oil and communicat
ing with their owners.
It was also urged tbat it would bring peo
ple who would stiend money mid Invest mon
ey among us. It wonld bring more capital
to the couutry, and also a certain class and
very valuable class of labor, such us the small
hard working farmer clas of California and
the Western States. Here we were met by
the answer "that ux hate no room for the
prnjuable empioymenl or more capital at pres
ent; that the rale of interest U dcereaning
among u, and cajilal it idle; that any ttirnu
lalhm of our product Jiu( now would be dim
trouf. As certain facts' give color to these
statements, and as I venture to think that a
clearer view of how' we really do stand In
this respect Is of the last importance to all
of us, especially whilst wc arc legislating, I
propose to examine them for a inonment.
Lt is a fact that there Is In Honolulu a good
deal of capital lying Idle at the present mo
ment, and as a consequence the rate of In
terest shows a tendency to decline. This
cause and effect I apprehend to be precisely
analogous to what has been lately so remark
able in England, they have hail a great crisis
andan Infinite variety uf schemes and enter
prises which were in tho habit of employing
and wasting vast amounts of money at any
Interest have collapsed, capitalists have taken
the alarm, and tbey not only have Inst these
nuestionableopcnlngs for the employment of
tlieir money, but they are noWafraltl of lend
ing even where tbey fairly might do It with
safety. The notoriously and unexceptlon
ably safe means of employment of capi
tal are as a natural consequence beselgcd
with offers of money. Consols go np as do
all tho prime securities and Interest falls
lower than ever was known. In the mean
time many a good enterprise, and many a
sounu nicrcnam is nnaDie to raise a dollar,
for legitimate wants, solely'from the general
want of confidence.
Have wc not Just gone through a similar
crisis here J Has not onr.rualn Industry Just
anlfered ft collapse? Is It uot a fact that If a
' y capitalist sees a, roan comlngalougtliestrect,
' 1 ' whom be mav tusoect wants, to offer iturar
plantation security ior some oi uis money, !
uues lie nui, aougu uacK or turn uown ine
next street? Is not the main property on
tbe Islands cither sugar plantation property
or directly connected with and Influenced by
tue vaiuc oi sugar plantation property r
What wonder then that for thJ moment cap- i
ital is lying idle, and Government bonds arc
not to be got at any price, far there Is noth
ing eJ but these or sugar plantation property
to Invest In. Capitalists hare been badly
treated, they bare been "taken in aad done
for," and In conscqucuce, as 11 was forcibly
said lately of capital In England, lt is "on
tbe strike" and Is therefore out of employ
ment. Now when men get "ou the strike"
we send elsewhere for hands, men from
other places, who are often glad to come i
so it will be In this ease ot our canilal beinir '
when! for our needs. Where thousands of,
acres of tbo richest lands, and capable of ,
yielding 3 to 4 tons of sugar to tbe acre,, exist 1
untouched, It Is folly to talk of Its being
"'disastrous to stimulate our products," the I
good lands must come Into cultivation, and
to tbe great profit and advantage of the
Increasing materially our sugar product's, I
would appeal o 11. A. P. C. himseir whether -
capital is not now wanted In thesis Islands, i
and with reasonably gondseenrity toouerfor
It, tu obtalu laborers to work etllciently the
ground we bare now In cultivation, and tn
furnish proper aud-fflelent machinery for
ecnomically taking off our present crops.
J It not what wi all most want, to be able
to work onr estates to liter best Advantage,
to lower the cost of production i I do not
X'Sm Hilo and Jnpmif Hiwa'w.
mi, iu uv byuilllj UIUIU i. ,(C1J f , li IUU,'
aoiy empioyea in mis onjeci aione.li area-
souable confidence coupled with judgment
existed. I would further appeal to 11. A. P. I
Csand ask him how much, what fraction of .
a mrm 1AH..'lh. '
- jur.i mi. iu iii i'iuuuc- t
thin nf nnr iniMn. tn tw pnnhli-rl In mnnlv 1
California rJtG some or allor thc-large bal
ance of sugars which tbey now get else
where? I claim that a rapid, regular, steam
communication with San Francisco will be
one of tbe most efficient means of doing this,
it will work both wy by lowering the eoit
of what we want tobny, Which means the
cost of production, and raising the nett value
to us hero pf air sugar. And tbo same will
occui' with all our nrodncts which we ti-11 In
In all our calculations we must uot forget
that In two short years, tbo greatest erent
of modem times, the completion of the
Wlh Hie lajlng 6f h last 'falL. open op
I California1 innd-Oreiroii. not only xo' the
Eastern, Western and Middle States of the
Union, but to a certain extent to the millions
of Europe now practically cut off from it.
The- Pacific States must then be peopled
with a raptdityj nnprecedentetl Infce"hLT.t:r-r
of even American progress for never be
fore In the history of mankind, bai a clluuUa
hi LmuuiUI, seuiiru IIU1, A w a-
tensive and unoccupied, been so -suddenly
so Dcautuni, a sou so ncn, a region so ex-
i . . . .... . .
thrown open to so many minions oi rcauc,
enterprising and cmmigratlog people. J It
too soon to make preparations for breaking
np new soil to supply them with our pro
ductions? Is It too soon to think of prepar
ing for some of our rich acres now lying
Idle, to be ottered as a home and a resting
filacc to the' hundreds of Industrious and
ntclllgent men who will be spread 2a all
directions by the nnmerocs "waves which
must accqmpany and be tbe-Tcsult of thU
grand westward tide of emigration?
I trust our Legislators wilt ponder well on
all these points, befbre thcmata up;thclr
mlnds to let slip this opportunity of bring
ing us nearer not to Sao Francisco alone,
brit to the whole civilized world. We bare
attempted to measure by figures some of tbe
advantages to be derived by thus facilitating
communication, bnt he would be a rash
mr.n. who would sit down and. limit tte sum
of tbe advantages this kingdom has to gain
from a frequent, rapid and regular commu
nication with Son Francisco, or of the less
wc mav suffer from the want of If.
Our Legislature has never failed us on Im-
Eortant commercial questions, when there
as been a fair opportunity jrff en of discus
sing them, I have full faith that la the pres
ent Instance tbeir decision will result la
" the greatest good of the greatest number."
CALIFORNIA. OEEGON AKD MEXICO
San Francisco jnd Honolulu Line.
The Company's Splendid A I Steamship
F. CONNOR. Commander,
tVUl run Tbetiveen Itouoluln and San
FranoUeo by tbe folluniiic
' Time Tallies
striaTCxa raox aaarrat. at
Iloajlalu Jlay S ifen FrmncUcn May 2
5aa Francbco May-Si Ik-nolnla..... Jnu4 9
Honolulu June 13 ?a Ftmncbeo..'..Jiia S
feaa Francixco. July 4 Uoooluta .Jaly 16
Honolulu. ... .July 21 Sa rraucacu Aag3
SanFrnciiieo,'....Aiiglrt lluootala..,; . . . Aug 22
Homilula Auk B i'n Tnadco Sst la
BATES OF PASSAGE HAVE BEES RE
Culilii, $50 Stccrnpc, $39
Through freight to Portland and Victoria
will be taken at reasonable rates, and
litberal AdvuuccH Trlmlo oh nil
tjliliiiuont per Mtciimcr.
Insurance gnaranteed at lower rate than bj
sailing vessels. Particular cate taken of ship
ments of Fruit. t
AH orders for Goods to be purchased Is Fan
Francisco, will be received and filled by return
of Steamer. II. 1IACKFELI A CO.,
HAWAIIAN PACKET USE.
For Portland, Oregon.
Titr rvtc yew currn senn.
M. ALASKA, i4
K. CAJUIOUX. Master,
Having a largo portion of her cargo already
Will Have Immediate Dispatch,
for the above port. For freight or passage,
WAL.KKR i ALLEN, .r
Will run daring tbe next quarter aa fullo7
Monday, March 30 Monday, April SO
Monday, April fl Monday, Apri1 27
Monday, April 13 Monday, May 4
Laying up the 'Week coinmeiiciug Mcndiy,
Monday, May 18 Monday; -Juno 3,
Monday, Jay 25 Monday, Jane 15
Monday, June 1
At 4 p. m., preetsely, touching at
Kcalakekua, ; , .
Kealakekna, Wednesday, about noon,
Kailua, Wednesday teniogs, ,
Kawaibae A Mahukoca, Thursday evenings
A rrivlng back at Honolulu Saturday morning).
Paisengera will be landed at Makee'f Landing.
On Thursday, June 25th.
6he will leave for
Kolon rinil IVnlmcn, Kit tin I,
At 41 P.M.,
Arriving lack on Eatnrday, the 27th.
11- WALKER A ALLEN, Agents.
TltR CLIPPER SCnOOXIR
Sgi lETl. TO?! 33,
Carrying t'nl llMtrniinm Unit vi'iJmI Snbnjjt
Will Lsavo Honolulu verr Saturday,
I at Four o'clock v. Itetnrning, will leave
, V : i : -1 : t i r.
Nawiliwili every Tuesday afternoon.
r or freight or I'assage. apply to
17-tf 1). FOSTER A CO.
For Laiiakia ami Mee's Landing.
TlMf flue aUtuiicfi clipper Khomcr
BtJ-k I tmrn hataalas
Will rnn regularly and punctually on
above roate. For freight or passage apply
to the Master on board; or to
; C Bkzwki A Co,
March Sl,l&Cd , 11 -Cm
For HILQ, PAIiKAA an. KAIWIXI.
kfjry TVf I f .tV 9
Will run regularly for the abate porta.
freight or painge apolrto
U U 11111111.111, IlMlOlUia, '
Or J. U. CONEYUllo
. . ,
&T SiClla AnniC
, . J
Will ran as a remlxr nu-ltt t. tt l..
. Tl ,.l I ' : -' V ' .
puna, xor iicigui. or paieagw apply IC
ill wirrm i t t ii ,
11.3m WALKER-A, ALLEN, Agent.
REGULAR PACKET Mm.
as & racket between Ilnririlnln , nttn
For freight or passage, apply to
unuflu itutliY & "UU A cents.
Honolulu, August 23, I860,
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