Every Wednesday Moaning',
AT SO-OOTEtt ANWTJJI.l
Jlallrtl to ForflRii Subscriber sit S7MO.
Ofpict On Merchant street, (rest of
ho Po3t Office, Tlonoluln, II. I.
Printed and published by J. JIOTT Sxna, at tbe
GovernmeDt Printing- Office to whom all bisinwi
communications must le addressed.
W. JC- CREK.-V,
GENERAL COMMISSION AGEHT & BBOXZB
Office In Fire-proof Handing on Queen Street,
28) Honolulu. II. I. ly
G. X. BPESCZB. D. XaCrAKLlXE.
CIIAS. JY. MPEACEIt & CO.,
GENERAL COMMISSIOH KEECHAKTS,
St Qneen Street, Honolnln. H. I. ' ly
Fort st., llonololn, oioslte T. C. Heuck's.
C. n. LEWEKS. J. C. DICKS05.
Importers, "Wholesale and Hete.il Dealers
In Lumber and Bulbllac Materials. Fort, Kin? and
ZJJ ilercbaut Slreeti. Honolulu, 11. 1. lyl
c. v.. wiiiamm,
MAHTTFACTUEEE, IMPORTER & DEALER
In Furniture of every description. Furniture Win
Boom on Fort Street, opposite Chase's Photograph
Gallery. Workshop at the oM stand on Hotel
Street, near Fort. Orders from the other
41) Islands promptly attended to. Tly
BOOT AND SHOE MAKER,
41 King Street, neat to the Bolhel. Honolulu. Py
31. x. i)s.i;li
CABINET JIAKEE AND DPHOLSTEBEE,
King Street, Honolulu, oppwite Levis' Cooierbop.
41 Will bay and tell second-bend Furniture, ly
TIBBETS &. SOIti:SO,
SHIP CARPENTERS & CATJLKERS
jZj At D. Foster &Co'a Old Stand, jS"
7j Near tbe Honolnln Iron Works. (3ni
XJIEO. II. OAVIKS,
Lite Jinoff, Gkzix 4 Co.
IMPORTER & COMMISSION MEECHANT,
AND AQEXT f0&
Lloyd's and tbe Liverpool Underwriters,
llrltish and Foreign MarlDC Insurance Co., and
Northern Assurance ComjAny. 3-lyt
IMPORTERS AND WHOLESALE DEALERS
In Fashionable Clothing, Hats, Caps, Boots, Shoes,
and every variety of Gentlemen's Furnishing Goods.
Snow's Uailding. Merchant Street, Honolulu. 60-Ivl
J. 8. WALKER. S. C. ALLZX.
WALKER fc AI.I.E.-V,
SHIPPINO & COMMISSION MERCHANTS,
1 Queen Street, Honolnln, H. I. tly
la. jU XOKIIEItX.
DEALER IN LUMBER AND EVERY KIND
OF BUILDING MATERIAL.
13 -Owes Corner Queen and Fort streets. lvl
ItOLLES &. CO.,
SHIP CHANDLERS AND COMMISSION
Queen Street, Honolulu. Particular attention paid
to toe pure nave ana sals ol Hawaiian l'roauce.
airCES ET KRMMS105 TO
OLltlchardnCo, III Hackfelda Co,
C Jlrewer a Oo. C L Kichards a Co.
D.C Waterman Esq, CaatIe a Cooke. My
SHIPPINO AND COMMISSION AGENT,
Office with Asuts a Wiides, Queen Street.
sxrtu av raauissiox to
r r. r T. : . i i . . 1 1 . , ..
Messrs C Brewer a Co, Adams a Wilder. I J 1-3
IMPORTER tc DEALER IN BOOTS, SHOES,
And Gentlemen's Furnishing Goods, corner of Fort
and Merchant Streets, Honolulu. V-lyt
GROCER AND SHIP CHANDLER,
Money and Recruits furnished to Ships on the most
10 favorable terms. Jlyl
CIIUitG HO OX,
Commission Merchant and General Agent,
Importer of Teas and other Chinese and Foreign
Goods, Wholesale Dealer in Hawaiian Produce, and
Agent for the Paukaa and Amauulu Sugar Planta
tions. Fire-proof Store on Nuuanu Street, below
AI'O.XS &. AClIUCXf.
Importers) Wholesale and Retail Dealers
In General Merchandise and China Goods, in the
Flrc-proof Store on Xuuauu Street, under the PubUc
GEORGE G. HOWE,
Dealer in Redwood and Northwest lumber,
Shingles, Doors, Sashes, Blinds, Nails, Paints, etc.,
36 at his old stand on the Esplanade. lyi
E. S. FLAGG,
CIVIL ENGINEER AND SURVEYOR,
AEWms Post-Ogke Box No. 2, Honolulu. 2&4in
I A. SCHAEFEIC fc CO.,
Honolulu, Oahu, II. I.
. ED. HOFFSCHLAEQEE & CO.,
IMPORTERS & COMMISSION MERCHANTS
41 Honolulu, Oahu, II. I. fty4
A. S. CIaEGHOR.IV,
WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALER IN
Fire-Proof Store, comer of Queen and-Ivaahnmann
Streets, Honolulu. Ketall stabllshment on Nuuanu
THEODORE C. HEUCH,
IMPORTER & COMMISSION MERCHANT.
I llonoluln, Oahn. II. I. ' Py
H. HACKrEIaU tc CO.,
GENERAL COMMISSION AGENTS.
' '8 Queen Street, Honolulu, H. I. Py
THE TOM MOOEE TAVEEN,
I1V J. O'aVIElX,,
- to Corner of King and Fort Streets. Iy4
. CHAU1CEY C. BESSETT, ;
DEALER IN NEWSPAPERS, MAGAZINES,
And Periodicals, rort Street, Honolulu. P9-lj4
B. T. EDLERS. A. JAEGER.
J- - B. F. EDXERS & CO.,
DEALERS IN DRY GOODS AND GENERAL
lira-proof Star on Fart Street, above Odd Fellows'
E-T. ADAXS. 8. O WILDER
ADAMS fc WILDER,
AUCTION & COMMISSION MERCHANTS
' 87 Queen Street, Honolnln, H. I. Pyt
C. S. BARTOW,
Salesroem on Queen Street, one door from Kaahu
maan Street. ll-ly4
jonrv H. PATT,
Notary Public and Commissioner of Deeds
' For the Etata of California. Omca at the Bank of
Bishop a Co., Kaahnmann Street, Honolulu. IS-lyt
- M. A. WIDEXA5,
Office at tb Interior Department. Pj
VOL. IY NO. 47.
Hxutax rzcE. h. a. r. caetee.
C. KREWER at CO.,
HONOLULU, II. I.
AGE.VTS Of tlie O os toil and Honolnln
AGENTS For the llal.ee, "tVaUuEu and
ACKXTS For- tlie Pnrenaae and Sale of
Jwta- M. Hoop, Esq ...New York
Cms. Bctwu Co 1 Tb.,nn
Jas. HcsnrwEU, Esq
j. v. uniiutco.
II. S. SWA1 a- Co.
Chi. W. Baoois,
31. S. GKirVBAXTltl & CO.,
IHFOETERS AND WHOLESALE DEALEES
In Ftuhionatile Cloth log. UaU, Cap, Boti, Shoes
and every TarJetj of Gentlemtn'r inperlor xurnlsb
Jafr Goods. More in 31akeei Block, Qaeen tret.
Honolulu II. L 10-lj4
T. P. HUGHES,
IMPOETEE AND MANUFACTUEEE
Of all ltiodf of Saddlerr. Carriage trimming done
wltb neathees and dLopatch. All orden proinpt-
ly attended to. Corner of Fort and Hotel
10 Streets, llonololn. jlji
I EI. A: G. HEGULKEIV,
TIU, ZINC AND COPPEE SMITHS,
AND SHEET IE ON WOEKEES.
Kuuann Street, between Merchant & Queen.
HaTeconstantlyonliand, Etores, Pipe, Oal
ftgv Tanlzed Iron Pfpc, I'laln and II Me BibU,
P!'' top-cocki, India Kobber Hose LeetS-ply,
Qr-tt, 'n Ingthj of 25 and 0 feet, with coupling
and pipe Complete, Butb-Tuha, and alw a
yery Urge stock of Tinware cf erery description.
l'articular attention given toSltlp-AVotk. Orders
from tlie other Xslandf will be carefolly attended to.
Tbaukfnl to the Ci Ureal of Honolnln and tbe
Jslandi generally for their liberal patronage In tbe
patt, we hope by strict attention to buslne to merit
tbe Mnie for the future. 37-ly
a. ir. xiio3iiso,
Queen Street, Honolnln,
Has constantly on band and for sale at tbe Lowest
Market Prices, a gnod a8ortmentf)f the Best Itefined
liar Iron, and the Best Blacksmith's Coal. SS-ly
HOUSE AND SHIP PIUMBEE,
Xing; St, two doors west of Castle & Cooke's.
Has on hand, Bath-Tubs, Water-Closete. Wash-Basins,
Force and Lift Pumps,' Lead and Galvanized
Iron Pipes, and Plumber's Brass-works. Being the
onlj Plumber In tbedtr, he will execute all orders en
trusted to him In a workmanlike manner. f3S-3m
JSO. M0TT. SAM'L HOTT.
JOII--V IVOTX afc CO.,
COPPER AND TIN SMITHS,
Kaahnmann St, one door above Flitner's,
Beg leave to Inform the public that they are pre
pared to famish all kinds of Copper Work, such as
fc tills, Strike Pans, Sorghum Pans, Worms, Pnmps,
etc Also on haod. a fall asiKirtmentor Tin Ware,
which we offer for sale at the Lowest Marktt Prices.
All kinds of Kepairlng done with Neat neii and
Dispatch. Orders from .the other Islands will meet
with prompt attention. 3S-3m
ja:ui;s t,. LEWIS,
COOPEB AND GAUGES,
At the Old Stan4, corner King & Bethel Sts.
A Large Stock of Oil ShooVs and all kinds of Coop
ering Materials constantly on hand. He hopes by
attention to business to merit a continuance of the
patronage which he has heretofore enjoyed, and fur
which he now returns his thanks. 3Stm
3IR. JT. COSTA,
JEWELER AND ENGEA.VEH,
Fort Street, opposite Odd Fellows' Hall,
Is prepared toexecnte with promptness, all work. in
his line of business, such as Watch and Clock-repairing,
3Iaoufacturing Jewelry and Engraving. 3S-Cra
LICENSED SHIPPING AGENT,
Office on Jamei Eobinson & Co'a "Wharf,
Continues the business on his old plan of settling
with officers and seamen Immediately on their ship
ping at his office. Having no direct or Indirect con
nection with any outfitting establishment, and allow
lag no debts to be collected In bis office, he hopes to
give A4 good satistactloa In the future as he has in
tbe post. &-3m
c w ivonTorv & CO.,
COOPEBS AND GAUGEES,
At the ITew Stand on the Esplanade.
We are prepared to attend to all work In our line
at the Shop next to the Custom House, where we can
be found at all work in tr boars. We bare on band
and for sale. Oil Casks and Barrels of different sizes.H
new and old, which we will sell at the very Lowest
Market Rates. AU work done In a thorough manner
and warranted to give satisfaction. All kinds of
Coopering Materials and Tools fur sale. 2S-3m
PIANOS and other Musical
icafi Instruments Tuned and Repaired, by
yyjCHARLES DERBY, at the Hawaiian
Lessons given on the Piano &, Guitar.
The best of references given. 5l-ly 1
CEATEE OF K1XAPEA, HAWAII.
ffij THIS ESTABLISHMENT IS M2
ts now ojien for the reception of visitors to 2jf
the Volcano House, who tuav xely on finding- com
fortable rooms, a guod table, and prompt attendance.
Experienced guides for the Crater always on hand.
STEAM AND SULPHITE BATHS !
Horses Grained and Stabled if Desired.
rarties TisitlnB the Volcano- via Ililo, can procure
animals warranted to make the journey by D. II.
Hitchcock. Esq. 37-ly
NEVILLE & BARRETT,
Planters & General Store Keepers
EJEOPUKA, SOUTH KONA, HAWAII.
(Kexr Keslakekna Bay.)
Island produce bought. Ships supplied with
Wood, Beef aod other ncessaries.
Agent at Honolulu.. ........A. S. CixGnoiui.
It. "V. AIVimiTiVS,
Tort Street, opposite Odd Fellows' Hall.
Gives particular attention to the repair of
Fire Arms, Sewing Machines, A Locks.
Drammgt of Maclincry, -c, made to Order.
Sola & Saddle Leather & Tanned Goat-Skins.
A REGULAR SCPPLY, FKOH the
and for sale at the Lowest Uarket lutes by
A. S. CLEG HORN,
OS HAND A SUPERIOR
Selected by Kessrs. JIUVII.T.T: & BAEEETT,
whose facilities are second to none. The attention of
Bealers is reoutsted before purchaslngTelsewhere.
For sal. u quastltiea to salt by
a. a. CLianoES.
B. W. SanXASCE. C X. CIA1E.
SEVEHANCE, CIAEK & CO.,
AND SHIPPING AGENTS,
405 Front St, corner of Clay, San Franclico.
We will attend to tbe sale of Eoear and all kinds
of Island Produce, also to the purchasing and for
warding of Merchandise. Cash Advances made on
J. C. XEEEOI,
H'CRAKEJT, MEBEHL & CO.,
Having been engaged In oar present business for
upwards of twelve jears, and befDg located In a Fire-
pnaf Brick Bniiding. we are prepared to receive and I
utnpose x jBiauu tuples, men as ugar, tyrups, nice,
Pulu. Coffee, etc. to adrantaze. Conslimments es
pecially solicited for tbe Oregon Market, t which
personal attention will be paid, and upon which rath
Charles W Brooks San Francisco
j u aiemu uo
Fred Iken M '
Badger a Lindenberger
James Patrick a Co.....
Vm T Coleman t Co
Stevens, Baker a Co "
Allen Lewis Portland
LaddaTJIton b "
Leonard a Green l-ly4
E. M. VA1V RKIsD,
Having the best facilities tbrouzh an Intimate con.
nectlon with the Japanete trade for the past eight
trears, is preparer, to transact any business entrusted
h. i. winujta, h. r. blaschisd, c. b. jioaoia.
WILLIAHS. BIAKCHAED & CO.,
BHIPPING & COMMISSION MEE CHANTS,
si 305 Front Street, San Francisco. 6m
IANGLEY, CEOWELL & CO.,
32 Cor. Batter? & Clay Sts, San Francisco.
BOARD OF UNDERWRITERS,
TUG UNDERSIGNED having been
appointed Agents fur tbe San Francisco Board
ox underwriters, comprising tue
California Insurance Company.
SXerchantU1 Jtlutnal Slailnc Ini. Co..
Pacific Insurance Company.
California Lloyd'a, and
Home Slutuol Insurance Company.
Beg leave to inform Masters of Vessels and the Pub
lic general It. that all Tessels and Canroes. insured
by either of the above Companies against perils of
iue se ana oiner ri&Ks, at or near me canawicn
lsianas, wui care to De venneo ny tnem.
SS-Cm IK HACKFELD L CO.
finilE UNDERSIGNED, AGENTS of
ja ine aoove uompany, nave been antnonzed to
Insure risks on C-izo. Prclirht tinri Trem.
ure, by Coaster, J rum Uonulaln to all ports of
iue iiawuitui uroup, ana vice versa.
8-ly4 U. HACKFELD i CO.
MARINE INSURANCE COMPANY
Of San Francisco.
THE UNDERSIGNED having Tjeen
appointed Aecnts fur the above Conmanr .are
prepared to ii-ue Policies on Cargoes, Freights
WALKER k ALLEN".
3S-3m Agents, Honolulu.
FIEE INSURANCE COMPANY.
prepared to in.ure risks azaii
Brick Bnlldtns-a, and on Merchandise
stored therein, on the most favorable terms. For
particulars apply at the office of
S-lyl F. A. SCHAEFEIl t CC.
jr. . iticke,
AGENT FOB THE BREMEN BOAED OF
UNDER WB ITERS.
All average claims against said Underwriters, oc
curring in or about this Kingdom, will have to be
certified before me. 7-ly4
THE AGENT FOR THE BRITISH
Foreign Marine Insurance Company, (Limit
ed), has received instructions to reduce the rates of
Insurance between Honolnln and Ports In the Pacific,
and is now prepared to issue Policies -at the Ltncest
Rata, with .special reduction on Freight perteam
ers. THEO. II. DATIFS.
43-tf Jgent Bril. Far. Mar. Int. Co. (Limited).
SUGAll & MOLASSES.
IIII.O, II. I.
Sngrar and Molasses.
CROP COMING IN AND FOR SALE IN
quantities to suit purchasers, bv
WALKER 4 ALLEN,
Susrnr anil 3Iolasscs Crop 1S6S
COMING IN, FOR SALE IN QUANTI
ties to suit purchasers, by
WALKER & ALLEN,
Sugar and Molasses Crop 1S68
COMING IN, FOR BALE IN QUANTI
tles to suit purchasers, by .
WALKER & ALLEN,
3S-3m - " Agents.
VTEW- CROP NOW COMING IN. FOR
IN Sale in quantities to suit purchasers,
by C. BREWER & CO.,
lYctr Crop or Sugar & Ulolassen
VTOW COMING IN, AND FOB BALE IN
LN quantities to suit purchasers by
0. BREWER & CO.,
Germany since tlie War of 1SCO
From la Revue des Deux Maudes.
There is one featnre of tbe German
Constitution which is worthy, of the at
tention of all Governments having demo
cratic institutions : tbe Parliament of the
North German Confederation has but 297
deputies. In the United States, tbe nam
ber of Representatives is still smaller, and
legislators have taken great care that that
number should not augment in proportion
to the increase of population. This meas
ure is founded upon a thorough knowledge
and experience of the conditions under
which an Assembly has the best chance
of creditably and effectually accomplish!!)
its duties. In a very largo gathering of
men, a man of great eminence and talents
is under a disadvantage, and will not be
listened to with patience if his voice is
not powerful; while an orator naturally
endowed with a stentorian voice and vig
orous lungs, may deliver at full length
common-place discourse, thereby establish
ing the superiority of physical strength
over intellectual power. A numeious as
sembly' always has the instincts of a
crowded multitude, and is liable, to impul
sive and sudden impressions. The language
of passion sometimes generous and pure,
sometimes disorderly and blind has more
effect upon them, and they sooner arrive
at extreme conclusions, each impulse be
ing enhanced in direct ratio to tbe number
of those who share it. -Pathetic and
flowery speeches more the soul and prema
turely carry conviction with them, while
simple, common sense, cold and sedate
reason, exercises but a moderate authority.
Doubtless there are moments' when enthu
siasm is to be awakened, and heroism
aroused, because great things are only ac
complished by strong passions, but tbis
must be done, in proper season, through
the press, and mas3 meetings, and not
by sovereign assemblies, because, though
sometimes obtained through enthusiasm,
Liberty is practiced and preserved only
through dispassionate wisdom.
In France, it has often been thought
that the interests of the people would be
better promoted by a large Assembly, and
those of despotism by a small one. This
is an error ; and in the most democratic
country we know of, they have always
thought the very reverse. At the time
of election in America, the people enjoy
tbe most unbounded right of voting; but
when lhe election is over, the representa
tives are under such a restraint as enables
them to listen to the voice of reason.
This Is one of the causes why the Amer
ican Congress although partly composed
of passionato men, and notwithstanding
tbe violent scenes by which it is sometimes
troubled generally adopts wise measures,
and arrives, after the most stormy debates,
at transactions suggestive of a true spirit
of moderation. Hut if, in an assembly of
900 members, a question is raised likely
to excite tho passions of parties, the
explosion of wrathful interpellations,
the thundering noise of discussions, aro
sure to prevent mutual understanding,
and to stop the whole parliamentary sys
tem. Let the people reign in the Comilia,
but let the voice of reason be heard in
Parliament. It is certainly desirable that
all shades of opinion be represented in
Parliament, and that they may have a
chance of showing themselves in the broad
daylight of public discussion, so that all
the ideas fermenting in tho country bo
known and discussed ; but a party, and the
nation itself, will be more benefitted if
every opinion can be expressed and advo
cated by those who can do it the most
ably and efficiently, instead of being sup
ported by a crowd of undisciplined, impa
tient and boisterous orators. In short
the prompt transaction of business, the
triumph of the language of common sense
over that of passion, the good order and
discipline of the Assembly, and the in
terests of the nation all these considera
tions make it a law that tbe number of
Representatives should be very limited,
notwithstanding the incrbased number of
electors, in" all countries where the parlia
mentary system has been established on a
What are the parties now contending in
the North German Confederation ? Par
ties spring from a certain "political situa
tion, and last as long as that situation is
unaltered, but when it is modified, the
parties dissolve themselves to assume new
forms, in harmony with new principles.
An illustration of this we have witnessed
in Germany. As long as the King of
Prussia wonld not recognize the constitu
tional right of the Assembly to vote the
military budget, the opposition party wa3
formidable. At eah dissolution it was
constantly growing stronger, and Mr. von
Bismarck !s partisans were reduced to a
very small minority. But as soon as
William I. evinced an intention of becom
ing what his brother had vainly promised
to be "the German King" then, as
everybody wanted IJnity, almost all his
ancient adversaries rallied around him.
The reconciliation was sealed by the pass
age of a bill of indemnity which Ir. von
Bismarck condescended to ask from the
Assembly after thelmtUe of Sadowa. At
BER 9, 1868.
present, the North German Parliament is
composed of three parties : the Progres
sives, the Conservatives, and the National
Liberals. The Progressive party, which had com
prehended ell but thirty-five-of the mem
bers of the Prussian Chamber, is now the
least important of all. Its name does not
explain the end sought, because it is de
rived from a situation that is entirely
changed. It represents the absolute op
position, and comprises those who have
refused to vote the Federal Constitution,
some Republicans, and some who believe
that Mr. von Bismarck, the unification be
ing accomplished, will suppress all consti
tutional guarantees, to establish in their
place a military despotism.
Tbe Conservatives think that too dan
gerous concessions have been made to the
democratic party, which It will bo difficult
to recall. They are, however in a most
abnormal position the King and Mr. von
.Bismarck, their natural leaders, being the
authors of those institutions which they
condemn, and favoriaz the movement
which inspires them with apprehension.
The National-Liberals want to enjoy, nt
the same time, Unity and Liberty, which
they hold as being inseparable, as the one
must finally lead to the other. They ac
cept the Federal Constitution, not as be
ing the best that can be conceived, but as
answering to present needs, and, as Mr.
von Forckenbeck said to his electors,
" because it must lead to German Unity t
and because a liberal legislation in social
economy will insure the material and intel
lectual prosperity of 30,000,000 of Ger
mans." This party supports the Govern
ment, is the most numerous, and is daily
increasing. A fraction of tho Progressives,
and a group of tho Liberal-Conservatives,
have recently joined it.
A frank understanding exists between
the Parliament and the Federal Chancel
lor, Mr. von Bismarck, because, they feel
that they can not do without each other's
assistance. The only point in which there
seems to be any difference is that concern
ing Southern Germany, which the Assem
bly is more .readily disposed to receive
into the Confederation than tho Minister;
but this is a mere shade of opinion. On
all other matters the accord is perfect.
The Government does not propose any
thing that is not voted at once by th
Assembly ; and no amendment is presented
by the Assembly which is not accepted by
the Government. Business is transacted
with marvelous rapidity, and every day
one vjf those very useful commercial laws
announced by the King in his Speech at
the opening of the Assembly, is sanc
tioned by Parliament. The explanation
ofthi3 mutual agreement of views and
opinions is very simple: they have tho
same fears, the samo ambition, and the
same desires. When a ship is in the mid:
die of a narrow passage, and surrounded
by dangerous breakers, tbe crew aro al
ways ready to obey the pilot's orders.
But the great peril menacing the free
institutions resides in the infatuation of
military absolutism on the part of tho
sovereign and nobility. The present
King of Prussia will probably never con
sent to yield, in an important and essen
tial point, to the will of an Assembly,nnd
he will never understand that the majority
of Parliament can be stronger than a royal
prerogative. What he wants is what the
feudal party wants, that is, personal gov
ernment disguised under a constitutional
form. He accepts the idea of a Parlia
ment, but the parliamentary system is
odious to him. He allows Deputies to
stand at his side in one of his palace
salons, provided that they act a3 polite
guests, who do not permit themselves to
contradict the magnanimous sovereign who
condescends to receive them, and to ask
for their opinion. He. feels for his crown
a kind of religions awe. He fancies that
Prussia has grown under the especial pro
tection of Providence, and that God has a
great mission for her to accomplish. He
claims, in the secular order, the same priv
ileges that belong to the Pope in the spir
itual sphere. However, it is difficult to
believe that the superstitious adoration of
absolute power can be long maintained
.when we see the Kings themselves uproot
ing everywhere the oldest dynastic trees,
and scattering on the ground princely and
ducal crowns, like the dried leaves of a
forest swept along by autumn winds! Per
sonal government will certainly cease to
exist, because it is not in accordance with
the economical conditions of modern so
ciety. Tbe agricultural nations of the
olden time3 could subsist even nnder the
sway of absolute and bellicose sovereigns,
because the destructive evils of war were
limited to the countries -where it was rag
ing, but the industrial nations of the pres
ent age want security as an essential con
dition, because-, without it, enterprises of
industry come to a dead-stop, which leads
to the misery and poverty of the working
classes. The idea that the caprice of one
man is sufficient to precipitate a whole
nation into a long and disastrous contest,
which they must pay for with their blood
and their riches, may have been thought
natural in former times, but has bow be
come intolerable. The triumph of the
Parliamentary regime'Usure and iufelliHe,
6.00 PER YEAR.
; for a wealthy and enlightened nation will
not long Bubmit to see her destiny decided
1 without her consent. The attempt to es
tablish despotism has always ended fatally
for those implicated in it. In England,
Charles I. paid for it with his life, and
James II.,. with tho loss of his throne ;
while in France it has been the cause of
tbe ruin of two dynasties.
Speech of Secretary Seward.
On tbe evening of Oct. 31, Secretary Sew
ard addressed one of the largest audiences
ever assembled In tbe city ot Auburn, N. T.
He was introduced to tlie audience by tbe
Rev. Dr. lluwler, and received with unbound
ed applause. When order was restored, he
delivered an address, of which the following
is the most important portion:
After a lensrtuy review of the situation
down to the assassination of Presldeut Lin
coln, he spoke of President Johnson as hav
ing adopted bis predecessor's plan of recon
ciliation, wuicu seemeu iu uiu, as u seenicu
then to tbe whole country, to be practicable
and easy, because It was simple and natural.
Tbe people of tbe South were invited to es
tablish such necessary State Governments
upon a basis ofloyalty and fidelity, of which
practical tests were promised. First, the ac
ceptance of the new amendment of the Con
stitution which abolished slavery; second,
the repudiation of the rebel debt; third, tbe
abrogation of all rebel laws; and fourth, tbe
acceptance of tbe so-called "iron-clad" oatb.
All other questions were passed over for
further and future action. Loyal State Gov
ernments were promptly formed, and loyal
Senators and Representatives appeared at the
doors of CoDgress knocking for admission.
Then, and not till then, was peace proclaim
ed. It was not correct that President John
son mado these State Governments, or caused
them-to be made by force or Intimidation.
The Union arms lingered Indeed in the rebel
States, to keep the peace during the transi
tion from civil war, bnt tbe popular action
there was spontaneous, and the Executives
confined themselves to the forms of sugges
tion and advice, of which President Lincoln
had already set an example. The new con
stitutions were, the best obtainable at the
time, without a direct application of force.
They were adequate to the emergency, and
open like all "similar constitutions to further
revision and improvement with the lapse of
lime, ana increase oi popular itnowieage and
virtue In the several States. Cougress hesi
tated and debated and postponed. The rebel
States were no longer In the rebellion. They
were not recalled into tbe Union. Tbe peo-
S- le, North as well as South, wero 'excited,
ew schemes were proposed. There was po
longer me union party, wuicu nan conuue
tcd tbe couutry through the fiercest civil war
ever known, but that party was seen resolv
ing Itself in an untimely hour Into the .divis
ions, of tbe Republican aud Democratic par
ties. An advanced section of one party de
manded new and further guarantees, and en
tertained propositions of confiscation, dis
franchisement and other penalties of recon
struction. A reactionary section of tbe oth
er Insisted that all tbe delajs wero not only
hazardous, but that all conditions whatever
were unnecessary, unreasonable and uncon
stitutional. One party insisted that thero
could be no safe peace without Immediately
extendingsuQrage to tho freedmen, by means
no matter bow rash, unconstitutional or vio
lent. What did all tbis Indicate but a con
troversy about the constitutions to be form
ed iu tbe South American States What did
imperial Intervention In St. Domingo or
"Mexico mean, but a demand for such a con
stitution mere as sliould bo acceptable to
France. Tbe other insisted that a proceed
ing so abrupt, so violent, so Inconsistent
with tbe provisions of the Constitution of
the United States in regard to "tbe conserva
tism of State rights and individual freedom,
would inevitably Inaugurate a war of races.
It Is not my purpose to review, or even
trace, that long and angrv debate. We nil
see bo'w it has resulted. Thus far all tbe
.Representatives sent to Congress by tlie re-
oeiuous oiaics in iooo, nave Deen rejected,
without reirard to their annliflrntlnna nr Irw.
alty. All the loyal State Governments form
ed in 1S63 have been abrogated without re
gard to their loyalty. With the exercise of
the military force, subaltern, officers have
been placed by Congress In charge of the
several States. Congress has enfranchised
and disfranchised in those States just as
seemed best calculated to insure the accept
ance of tbe constitutions prescribed by itself.
iuc a-resiueni, mill a tenacity mat nas
provoked tbe Scrutiny of the nation, and
challenged tbe judgment of maukind, has
held Tast to two things, viz., the wise and
hninane plan of his predecessor, and what Is
infinitely more important, tbe Constitntion
...v wua.u JUS, AS U IUU11U UWfcll
For this adherence, lie has been brought up
for Impeachment In the constitutional form
for pretended high crimes and misdemean
ors, and duly acqnitted.
The nation has thus been called to sustain
tbe new shock of a political assassination of
Its chosen and beloved bead, and encounter
altcrward the wild and reckless proceeding
or inconsiderate leaders, such as kept Mexico
in a condition of anarchy through a period
of forty years, and which has left hardly any
stable, or even a peaceful republic remaining
in South America. Tbe last of tho States
organized in this constitutional manner, sent
representatives to Congress, and they have
been admitted, while all tbe State Govern
ments, through whose machinery those rep
resentatives were sent, or nearly all, are in
voking the Congress of the United States to
suspend the habcat corpus, to establish mar
tial law, to assume and to confide to the mil
itary agents tbe entire business of tbe Gov
ernment growing out of all the alarms and
fears of a renewed insurrection and rebellion,
and the restoration of slavery.
it is not my purpose to vindicate or ex
plain the part I myself have had In these
transactions and debates, Instructive as they
will prove to future ages. I slmnlv bsv. as I
stood by tbe wise and magnanimous policy
of President Lincoln, I have adhered to tbe
same policy since his mortal remains were
committed to an untimely grave; and I have
adhered with equal fidelity to bis Constitu
tional successor. So" much, my friends, for
the past. What now to tbe present situa
tion t We have heard for three years alarms
of premature reconciliation, tbe advantages
of procrastination, tbo dangers of reaction
and armed rebellion. At last tbe cry is fran
tically uttered by all parties, "Peace I peace I
let us have peace," (loud applause) when
there Is no peace In tbe sense implied, bnt
only forebodings of renewed war. Whit
does tbe country need In view of the nalcful
situation I I answer my own question. It
needs just what it needed In 1865, tbe ad
mission of loval representatives from tbe late
rebel Slates Into the Congress of the United
stales, and it needs at this time, aod at our
hands, no more. When yon have given to
tbe Southern States tbe placet in Congress,
where they will iave a Constitutional bear
ing, tbe people then will acquiesce In what
Congress may require, and tbelr mouths will
be closed on all constitutional topics that
have produced agitation and excitement.
Tbe States which send these representatives
must hare loyal representative Governments
to determine who and wbat party, what In
terest or what faction shall enjoy tbe power
or discharge tbe responsibilities of the Got-,
eminent. There we must Indeed, keep peace
for them, if they cannot keep It We must
therefore, support and maintain existing gov
ernmenta to that end. But it belongs to the
people of those States, just as much as it be
longs to tbe people of tbis State," to say
whether they shall live nnder one form of
IOyal Republican Government or another;
nnder one administration of loyal Republi
can Government or nnder, another. I do obt
ask or require that the Representatives here,
or the- Governors there, shall be white, or
black, or mixed. I Insist only that they shall
be representative men. freely chosen In these
State by the people thessel vest, ted ."sot by !
BOOK AJND JOB
PRINTING ESTABUSHQEKT !
inE "GAZETTE OITICK
la novr prepared to execute all orders fur
Ml ill NICY F11ITDK.
of evert DseeiuiTie",
WITH JTEATITBOU AND DISFATCH
outside .compulsion or dictation. I do. In
deed, know that the best form of Republi
can Government existing In Any of the States
is capable of amendment. I am sure It will
hereafter be greatly amended.
Being no Conservative, In the narrow
meaning of that word, I not only do not op
pose, but I favor all such amendments, and
accept bnt one limitation for my efforts In
that direction that Is, tbe Constitution of
the United States, which, enjoins non-intervention
upon me so long as those States are
loyal to tbe Union, and keep the public
peace, tbelr own peace and tbe peace of the
Union. I shall not, therefore, take the sword
Into my hand, nor put It Into the hand of an
other person ta etfect a reform bv force In
those States, which I am sure will be effected
much sooner and much more permanently
through the exercise of persuasion and rea
son. As little do I think It my duty to use
the sword to undo and remove what has al
ready been done in those States applause
whether It was necessarily done or unneces
sarily and unwisely done. As I thought the
situation, which existed In 1S65, ought to
be accepted by a reasonable, patriotic and
humane administration, so do I think now
the situation which exists In 1SB9, after the
best efforts, which have been made to secure
a better, ought to be accepted. I am not
without hope, my friends, that this painful
national dilemma may be solved before the
end of tbe present administration. The am
bitions of Dartlet and chiefs must come to
a rest with the close of this election; and
calmness and tranquility must sooner oriater
resume their sway over the public mind. In
that case I shall have little desire to speak
concerning the future administration of tbe
Government, content to have performed with
singleness of purpose, and with all my abili
ties, my amies, unaer tue aaministrauon,
with which I am nersonallT connected- Itis
on tho other baud possible that the dilemma
of reconciliation may continue unsolved, and
require tbe attention of the new administra
tion. It Is In this respect that I deem tbe
choice of a future Chief Magistate, not mere
ly Important, but critically so, as the last
two choices were so. One consideration
alone is sufficient to determine my Judgment
In tbis emergency. I caunot forget that tbe
civil war has closed with two great political
achievmenta the one, the saving the Integ
rity ot me union; ine otucr, tne aooiiucn oi
African slavery. Personally, I see no cause
to fear, in any case, a reaction in wnicu coin
or either of these great attainments can be
lost Tbey are in harmony with tbe spirit of
the age and the established progress of man
kind. New confidence, however, in this re
spect, is not Indulged in ; nor do I expect to
be entertained by all, or even tbe majority
of my patriotic fellow-citizens, who were en
gaged with me In making and aiding those
grand achievments. Their wounds, unlike
my own, are yet unueaiea; meir sacrifices,
like some, arc yet unrewarded. Tbey hare
been, thev are and they will continue to be
apprehensive In that regard, and these appre
hensions will increase with every Indiscreet
proceeding, or even utterance Of any person
or parties who ever were compromised, or
who ever sympathised with tbe rebellion, or
with African Slavery. Confidence Is, In the
case of most men, though not in mine, a
plant of slow growth. Not only Is It true
that such apprehensions, however unreason
able tbey may be, cannot be safely disregard
ed, bnt it is equally true tbey are to be re
spected aud Indulged, because of the moral
Influence they will exert In favor of union,
freedom and progress in all future time, and
throughout the world.
Tbe magistrates who are to preside, then,
In the work of reconstruction hereafter,
o.ugbt, like those who have "preceded In for
mer stages, of tbat work, to be men drawn
from and representing that class of citizens,
who maintained tbe Government in the pros
ecution of tho civil war and the abolition of
slavery. Great applause. In no other
bands could the work of reconciliation,. be
expected to be successful, because a differ
ent sort of Magistrate would be urofonndlr
and generally suspected of a 'willingness to
oeiruy me. transcenaant pnouc interests
which were guided and secured bv tbo war.
Tbe attitude of each of the political parties
In this canvass, is In some respects different
from wbat I myself could have desired or
would have advised. Very great crimes have
been committed in the name of liberty by
the Republicans of tbe United Slates. As
great crimes Were committed In tbe same' boly
name oy me t rencn repuoiic in tue revolution
of 1TS9, nevertheless, the Republican party
neither rests under any suspicion of Its loyal
ty, or devotion to human freedom, nor can
it fall under any such suspicion. The Demo
cratic party, I do not propose now to say
with bow much justice, has not so conducted
as to secure the entire confidence of a loya!
and confiding people In its unconditional
and uncompromising adherence to the Union,
or in its acceptance and approval of the
effective abolition of slavery. I entertain no
jealousy of the Democratic party or Its lead
ers, and no nninendiy or uncnaniatiie feel
ings towards that great constituent On the
other band, I cherish a grateful appreciation
ot me patriotism, me magnanimity, me nero
ism of many of my fellow-citizens wltb whom
I have cheerfully labored and co-operated,
while they still retain their adhesion to tbe
How could I distrust tbelovaltvor thevlr-
tne of Andrew Johnson, of Gen. Hancock,
uen. jicuienan,j3enaiar oncaicw. oi renn
sylvaula ; of Senator Heridricks, of Indiana ;
or of his associate, Mr. Nlblaek, or of Mr.
Cox, of Ohio, to whom personally more than
any other member, Is due tho passage of the
Constitutional Amendment In Congress,
abolishing African slavery. I bare, therefore,
regarded with sincere, and I trust, patriotic
solicitude, the efforts of Democratic leaders,
as well those made In 1864 at Chicago, as the
greater ones made In New York In 1866, to
lift ffcj. n.nifuMtIn rr4v nr. f. ,K. til...
11. . u V. w.iuuu.llb j . , . J Mf . V MV UUUt,
upon attaining which all tbe errors and short
comings oi its memoers, curing me civil
war conld at once drop off from tbe Demo
cratic party's back, as the burden of Christ
fell from his back when be came up to tbe
Cross. If the Democratic party had only
reached that point I should have felt that
the further concern on my part about the
work of reconstruction and restoration might
be dismissed. In tbat case, we should have
had tbo two great parties of the country sub
stantially agreed in tbe right, as the two
great parties of tbe country, in ray judgment,
in 1856, agreed in the wrong. In 186S, both
parties agreed In tbe compromise of I860,
which accepted tbe Fugitive Slave Law, al
lowed tbe extension of African slaverr. and
prohibited discussion upon It In tbe national
uongress lorever. it me Democratic party
In 1SCS bad lifted themselves to tbe position
I have supposed, we should have had both
parties of tbe country practically agreeing la
tbo Justice, wisdom and humanity ot tbe
Government in tbo civil war. and of the abo
lition of slavery ; and at the same time asree-
mg upon tue ripeness oi tue tune and tne
nccessitr of peace and fraternal sffeetloil.
The Democratic party having failed to do so,
tbelr preparation to assume the responsibili
ties of a rescued and regenerated attic,
must be delayed four years. To cosSde
these responsibilities to tbat party in It
present condition, would be to centrese.
perbxpa Increase, tbe lamentable poilUcsl
excitement which alone has delayed the eosa
plete restoration of the Union to the pretest
History proves that there is a eerteia
fatality attached to the occopation of tite
Papal chair by a Piss. Lotus XVL wm
beheaded nnder Piss VI. Napoleon L
was exiled to St Helena under Ptas TIL
Charles X. lost A crswn nntW FSw
VIII. Tbe oeeaoatiea bv Pkw IX. Ism
been cnrions-ly prolific in political diw-
ters. jxaM rmiippe, irancis u. ox
Naples, King Otto of Greece, the Kbg
of Hanover and JsabeK&of S peers'. bswe
been overthrown, asd the pages f IstS
tory are darkeeed by the vvotect dot Wag
of President Baeorsi, KsxiffirKafi ef Wut
iee, aad Prinze Miektael of Sems.
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