Every Wednesday Morning,
AT SO.00 PER AXSCJI.
Mailed to Foreign Subscriber at 87X).
OrriCE On Merchant street, west oj
he Post Office, Honolulu, II. I.
Printed and published bj 3. Mott n, at the
Government Printing Office, to whom all business
communications mtut be addressed.
BOOK AND JOB
TUB "GAZE1TO" 07HCS
Ir sow prepared to execute all orders ttr
riiii iii fm minx.
YOL. 17 NO. 36.
HONOLULU, WEDNESDAY, (SEPTEMBER 23, 1868. $6.00 PER TEAR
Or ETEBY DEeCWTTIO.Y,
WITH TTEATITESS AND DISPATCH t
IV. L. OB.EEX,
GENERAL COMMISSION AGENT AND
omcs X5 mz-moor smsisos,
SSJ Que to Street, Honolnln, II. 1. fly
C X. SPE3CEE. II. J1ACFARLASE.
CHAS. IV. fe'FECTCEK & CO.,
GENERAL COMMISSION MERCHANTS,
3J Queen Street, Honolulu. ly
McCOEGAX it JOHNSON,
,P0RT STEEET, HONOLULU,
10 Opposite T. C. llench'a. lj
IMPORTER AHI DEALEU
IK BOOTS, SHOES & GENTLEMEN'S FUB-
Corner of Fort and Blerchaut Street,
8 HONOLULU, II. I. ly
QEOCEE AND BHIP CHAWDLEE,
Money and Recruits furnished to chips on
T15EO. II. HAVIES,
(Late J union, GreeS k Co.,
IMPORTER A COMMISSION MERCHANT
Lloyds' and the Liverpool Underwriter!,
Northern Assdranco Companjr, and
British and Foreign Marine Insurance Co.
Importers and Wholesale Dealers
In Fashionable Clothing, llatt. Caps, Boots
and Shoes, and every variety oruentle
men's Superior Furpishing Goods.
Store knonn as Capt. Snow'i Building
HCBCUAST STSXIT, Honolulu, Oahu. 50
C. B. LEWERS. J. 0. SICES05.
&.EWERS At IiICKSOZV,
IMPORTERS, WHOLESALE AND BET AIL
DEALERS IN LUMBER AND BUILD
Fort, ICIng, and Merchant Streets,
25 hoxolulu, ii. i. Qy;
i. 8. WALKER. S. C. ALLE.-I.
VALUER fc ALLE.V,
SHIPPING & COMMISSION MEBCHANTS,
19 HONOLULU, II. I. (ly
L. L. TORBERT,
DEALER IN LUMBER AND EVERT" KIND
OF BUILDING MATERIAL.
OrriCE Corner Queen and Fort Streets.
IIOIJ.ES A: CO.,
SHIP CHANDLEBS AND COMMISSION
Queen Street, Honolulu.
Particular attention paid to the Purchase and
Sale of Hawaiian Produce.
iiefers et rrnuiSEiox to
C. A. Williams k Co., I C. Brewer k Co.,
Castle Jt Cooke, II. Hackfeld k Co.,
D. C. Waterman, C. L. Itichards k Co.,
GEORGE G. IIOAVE,
Dealer in Redwood and Northwest Lumber,
Shingles, Doors, Sash, Blinds, Nails,
At his Old Stand on tho Esplanade. 36-ly
E. S. IX.1GC,
CIVIL EKGINEEE & SUEVEYOE,
Address Post OrriCE Box No. 22,
31 ICS. J. IE. IILACK,
Fort Street, between Hotel and King.
Bonnets mado up and trimmed in tho latest
styles. Stamping, Braiding and Em
broidering, executed to order.
F. A. SCIIAEFER fc CO.,
SS Honolulu, Oahu, II. I. ly
ED. HOFFSCHLAEGER & CO.,
IMPORTERS & COMMISSION MEECHANTS
Honolulu, Oaliu, II. I.-" lj
A. S. CLEG HORN,
WHOLESALE AND EETAIL DEALEE-IN
Fire-proof Store, corner of Queen and Kaahu-
Retail Establishment on Nuuanu Street.
THEODORE C. HEUCK,
IMPOETEE & COMMISSION MEE CHANT.
1 Honolulu, Oahu, II. I. lj
II. JLIACJKFFED .fc CO.,
GENERAL COMMISSION AGENTS.
S- Honolulu, Oaliu, S. I. fly
4THE TOM MOOEE TAVEEN,
BY J. O'SIELE,
25 Corner of IClug &, Fort Sreets. ly
J. D. WICKE,
Arc lit for tlc IVcmcn Hoard
of Underwriters. 4
All average claims against said Underwriters,
ooourriae in or about this Kingdom, will
hare to be certified before me. 7-ly
COMMISSION MERCHANT AND GEN
Agent for the Faukaa and Amauulu
Importer of Teas and other Chinese and For
' eign Goods, and Wholesale Dealer in Ha
waiian Produce, at the Fire-proof Store,
Nuuanu Street, below King. 21-1 y
K. TV. AXDKEWS,
Fort Street, opposite Odd Fellows' Hall.
"Gives particular attention to the repair of
-Fire Arms, Sewing Machines, k Locks.
Draringi of Machinery, -e., made to Order.
- 60- ly
Variety Store No. 2,
All kinds of Merchandise and Groceries.
E. F. ADAVS. S. 0. WILDER.
AlfAJIK A: TVIEDER,
AUCTION k COMMISSION MEECHANTS
27 Queen Street, Honolulu. ly
SHIPPING AND COMMISSION AGENT,
Office with E. P. Adams, Esq
QUEEN' STREET, HONOLULU.
ixrias it riaxiseiox to
Oen. Morgan L. Smith, U.lMrssrs. C. Brewer k Co.
S. Consul. Messrs. Walker 4 Allen.
ilen. KIcbards k Co. IE. P. Adams, lq. f41
AI'OSC A; ACIIUCK,
IMPOBTEBS, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL
DEALEES IN GENERAL MERCHAN
DISE AND CHINA GOODS,
FlrcProof Store In Xuuanu Street,
13 under tlie Public HaU. ly
C. S. IIARTOTV,
AUCTION E E R,
Sales.Iloom on Queen Street, one door
17 from Kaahumauu St. ly
CIIAUWCEY C. BESSETT,
DEALER IN NEWSPAPERS, MAGAZINES,
19 POUT STIIEKT, HONOLULU, ly
JOIIIV II. PATY,
NOTARY PUBLIC AND COMMISSIONER
FOB THE STATE OF CALIFOEXIA.
Office at the Base or Bishop & Co.
H. A. WIDEMANN,
OrriCE at the Istecior Departuext.
E. A. T. CAEIIE.
C. BREWER & CO.,
SHIPPING & COMMISSION
Honolulu, H. I.
AGENTS Of tlie Uo.ton and Honolulu
AGENTS For the JInUce, AValluku and
Halta Plantations. .
AGENTS For the Purchase and Sale of
Jens M. Hooo, Zt New York
Chas. Buiwrji 4 Co 1 Bo-to-
Jas. LIcs.mwill, Eo BOton
J. C -Miami Co. "1
B, g. Ewaiji 4 Co -Ean Francisco
Chas. W. Bcooes.
I, Esq )
G. W. KOIITOIV & CO.
COOPEKS AND GAtTGEES,
AT THE NEW STAND
ON THE ESI'IUANADE.
I WJi AME PKEPAItED
ASS WOES ZZf OTJH IiITJS
At the Shop next to the Custom House, where
we can be found at all working hours.
WEJ1AVE ON HAND AND FOK SALE
OIL CASKS AND BAEEELS,
Of different sites, new and old, which we will
sell at the Tery
LOWEST MARKET BATES.
All work done in a thorough manner, and.
warranted to giro satisfaction.
AU kinds of Coopering Materials and Coopers'
I- Tools for Sale. Sm
J. P. HUGHES,
Importer and Manufacture;
OF ALL, KINDS OF SADDLEHV.
Carriage Trimming done with neatness and
dispatch. All orders promptlyattendcd to.
Corner of Fort and Hotel streets, Honolulu.
NEVILLE & BARRETT,
Planters & General Store Keepers
KEOFUKA, SOUTH KONA, HA WAIL
(Near Kealakekua Bay.)
Island produce bought, Ships supplied with
Wood, Beef asd other nccssaries.
Agent at Honolulu A S. CLEGiions.
M. S. CRINBAUM & CO.,
IMPORTEKS AND WHOLESALE
Dealers in Fashionable Clotiiing
Hats, Caps, Boots and Shoes, and every variety
of Gentlemen's supcriorfurnishing goods.
STORE IN MAKEE'S BLOCK.
10 Queen Street, Honolulu, II. I. ly
CEATEE OF KILAUEA. HAWAII.
ffTi THIS ESTABLISHMENT ISgSj
Aliilnow open for the reception of visitors-jCT
to the Volcano, who may rely en finding com
fortable rooms, a good table, and prompt at
tendance. Experienced guides for the Crater
always in readiness.
STEAM AND. SULPHUR BATHS !
Horses Grained and Stabled if Desired.
CHARGES REASONABLE '
Parties visiting the Volcano via Hilo, can
procure animals warranted to make the jour
ney, by D.H. Hitchcock. Esq., Hilo. 37-ly
LICENSED SHIPPING AGENT,
GOXTEVIJES tlie business on
his old plan of settling with oQcers and
seamen immediately on tbeir shipping at his
office. Having no connection, either direct or
indirect, with any outfitting establishment,
and allowing no debts to be collected at his
office ho hopes to give as good satisfaction in
the future as he has in the past.
j0flice on Jas. Robinson & Co.'s Wharf,
near the U. S. Consulate.
Honolulu, March 27, IS67. 24-3m
Piano-Forte Maker & Tnner,
ggggHjOFFEKS HIS SERVICES
Eyjiafor Repairing and Tuning Pianos,
1 1 S I I 'having the best of materials on
hand. Satisfaction guaranteed. Orders left
at Mr. Fischer's Furniture Rooms will meet
with immediate attention.
H. TREMPER will leave these Islands on
the 1st of October, 3I-t
BUSINESS N OTICES.
J. H. THOMPSON,
HONOLULU, II. I.
on hand and for sale, agood
EEFINED BAE IEON !
liest Blacksmith's Coal,
At the Lowest Market Prices f3S-lj
mo. sott. sav'l xott,
JOHN NOTT & CO.,
Copper & Tin Smiths,
mvKE pleasure ij anxounc
JL ing to the pnblio that they aro prepared
to furnish all kinds of Copper Wore, consist
ing in part, of STILLS, STRIKE PASS,
SOKUHAX PAXS, WORMS, PUMPS, C-c.
Also on hand, a full assortment of Tlx
Ware, which we offer for sale at the lowest
All Kinds of Hepalrlng done with
STeatness and Dispatch.
Orders from the other Islands will meet
with prompt attention.
Kaahumanu Street, one door above Flit-
JEWELER AND ENGRAVER
MR. J. COSTA
Is now prepared to execute with promptness
all work, in nis line or business, such as
Vatchyand Clock Repairing,
Manufacturing Jett clry.
Shop on Fort Street, opposite Odd Fellows'
JAHLES L. LEWIS3
COOPER A1D GAUCEii,
AX THU OU3 STAND,
Corner of King and Bethel Sts
stock of OIL
all kinds of
COOPERING MATERIALS !
CONSTANTLY ON HAND.
He hopes, by attention to business, to merit
a continuance of the patronage which he has
heretofore enjoyed, and for Which he now re
turns nis uianKe. SJ-Sm
SUGAU & MOLASSES.
J. o u u
II1I.O, II. I.
Siifjar and ItIolnieH.
riltOP COMING IN AND FOR SALE IN
vy quantities to euu purcnascrs, by
WALKER & ALLEN,
21-3m - Agents,
Siik''!" and Molashcs Crop 1808
COMING IN, FOR SALE IN QDANTI
ties to suit purchasers, by
WALKER k ALLEN,
Sugar and. MoIaxHcs Crop 1808
COMING IN, FOR SALE IN QUANTI
ties to suit purchasers, by
WALKER A ALLEN,
VTEW CROP NOW COMING IN. Fo'r
Xl Sale in quantities to suit purchasers,
by . C. BREWER k CO.,
Wcm Crop of Sugar Sc lolabscw
NOW COMING IN, AND FOR SALE IN
quantities to suit purchasers by
O. BREWER 4 CO.,
BOARD OF UNDERWRITERS,
appointed agents for the San l'rancisco
Board ot Underwriters, representing the
California Insurance Companjr,
Mert-hnnt.' Mutual Mailne Ins. Co.,
Pacific Inaurance Company,
California Lloyd's, and
Home Mutual Insurance Company.
Beg leave to inform Masters of Vessels and
the public generally, that all losses sustained
by Vessels and Cargoes, insured by either of
the above companies, against perils of the
seas and other risks, at or near the several
Sandwich Islands, trill have to be verified by
21-Jm II. UACKFELD I CO.
FIEE INSURANCE COMP'Y.
milE UNDERSIGNED, HAVING
X been appointed Agents of the above Com
pany, are prepared to insure risks against Fire
on Stone and Brick Buildings, and on Mer
chandise stored therein, on the mo&t favorable
terms. ' For particulars apply at the office of
S-ly F. A. SCHAEFER k CO.
MARINE INSURANCE COMPANY.
OF SAW FRANCISCO.
THE "undersigned having been ap
pointed' Agents for the above Company,
are prepared to issue policies on Cargoes,
Freights and Teeascre.
WALKER & ALLEN,
12-Sm Agents, Honolulu.
California Insurance Company.
THE TTndcrsigncd, AGEIHTS
of the above Company, have been author
iied to insure risks on CARGO, FREIGHT
and TREASURE, by COASTERS, from Hono
lulu to all ports of the Hawaiian Group, aid
vice versa. H. HACKFELD k CO.
j History of the Eamehamehas.
Teaxilatid now tbi Hawaiias or 8. M. Kakaxac.
I Kaheklli reigned over Maul twenty-seven
I years, and for nine years was king of Oahu,
after tlie fight at Honolulu in 1782. The
cause of Ids going into the war whereby he
became king of Maul, was through Keeau
mokn taking poseesslon of Namahana, the ta
bued widow of Kamehameha Nni, to whom
she hd borne two children boys. This was
a very grave oSence, according to the usages
of the chiefs, and was considered as tata
mount to rebellion. Fight after fight suc
ceeded between the different chiefs, and the
country from one end to tho other was in a
constant state of turmoil with petty ware.
Kecannioku, with bis retainers, resided at
Pihana, and at Pauknkalo, in Walluku.
There was a warrior named Kahanana, be
longing to the party of Keeanmoku, who was
a hard working farmer as well, and who lived'
at Walbec. Waibee was in those times noted
for the abundance of Hue fish that were
caught Jbere. This Kahahana, returning
each evening from his farming, always found
that the chiefs and their retainers had got all
the fish, so that he and his wife were obliged
to put np with luau only, cooked on the coals.
One day, getting out of patience at this con-
tinned deprivation of bis share of the fish,
he put on the aJmulaKd. war-cloak and the
mahlole helmet and sallying forth, killed
two men. This was the commencement of
another war. There were a good many Join
ed with Kahahana, and Kceaumoku was de
feated. While the latter was living at Hana, the
celebrated chlefess 'Kaahumanu celebrated
during the reigns of Kamehameha 1st, 2od,
and3d wasbornin that district Hereafter,
during this history, I shall endeavor to give
an account of her connection with the gov
ernment of the Islands after the reign of LI
bolibo Kamehameha II and previous to the
relgn of Kanikeauli Kamehameha III and
also a description of the career- of several
other chlefesses who have prominently ap
peared in this history those of Kalanimoku,
of Keopuolanl, and of Ulumahelbei Hoapill.
From the year 1775 to 1779, Kalanlopnu
was constantly carrying on war at Kaupo, in
Maui, killing and maltreating the common
people and despoiling them of their proper
ty. After a time, Kaheklli, king of Maui,
collecting his force's attacked those of Kalanl
opnu and defeated them. Keknbaupio was
the most famed for prowess among Kalanio
pnu's warriors. He nearly saved the defeat,
but getting into a potato patch his feet be
came entangled in the vines and be fell. He
would have been killed there, bad not-Kamehameha
I, who had charge of the reserve,
immediately brought thcui up and rescued
him. This Is the first Introduction we have
to Kamehameha I. In the character of a war
riora character in which he afterwards per
formed so prominent a part. This is the
first occasion when Kamcbamebadistingulsh
ed himself, and it was in rescuing his teacher
In the art of war his teacher as well In wis
dom as in the mysteries of the priesthood.
no recieved from the chiefs and people of
Man), from this circumstance, the name of
Falea. Tho Ikiiea is a soft-shelled crab,
much esteemed by Hawaiian gourmands for
its superior flavor. The reason, however,
why the name was given to Kamehameha, is
said to have been because of his then youth
ful appearance soft, so to say bat his acts
showing him to be anything bnt soft
After various successes and defeats of Ka-
lanlopuu, be finally returned back to Hawaii
with all his followers. Here follows a long
account of the different engagements, or
kauas, between Kalaniopuu and Kabiklli, In
which the names of tho different distinguish
ed chiefs who figured on cither side are men
tioned, with the particulars of their success
es or their defeats. The object however, of
the present translation being to give an ac
count of Kamehameha, the founder of the
ruling dynasty, much that Is not strictly rele
vant thereto will be omitted, preserving only
the most striking occurrences in the contem
porary history of tlie period. Trans.
But a short period elapsed between the dif
ferent wars between Kalaniopuu, king of Ha
waii, and Kahekill, king of Maui. It was
in the principal one of these that Kameha
meha distinguished himself as a warrior.
Kalanlopnu landed at Kahoolawc with bis
forces, and from thence preceded to Labalna.
Some opposition was made to their landing,
bnt the Inhabitants fled to KaanapalL. The
chiefs and fighting men were, posted at the
fort of Kahili, between Kananlaand Kanaha,
beyond fanpau. Kalanlopnu determined to
take this fort, and dispatched a portion of his
soldiers for that purpose under the Joint
command of Kekuhanpio and Kamehameha.
In the tssault on the fort, a daring member
of the garrison named Fna, sallying, forth
and seeing Kekuhanpio in advance of the
other assailants, threw a spear at him, which
pierced him through. Though badly wound
ed he was not killed, but lived to the relgn
of Kamehameha I.
The war having ceased for a time on Maui,
the soldiers of that Island retired to Molokai
under Kahahana, then king of Oahn, who
was staying at Molokai. On his enquiring
as to how the war bad progressed, the chiefs
and warriors said: "The bravest man on the
side of the Hawaiians is i friend of Kalanio
puu, named Kamehameha, a true warrior
and a good-looking man."
With Kahahana, there was living at that
time a Hawaii chief named Keaulumoku,
who hearing frequently from Kahabana's men
about what a brave man Kamehameha was.
he became excited about it He made a melt
or song, which amounted to a prophecy of
the future greatness of Kamehameha, and
he soon after deserted Kahahana and joined
Kalaniopun. Then succeeded the war on La-
nal, in which Kahahana and his chiefs were
defeated with great slaughter. After con-
quering Lanai, Kalaniopuu sailed forKooTan,
on Maul, there being an utter famine on La
naL On the way thither, while the king was
in his canoe passing a high hill called Pun
koae, about two hundred feet above the wa
ter's' edge, a man was 6een standing on the
top of the hill making contemptuous ges
tures ut the king, who was at the time offer
ing a sacrifice to his god. He addressed bis
god, saying: "Behold tho irreligious man
give me his life." Then taking up his sling,
he threw a stone, which striking the man
on his back, he tumbled over the precipice
and was killed.
At Koolau, Kalaniopuu slaughtered the
common people without mercy, even putting
out the eyes of those taken captive. Ka
mehameha L was very active in these wars
on Maul, which occurred in the years 1773
and 1779. The historian here for a time dis
continues the account of these endless wars
and fightings, and proceeds to give the tra
ditions respecting the first appearance of for
eigners on these islands.
The old-time Hawaiians used to relate that
very many year. ago. a foreign ship Was cast
away on these islands. Also that on one oc
casion, a ship' was seen sailing by; and that
still another touched hero and sailed away
again. These were before the appearance of
Jn the kaaos (legends) and the poems hand
ed down from generation to generation, it is
asserted that the ancient Hawaiians bad vis
ited foreign lands and returned again. They
bad one general term, kahiki, by which they
designated all foreign countries, including
the Society Islands, (Bolabola). Tbns those
who sail hence to foreign countries are term
ed "holo lahtki."
In the ancient traditions and meles, it Is a
singular fact, that the wonderful maelstrom
of Norway Is fully described. So also the
Black, Red and Greon f Seas.
. Mention Is frequently made In the meles of
a land of small people, (pigmies) so small
that It wonld take ten of them to make np
'the size of one ordinary man. It is stated
that one of these little men was brought to
Kau by one of the ancient voyagers. There
was also another, broughtto Kauai, which tbe
meles speak of.
Many Hawaiians In olden times visited the
Marquesas, Society, Navigators', and Samoan
groups, besides islands or groups known to
them as Holaniku, Holanimoe, Haknkake,
Alknkakc?.Lalokapu, Kuukuu, Malltnali,
Mullwalolena, Maoknulnln,and many others.
These the ancient Hawaiian voyagers visited
In their canoes, according to the ancient tra
ditions and meles.
It wonld appear from these ancient tradi
tions that tbe ancestors of tbe Hawaiians
claimed. their descent from a colony fjrom
some other country, sometimes called in tho
meles, NuumehalanL To this country one
Papa voyaged, and visited his relations, re
turning afterwards to Hawaii. He was the
first of those who, navigated to foreign lands,
and after him nnmerous other adventurers
sailed away over the seas in search of new
Among the traditions, it is stated that fif
teen generations from tho father of tbe Ha
waiian race was Kaula. fit him it Is assert
ed that he travelled into all the kingdoms of
the earth and saw all the wonders, among
others the great maelstrom of Moanawai
kaleo the description of which answers to
that ofT the coast of Norway. If one can
believe all of the rnele describing the lands
he visited, he must have landed In both Eu
rope and Asia. But while It Is evident that
he did visit some strange lands, there is no
doubt that a great deal of tho chronicles as
cribed to him are only fictitious. Among
tbe names celebrated as travellers to foreign
lands are tbe following: '
Hcma, who belonged to East Maui. His
wife giving promise of presenting bim'wlth
an beir, be sailed away to the southward to
procure a present for the child, bis mother
having informed him that his grandmother
was a cbiefess in Kahiki. He never return
ed, bnt his son Kabal, born after his father's
departure, determined to search for him and
made several long voyages for that purpose
Panmakua Is supposed to have visited and
coasted around some foreign country some
where about A. D. 1300. On his returnhc
brought with him two of the inhabitants of
tbe country bo had visited white men, des
cribed in the legend as "bright-eyed, white,
and brave-faced." At the same time some of
the natives of Bolabola were brought here.
The mele giving an account of Paumakua's
voyages was composed In tho reign of Kanlli,
about A. D. 1565.
The most of the foreign voyages mention
ed in the meles, are supposed to have occurr
ed between the years A. n. GOO and 1200.
The 6tory of Paao Is an interesting one.
He is said to have come from some of tbe
southern countries it does not clearly ap
pear whether from the Vaovao or Samoan,
because both of tho grqops are mentioned in
tbe legend, or from conntries further south,
which may have been New Zealand. The
cause of Faao's emigrating from Id's native
land was a difficulty between himself and
bis brother, named Lonopele, who was a
priest and a farmer as welL Paao'a eon was
accused by Lonopele of stealing and eating
the fruits of his garden. Paao declared that
he wonld disembowel his son to prove wheth
dr it was so or not He did so, and not find
ing the fruit in the child's stomach, he swore
revenge against his brother.' Meantine, he
and bis people built two large canoes with
the intention of leaving. After the canoes
were finished, one day Lonopelc's son came
playing near them, and was seized by Paao's
orders and killed. He was then obliged to
leave his native land, and having made all
the necessary preparations, embarked to look
for a new country. The wbolo number of
those who started on this expedition was
thirty-eight persons. Paao was a priest, pos
sessed of great skill in all the arts of divina
tion, as well as bis brother Lonopele. After
his departure, Lonopele caused gales, rain
storms, squalls with lightning, and all sorts
of bad weather to follow him. Bnt Paao's
devices overcame them all.
7b be continued.
Ax Irrepressible boy of five years, who
was always compelled to keep quiet on Sun
day, having grown so Inexpressibly weary
towards tbe closo of a Sabbath-day, frankly
and honestly approached his excellent, bnt
rather overstrfct father, and gravely said;
"Fa, let's have some spiritual fun." This
was too much, not only for the gravity, bnt
also for the strictness of the father: and for
once he " let natur caper" till bed-time.
Tlie Climate or Alaska.
The following extract from the Interesting
report of the House Committee on Foreign
Affairs, General Banks, Chairman, gives us
valuable Information about tbe climate of
Tho laws which govern the climate of
Aiasita are, in many respects, nniIKe those
which control the climate of that part of the
American continent on the northern Atlantic
ocean. A ereat. warm, ocean current sweena
from tbe south along tbe eastern coast of
Asia, crosses toe racinc to the northwest
coast of America, giving to that country a
higher temperature and a correspondingly
higher climate than could exist In the same
latitudes under other circumstances. The
ancient and modern navigators of tbe Old
and New World have observed this current,
ana noieu iue cuanges u produces in tnc Cli
mate of the Asiatic and American coasts.
The great northern equatorial current leav
ing the coast and gulf of Lower California,
aweens across the Pacific uintfinf th.H.
wailan Islands, and moving northward grad
ually deflects to the northward and north-
east, aiong-tneuAsiatie coast It combines
Its waters with the monsoon current of tbe
Caroline Islands, and those of the Japan
stream, which doubtess has its origin, alto,
In the northern equatorial current, and the
waters of the three currents combined fol
low tbe Asiatic coast, deflecting to tbe north-
warn ana -norineastwara nnut it is divided
Into two parts by the intrusion of tbe cold
Solar current from the Arctic Ocean through
ehring Strait The main body of tbe stream
moves uirectiy toward tne coast or America,
down the coast of Oregon and California,
and finally sweeps back Into the cauatnrlal
current In wblch it originated, to continue
it9 ceaseless course ana mysterious changes.
The other branch of this treat current, when
separated by tbe great polar current, called
the Kamtschatka current, passes through
Bebring Strait, follows tbe northern Arctic
coast of America, and doubtless enters tbe
stream which escapes from the Arctic Ocean
through Davis Strait into tbe north Atlantic.
forming tbe icy polar current which chills
the eastern shore of America, and continues
as far south as tbe peninsula of Florida. But
the whole of tbe waters of the Kamscbatka
current do not pass through Behrinir Strait.
A part are thrown from the eastern capes of
ine Asiatic coast, ana me soutn snore or the
island or ct. Lawrence, eastward and south
ward upon the American coast and northern
shores of tbe Aleutian Islands. The warm
currents from the eqnator. whose waters
show an average temperature of 66, give a
tropical vegetation to the Japanese and Bo-
nln Tlanila In l.ti..u lf At?
UtllHiaillW, III IBllttlUG.I U UUIIU.
me warm currents lromtheeauatorwhlch
wash tbe shore of western America produce
an exactly opposite effect upon tbe climate
of that country from that which is wrought
upon the eastern coast of America by the icy
currents from tbe Arctic ocean which wash
tbe northern and eastern shores of the conti
nent It is Impossible for ns to comprehend
the nature of the climate of tbe nortwestcm
coast from anything we know of that which
prevails upon tbe northeastern coast. One
is modified by the grand, ceaseless currents
from the south; tbe other Is constantly
chilled by the icy streams from tho northern
These observations noon the eanatorlal
and Arctic currents enable ns to accept the
otherwise Incredible statements made bv an
dent, as well as more recent explorers, of
iuc muaeraie temperature oi tne nortnweat-
era coast of America.
It is milder than tbe western coast of Eu.
rope, and wholly independent of tbe causes
which (rive to the northeastern coast of Amer
ica climatic conditions so unlike those of
western Asia, eastern Euronc. or the north
west coast of America. These facts show.
also, tbat;nauy of the extraordinary' charac
teristics ot mo climate oi AiasKa are excep
tional peculiarities, and do not affect much
less control, the general condition of the
Climate. Anus tne constant and denso logs
mat are met in certain localities tn Eehrlng
Sea are supposed to be dne to tbe contact of
the warm waters of the equator with those
of tbe Polar sea.
Mr. Lortn Blode-ctt. the distinguished au.
thor of tbe excellent work on American Cli
matology, says, in a communication address
ed to tbe Chairman of the Committee on
Foreign Affairs, that "the winters In the
territory of Alaska, fully up to Port Provi
dence, near Behrlng Straits, aro very mild.
At Sitka, they arc nearly as mild as at Phila
delphia, milder than In New York harbor."
X he winters of Alaska are milder than
those of tbe cities of Quebec, Portland, Bos
ton, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and
nearly as warm as at Washington. The sum
mers are cooler. The mean temperature of
the winter Is 32' 30', that of summer Is 53
Sr. Tho harbor of Sitka Is open dnriog the
It Is stated br tbo officers of the Smith.
sonlan Institntion, that from observalions
made at Sitka, 1831, tbe longest frost lasted
only five days. In December, the temper
ature was at the freezing point only two
days; In January, seven days; and In March,
It lroze only at night, never duringjbe day.
Letteii ntOM Jdabez to the Pope. The
Roman correspondent of the Pall Mall Ga
zette writes, under date of Jnne 19:
The nolv Father has received an antotrranh
letter from Juarez, the .President of Mexico,
uepiunoK iuu amerences wnicu nave arisen
between him and tbe Holy See. The Mexi
can ruler declares that it was excentional
circumstances wblch forced him into hos
tility to the Church and her ministers, and
that he avails himself of tbe first onnortnn-
ity to seek a reconciliation. To effect this,
he requests that some Bishops may be sent
to Mexico, promising to receive them with
every honor, and he concludes bis letter by
supplicating the Pope's benediction for him
self and the Mexican people. Tbe Holy
Father has been propitiated by the appeal,
and In tbe Consistory of tbe 22d, will prc
conlze six Bishops for Mexico. He will also
announce tbe convocation of tbe (Ecumen
ical Council for the 8th of December. 1600.
Among the questions to be submitted to the
Council, the most interesting at the present
moment is the policy of separatim: Church
and State. It is found that tbe Roman
Church is most flourishing In those conntries,
such as England and the United Slates, where
It Is not the established religion, as In France,
Austria, and Spain, In all of which It is losing
its hold upon the people.
Nor is tbe rapid spread, in this form, of tbe
principle of religions freedom limited to
Great Britain. Austria has Just dono away
with tbe Papal Concordat, which gave po
litical strength to tbe Boinan Catholic Church
throughout the Empire, and which placed in
tbe hands of Its Bisbons and Clenrv tbe ed
ucation of tbe people; and tbe French Min
ister of Justice, M. Baroche, as the cable In
formed ns yesterday, declared In tbe Impe
rial Legislative Chamber, that tbe separation
of Church and State in the French Empire la
only a question of time.
Havke ExnniiTios. Tho croups which
naturally attract first the attention of tbe
visitor", from tbeir relation to the special
character of tho Exhibition, Noa. 1 and 2.
They comprise the models and plans of ves
sels, masts, sails and rigging, materials of
armamant, instruments or navigation, and
marine charts, marine telegraphs, fishing
tackle, life boats, and life-saving apparatus,
and alimentary substances Intended for con
sumption at tea. It istrnc that tbe classifi
cations are not very strictly adhered to, and
that tho visitor frequently meets with things
that appear incongruous in an exhibition of
this kind. It requires only s little stretch of
imagination, however, to reconcile these
anomalies. "What in the world can tbey
mean by introducing models of horse stalls
and horse fr. --ore In a place like this?"
asked a won, . Englishman, In my hear
ing, of Mr. Coluurn the editor of a London
engineering Journal, Meant" be replied;
"why, nothing can be more appropriate.
Don't you see that they are Intended for the
Success nt Lira. For a man to be reaSy
successful in tho newly settled portion of s
country, tbe most essential element is a pow
er to turn his band to anytblDg. It Is not so
necessary for blm tn be skilled Is any partic
ular branch as to be able to apply himself
with moderate proficiency, to several. A
quick eye, s firm will and a ready band, are
tic -crime elements of success In new settte-
ments. But as time proceeds, the dlvWpn
of labor comes in, and in proportion a thy
settlement is more advanced, it la more see- .
essary that each should be thorongbly pro
ficient in one thing rather than moderately
proficient in many things. If a man has al
ways lived in a city, and has attained great
skill In some pursuit, be will succeed better
there than If he removed to a newly settled
country. He whose forte Is variety asd
quickness or adaptation, will rise most in
new and growing territory. By keeping t Ma
in mind, many would be saved from mMfsr
tune and ruin, and much productive power
be gained to the world.
The labor of each man In the sphere of hl
greatest adaptnrcs goes far towards proao
tlng the prosperity of society, while at the
same time, each man's own happiness ted
success depend greatly upon his being In that
occupation In which he la most useful to hi
fellow being. Tbe Tery consciousness of
bis belnir In such a nositlon will of Itself be
a secret spring of happiness, far beyond what
Is generally known. Especially Is It neces
sary for our young men to remember this In
ins cnoice oi an 'occupation. Aoousanue
wonld thus acquire Independence and res
pect instead of mourning over disappointed
ambition. Indeed, every one may be quite
sure of tbls, that bis own best Interest and
that of society in general, are Identical. In
choosing a business, therefore, let blm exam
ine it carefully. In both respects before be de
cides. Tbe pursuit tn which they both best
unite. Is that In which he has most causa to
bono for success. No one should choose
any occupation simply because It is fashion
able, or because he baa seen examples of for
tunes made from It In a short time, or be
cause be thinks be may thereby hold a more
respectable station In society. The profes
sions or occupations which furnish these ad
vantages are already proportionably foil, and
tbe likelihood of rlslne In them is small, un
less unusual ability can be brpugbt Into play.
Of course some pursuits are more sstful
or remunerative than others Intrinsically, and
many persons would perhaps think that from
this very circumstance It would be better for
them to select these; but this does not nec
essarily follow. Nature, habits, education,
capacity and associations render men best
fitted for different employments, and the
careful parent and prudent yonng man can
generally discover from these data for what
occupation be is best fitted. A person In
the legal profession has an opportunity of
doing great good both to himself and to the
country, but If the profession be crowded, he
may fall In doing good to either; and If he
enters It with poorer ability or preparation,
be may Injure society by keeping ont better
talent, and he may himself prove like the
rash yonng Phaeton of ancient Mythology,
who undertook to drive tbe chariot of the
sun. It must also be borne In mind that the
fact of a person having peculiar facilities for
obtalnlntr an unusual decree of perfection In
any particular ocenpation, Is a great Indica
tion mat mis is a most, suiitDto epnere lor
him to occupy. In proportion as society be
comes more complicated, success will de
pend more on "individual fitness for some,
specific department for wblch tbe demand is
greater than tbe supply. But one who pre
sents ready and varied abilities shonld settle
In a new country.
Character Is the essence of destiny; at any
rate It Is the plainest Index. A man ought to
do that which bo feels he can do better thrf
other men. It should be especially remem
bered that the occupation will not always
yield the, most true happiness or respectabil
ity In which be can make the money at first
Other things being equal, pecuniary compen
sation will point out to a great extent in
what direction labor will be most useful to
society; but there are employments which
will furnish ready money, but will bring In
tbe end ruin to health, habits, character, and
hence to happiness. We may strive to obtain
a comfortable amount of tbls world's goods,
but never even ror mis must we deviate la
the slightest from tbe strictest sense of honor
and of right PAUa. Ledger.
Burns and Hiouland Mabt. Tbe most
beautiful episode in tbe life of Burns was bis
deep attachment to Highland Mary the pure
minded maiden who pledged her troth to him
In his gloomiest hour; who died so early:
and left him lonely in the world to clutch at
worthless enjoyments, to struggle onward
against poverty, neglect, Insult, and self-np-braldings,
till at thirty-seven years of age ho
passed away. Formerly, It was believed that
bis parting with Mary Campbell was an ear
ly event, even. as he himself declared It to
bave been. Ho wished to mystify Inquirers
and preserve tbe secret of that holy affection.
Less readily mliht bis "Bonny Jean" bare
forgiven tbe Intense worship paid by bis soul
to ine innocent ingmana .Mary, immeasnra
hlr her annerlor. than the transient wander
ings of bis fancy towards unworthy rival.
bo the man bore tbe secret In bis own heart,
striving oraveiy againai ins mat were partly
bis own brinclnc: only at rare intervals be
gave vent to the agony of memory, inch as
inspired nis Dcantiiui lines xomary in Jttavtn.
Wc envy no one who can read unmoved the
narrative of the anniversary when "My Mary
from mv side was torn." We remember the
carefully-guarded manner by wblch the poet,
usually unreserved Jn speech, elnded ques
tions of curiosity regarding that event
Robin, Robin, the earthly punishment of tby
fault was manfully borne: bnt It would bave
been better for tbee had that gentle Highland
girl, with her pious courage, Tier unswerving
faith, been tbe partner allotted to thee, In
stead of tbe early-wronged woman who had
no power or will to lift tbee to a boiler life.
AVe now know tbe date of bis engagement
with Mary 1788.
The disastrous Intrigue with Jean Amour
had wrecked his character and peace of ralnd.
Bis offer of reparation bad been insultingly
refused by tbe father of Jean. Tbe girl her
self, either from mercenary fears, weakness of
heart or from unwillingness to accerjt anoth
er suitor, had agreed to tbe contemptnoaa
rejection of Barns. Wrecked In reputation,
abandoned by friends, despairing of himself
or of any advancement In his native land, he
determined to emigrate, and attempt la tbe
West Indies to gain Independence. In a few
months tbe pestilential climate might bare
robbed us of tbe truest poet Scotland evei
bore. At this bour came the wild excite- .
mcnt that produced frnit In blm of tkese
marvelous Bacchanalian songs WUIU bremi
neck o' Maul, and Tne Whittle, at. was a
dangerous time, tbe peril of a noble seal la
the darkness. In despair be remembered the
Innocence and affection of the young irM,.
Mary Campbell tho illgDiaua mio wseta
name his own Is lnseperably Joined. All
voices were against ber, prudence forbade
ber nnlon with this outlawed man, bet Us
girl dared to trust tbe lore In her own heart,
and looked to ber Heavenly Father for pro
tection. 8be knew that Burn bad stssed,
and how be had repented. She knew he wee
free to be her husband made free eves br
the scorn of that Jeau whom be bad fehtrsdV
She knew bow little prospect of fortase be
bad, but she believed In bis affection. Bite
vowed to be true to him, and called Hearem
to witness that row. They exchanged MMes
and parted, looking to a speedy ioubIwi;
bnt death came between them, and tbey sev
er on earth met again. In Dumfries tlie ak
esof the great poet rest There is baUewesl
dust In Greenock also, that no lover of Bens
can fail to reverence paying pilfrlnsae ttV
tbe tomb of Highland Mary. 3fe- W.
Hate yon been mncb at seat" " Wir.
no. not exactly: but my brother Berried a
admiral's daughter." were jm ever
abroad?" "No, not exactly; bat say ao4ts
maiden name was r rases."
Whv U a fire dollar bttl better Umb a fra
dollar geld piece? Beeaase wfeM yea pet K
In yoar pocket yon detMt It, sad wfeea jm
take It ont you flad K fcs-crwtwt (Iaseserttj.
xml | txt