Every Wednesday Morning,
AT SG.OU PES AXKUM.
Mailed to Foreign Subscribers t $7.00.
OrriCE On Merchant street, west of
be" Post Office, Honolulu, H. L
T. 1 MialuJ llT J- MoTT FTTH- At tlie
GeTernment rrintinr Oaice, to bom I1 business
eranmnDtcaUons nnil I- ajarr.
. J. G. mCKSfKY,
Importer, "Wholesale and Retail Dealer
Id Lcmbrr and BuiUiar MaUriali. Pert. Else nd
S5 Merchant Streets. HootJaln, IL I. (11
GEKERAL COSOnSSIOK AGEKT & BROKER
Office in Fire-proof. lloiMisn on Qneen Street,
IS) llonolnla. U. X lr
C 5. SPEXCEK. H. aTACrAM-AXE.
CIIAS. A. SPJKVCEK A: CO.,
GFJSTBAL COMMISSION MERCHANTS,
S41 Quern Buret, Honolulu. II. I. ly
10 Fort rV IloniJnlu, r-ppoiHeT. C Henct's. 1t4
KANTJFACTURER, IMPORTER A- DEALER
Id Furniture of etrry dfwcrijitLm. Furniture Ware
Uuum uu Fort Street, cppwit. Cliase's
CmXUtj. WfcLflpjtfth44tAi4 Hotel
Street, Deer Fort. Ordors from tbe i4her
-41) liUnds pramrllT attfnqrJ tn. fly
e BOOr ASS SHOE MAKER,
41 Klnr Street, neit to the Bethel. Honolnln. fly
M. X. DOSSXLL,
CABINET KAEEE AND UPHOLSTERER,
KinE Street, Honolulu, OJ.J"its Lewis' Xe7cr Shop.
41) Will irar and tell cunj-hxnil Furniture, fly
JOBS TISStTS. T1I08. 50EE3S0.X.
TOtltETS Jfc SOREVSO,
SHIP CASPESTEttS & CAULKERS
At D. Foster & Co'i Old Stand,
Xexr the Honolulu Iron Works. 3m
XII EO. II. IATIES,
(Lars Juki, Gun A Co-
IMPORTER & COMMISSION MERCHANT,
AXD AQCST roa
LlajiTs and the Lirerpoul Underwriters,
llrilish and Foreign Msrtnolnsurance Co-, and
" "XerUiero. Assurance Company. 3-ly4
IMPORTERS AHD WHOLESALE DEALERS
" Iu FaobloaaUe Clolhlnr, IUU. Cajis, Duota, Shoe,
and erery variety of Gentlemen's Furnishing Goods.
Snow's ButtMlng, Merchant Street, Honolulu. (50-1J4
J, SI WALKER. S. C JllitJ.
WALKER Sc. ALLE.,
SHIPPING & COMMISSION MERCHANTS,
19 Queen Street, Honolulu. II. I.
E. E. XOItUERX.
SEALES IK LUMBER AND EVERY KlSi)
V OF BUILDING MATERIAL.
13 Omcs Corner Queen and Fort streets. Ij4
IIOLEES &, CO.,
SHIP CHANDLERS AND COMMISSION
Queen Street, Houyiula. Particular attention paid
to the purchase and sale of Hawaiian Produce.
arras rx pr-ajossiox to
C L Richard a Co, III Harifrld a Co,
C Brewer a Co, C L Ekhards a Co,
D C Waterman Ekj, CUe a Coole, 2-ly4
SHXTPINQ ASD COMHISSI0N AGENT,
OSee'vith Anna a WxrnEa, Queen Street.
cxrcu t rcaxieie
Meesn C L Richards a CoJMessra Walker a Allen,
MeursCBreweraCo, A0ami k mier. 1 11-3
IMPOETEE t DEALER IN BOOTS, SHOES,
Jlnd Gentlemen'! FurnUhtnc Goudx, corner of Tort
and Merchant Street. ILwoInlo 9-ly4
GEOCEE AHD SHIP CHAKDLEE,
Money and Recrulta furnUbed to Shlpe on the meet
10) favorable terma. ly4
Comoittioa Herthaat and General Agent,
Impccter ttf Teas and other Chinese and Foreign
Goods, Wholesale Dealer in Hawaiian Produce, and
Agent for the Pankaa and Amauulu Sugar Planta
tions. Fire-proof Store on Xunanu Street, below
AJfOrVG & ACHE'CK,
Iniporteni Wtoleaale and Betail Sealen
In General Merchandin and China Gouds, In the
Fire-proof Store on Xuuanu Street, under the Public
Han. 43-1 J 1
GEORGE G. IIOIVE,
Sealer in Eedwood and Horthweit Lumber,
'Shtngles, Doors, Sashea. Blinds, Xalls, 1-aints, etc,
ZC at his old stand un the J)Uuade. ljt
E. S. JFJLAGC,
CrVTL ENGINEER AND SURVEYOR,
Annus PostOmce Box Xo. SS, Honolulu. SS-Cm
I'. A. SCIIAEFEK & CO.,
nenolulu, Oahu, II- I.
ED. HOFPSCHLAEQEE & CO.,
LKPORTEES & COMJCISSION HERCHANTS
4) Honolulu, Oabn, H. L py4
A. !S. CLECUORS,
WHOLESALE AND BETAIL DEALER IN
Fire-Proof Store, comer of Queen and Kaahumana
Streets, Uooolulu. Betail EetaUuhment on 'uuanu
XIIEOUORE C. IIEECU,
IKPOETER & COhCKISSlON MERCHANT.
! Uooolulu. Oahn. H. I. Py
IT. IIACKFELD ic CO.,
GENEEAL COMMISSION AGENTS.
8 Queen Street, Honolulu, II. I. py
THE TOM MOORE TAVEEB,
II V JT. O'AIELE,
St) ' Corner of King and Fort Street. Py4
CIIAtT'CEY C. BE5XETT,
DEALER IN NEWSPAPERS, MAGAZINES,
And Periodicals, Fort Street, Honolulu. (lHjl
B. r. EBIXES. A. JxEGER.
II. F. EIZEERS Ac CO.,
DEALERS IN BET GOODS AND GENEEAL
Fire-proof Store on Fort Street, abort Odd Fellowa
E. r. ADAMS. S. O. WILDER
ADAMS 6c WIEOER,
AUCTION & COMMISSION MEE CHANTS
g) Queen Street, Uooolulu, UL I. -py4
C. S. BARTOW,
Salesroom on Queen Street, one door from Kaahu
ntann Street. 11-lyl
JOBV W. PATY,
Notary Public and Commiiiloner of Deedi
For the State of CalUorala. Office at the Bank of
Bishop a Cl, Fsihnmtnu Street, Honolulu. 3-ly4
M. A. WIBEXA55,
C)" Oi5ce lth Interior DenutmenL. fly4
VOL. IY NO. 50.1
enraxaa rzcx. h. a. r. caxtix.
C. HKEWER & CO.,
IIOXOL.CI.C, II. I.
ACn.YTS l)f the Iloston and Honolulu
ACE-VTS-For ibe Maker, IVaUnku and
AG I -NTS Vor trie PurctuLac and Sale of
Joni M. llooo. Esq Sew Tort
Cats. Cuva & Go
Jss. lIcixrwEU, Esq
J. C. Mturu. A Co. )
U. S. SwAt!t A 00. ySan Francisco
Ctus. w. Baoou, Esa. J Wyl
-II. S. GRI'IIAintl A: CO.,
IMPORTERS AND WHOLESALE DEALERS
Iu FaUiionaUe Ciothlnc. nats. Caps. Boots, Shoes,
and erery variety ef Gentlemen's rvprrior FurnUb-
Ing Uooja. More In AUEee s tiloca, uueen Mreei,
Uonoloju, it. l. i-o-ij
jr. p. iiUGincs,
IMPORTER AND MANUFACTURER
Of all kinds of Saddlery. Carrixze trimming done
with neatnees ano- uutpatch. All orders prompt
ly artendeU to. Corner etf Fort and Hotel
10J Streets, Honolulu. Pj4
F. II. A: G. SEGEEICEA,
TIN, ZIKC A17D C0PPEE SMITHS,
AND SHEET IRON WORKERS,
Nnuasn Street; Between Kercnant & Qneen.
Hare constantly on band, Stores, Pipe. Gal-
ranuea iron ripe, iiain ana uort iuwie.
Ston-oack. India Knbter Hose best 3-ply.
tn lenrtns or -j ana M leet, wltn coci-ungs
and pipe complete. Batb-Tnbs, and also a
very large stock of Tinware frf every description.
Particular attention given to Ship-Work. Orders
from the other Islands will be carefully attended to.
Thankful to the Citizens of Honolulu and the
Islands generally for their liberal patronage in the
past, we hope by strict attention to business to merit
the same for the future. 27-ly
a. n. xiiojipsozv,
Qneen Street, Honolulu,
Has constantly on band and for sale at the Lowest
llarket Prieea, a good assortment cf the Best Kenned
Bar Iron, and the Bet Blacksmith's Coal. 2-ly
HOUSE AND SHIP PLUMBER,
Elcg St, two doors west of Castle & Cooke's.
Has on band, Bath-Tnbs, Water-CIosets. Wash-Basin
e. Force and Lift Pnmps, Lead and Galvanized
Iron Pipe, and Plumber's Brane-worka. Being the
only 11 umber In the city, he will execute all orders en
trusted tc him in n workmanlike manner. SS-Cra
J JO. 53TT.
JOIEV XOTT fc CO.,
C0PPEE AND TIN SMITHS,
XmhuTT.r.nn St, one door above Flitncr's,
lVp lcare to tofjrm the public thxt they are pre
lAml to fornUli all tte,U of Copper Work, och u
t tills, tri&e Vans, SwrpLnm Taos Worms, romps,
etc. Also on band, a fall arartment of Tin Ware,
which we offer fir ! at the Lowest Mrkt Frk.
All kiodi of Impairing done with Xeatnes and
Dirpatch. Onlfrt from the otbr Iclands will mrtt
frith prompt attention, SS-Sm
JAKaCS Iaf LEWIS,
COOPER AND GATTGEE,
At the Old Stand, corner King & Botliel"SU.
A Larg Stuck of Oil Sbouka and all kinds of Ovp
rriog Materials oonttantlj on hand, lie- hopes bj
attention to hntini to merit a continuance of the
patronage which he has heretofore ecjojed. and for
which Le now returns his thanks. CS-Sra
Jilt. JT. COSTA,
JEWELER AND EKGRAVEE,
Fort Street, opposite Odd Fellowi Hall,
Is prepared to execute with promptness, all work In
his line of buslne. each as Watch and Clock rerair
Ing. MannfacturlDc Jewelry and Kn craving. S-3m
LICENSED SHIPPING AGENT,
0ce on Jaxnea Boblnson & Co's Wbarl
Oontinnes the business on his old plan c-f settling
with officers and teanim iumediately on their ship
plog at his cfic. Having no direct or indirect con
nection with any outfitting establishment, and allow
ing no debts to be collected In his office, he hopes to
five ad good satisfaction in the future as he has in
the past 38-Sm
G. IV. VOKXOX A; CO.,
COOPERS AND GATIGEES,
At tbe Kev Stand on the EspbuL&dc.
We are prepared to attend to all work In our line
at the Shoo neat to the Custom House, where we can
be &mod at all working hours. We have on hand j
ana ior caie, mi utu ana uarreis 02 oinerens sizes,
new and old, which we will sell at the very Lowest
Market Bates. All work done in a thorourh manner
and warranted to jrite satisfaction. All kinds of
Coopering Materials and Tools for sale. S-3m
PIAA'OS and other Musical
Instruments Tuned and IIrired. br
XVTlCUABLES DFUBV, at the Hawaiian
S I I 'Theatre.
Lessons given on the Piano &. Guitar.
The best of references giTen. - (51-ly4
CEATEE OF KLLAUEA. HAW AIL
3. THIS ESTABL1SII.MEXT IS 02
fife I,cw tor tli recrntion of Tisitors to Z?
the Volcano llonsr, . bo aoaj rrlj on findina; oom
krtaMe rooma, a euod taU, and prompt attendance
experienced guide fdr the Crater al.aj on band.
STEAK AND SULPHITE BATHS !
Horses Grained and Stabled if Desired.
Fartle Tisltint; theToIcano ria IlDa, can procure
animals warranted to make the Journey, by D. II.
IHtchCocX. Kfrq. 37-ly
NEVILLE & BARRETT,
Planters & General Store Keepers
KE0FUKA, SOUTH K0NA, HAWAII.
(Near Eealakekna Bay.)
Island produce bought. Ships soppUed with
Wood, Beef and other neeswies.
Arent at Honolulu.. .A. S. Cleqhoks.
It. w. a.mki;ws,
Fort Street, opposite Odd Fellovrs' Hall.
Gires particnlar attention to the repair of
Fire Arms, Sewing Machines, k Locks.
Drawing of Jaeliaery, dc, nad to Order.
Sole & Saddle Leather & Tanned Goat-Skins.
AltEGCLAR SCPP1.Y, FROM the
VVaixuea Xnnncrj-, '
and for sale at tbe Lcrrest Market Bates br
A. S. CLEGUOKS,
I HAVE OX HAND A SUPERIOR
Selected by Jffessn. JiLVILLE & BAEBETT,
srboae facJUtiea an second to none. The attention of
Dealers ts requested before purchasins; else abeie.
For sal in quantities to suit br
Sni A. S. CLEOHOBX.
EL W. SXTXajU.CZ.
SEYEEAKCE, CLASK & CO.,
AID SHIPPHTO AGEKTS,
405 Frost St, comer of Clay, San Franciieo.
We will attend to the sale of Supar and all kinds
of ItUnd rroJuce, also to the purchasing' and for
warding of Merchandise. Cash Advances made on
J. C, -mni,
M'CRAKEK, MEKKTTiL & CO.,
IUvIdc; teen enjmgfj In our present business for
cpwmrd of twelve rears, and 1-elofr located in a Fire-
prooi Bnrc Buuain we are preparea to receive and
difTtoM uf Island StarJes. rach as urar. Sttuhl Bice.
Iiila, Osjflee, etc- to 4rmatac. Onaslenments e-
peciiJij 4citJ for tbe Uregon Marktt, to which
perranal attention will be paid, ud upon which cah
adTances wiu De maoe wnen rtqwr!.
Charles W Brooks San Francisco
J C Merrill a Co "
Badger & Llndenberger
James latrick a Co "
Wn T Coleman a Co.
Stevens, Baker a Co.
Allen a Lewis pDrtland
Leonard a Green " 1-lyi
K. 31. TAA UEEI).
Having the best tad li tie tliruugh an Intimate con
nection with the Japanese trade for the past eipht
jears, is prepared to transact any business entrusted
to bis care, wjin oispaicn. y
h. b. wzuxues, h. r. tuycHAin, c x. xoccas.
WILLIAMS. BLAKCHAED & CO..
SHIPPING & COMMISSION MERCHANTS,
31 305 Front Street, San Francisco. Cm
LANGLEY, CE0WELL & CO..
S2 Cor.Eattery & Clay S ts, San Francisco. (m
BOARD OF UNDESWEITEES.
THE U5DERS1G.ED liarlu been
apDoInted A rents for the San Francisco Board
of Underwriters, comprising the
California Insurance Company,
Merchants Mutual Marine Ins. Co,
Pacific Insurance Company,
California Lloyd's, and
Home Mutual Insurance Company.
Beit leave to Inform Masters of Vessels and the Pub
lic renerallr. that all Veiuels and Carcoes. insured
by either of the above Companies against perils of
me seas ana oiner rues, ai or near me asawicn
Islands, will have to be verified by them.
ZSa IL IIACKFELD CO.
THE VXDERSiaXED. ACEXTS or
the above Csmpur, have been authorised to
insure risks on Cargo. Freight and Treas
ure, by Coasters, from Honolulu to all ports of
tbe Hawaiian Group, and vice versa.
b-ljl IL IIACKFELD k CO.
MARINE INSURANCE COMPANY
Or San Frsmclsco.
THE CNDEUSIGXED liavlug smcii
appointed Agenta fx- the abore Cora pan j .are
pmarni toissw Policies on Cargoes, Frefgnta
WALKER k ALLZX,
SS-3m Aptnts, Honolulu.
EIRE INSURANCE COMPANY.
THE TJXDEKSIGNED having been
appointed Agents of the above Company, are
prepared to insure risks against Fire, on Stone and
Brick Buildings, and on Merchandise
stored therein, on tbe most favorable terms. For
particulars apply at tbe See of
My F. A, SCITAEFER k CC
JT. I. VVICKE,
AGENT FOE THE BBEHEH BOARD OF
All arerare claims ajrilnst said Cndenrritera, oc
currior In or about this Kingdom, .ill hare to be
certified betare me. 7-lj4
THE AGENT FOR THE BRITISH
Foreirn Marine Insurance Company, (Limit
ed), has receired instructions to reduce the rates of
Insurance between Honolulu and Ports in tbe racific,
and h now prepared to issue Policies -at tbe Lawut
Jlatu, with a special reduction on Freight per Steam
ers. T11EO. IL DATIFS.
43-tf Jptat Brit. Fur. Mar. Itu. Cb. (LiaiUdy
STJGAU & MOLASSES.
jp J- O J o
iulo, ir. i.
Sugar and Slolnsseg.
Crop cosinro ts and for sale is
quantities to snit porehasers, br
WALKER i ALLEN,
Suyir and Molasses Crop 1S68
COMING IN, FOR SALE IN QUANTI
ties to suit purchasers, by
WALKER A ALLEN,
Siijrar and 3IoIajse Crop 1888-1
COMING IN. FOR SALE IN QUANTI
ties to suit purchasers, bj
WALKER A ALLEN,
"VfEW CROP NOW COMING TS. FOR
JLM Sale in qoaptitie to suit purchasers,
by C. BREWER A CO.,
IVetv Crop of Sngnr & 9Xolasstcfi
OW COMING IN, AND FOR SALE LN
quantities to suit purehaeri by
C. BREWER A CO.,
Xbe Recent Expeditions to the
Aortli Pole, nnd Contvuplat
ed Frcncli Expcdlttoii
From La Kerne des Deux Moies.
Mr. Gostave Lambert bas coEtructed a
carre, representing the power a insulation
for different places on the earA's surface,
and different days-of the jcarj In exam
ining the coarsg mil inflecons of this
line, he has ascertained that it the time
of the solstice, (Jane 21,) the sorth Pole
receives, in 24 hours, a qooi ily of beat
tupererior by one-fifth to thatreceired by
a spot situated in tbe Trop of Cancer.
In that calculation he does lot eren in
clude the atmospheric absoi Lion, tbe in
fluence of which is so much stronger at
the Pole, where the fun is vry low, than
at the Tropics, where it risesvery high at
noon, and tbe loss expcriticed by the
ean's rays in traversing the i ferior layers
of the atmosphere, necessaily modifies
the result arrived at by merelj considering
the position of the son with rgard to the
polar horizon. It may, howevr, be safely
affirmed that tbe Eumnier het is, by far,
more considerable at the Pie than is
commonly believed, and that t is, at any
rate, more than sufficient to catse the dis
solution of the ice above the Sth or 65th
parallel of latitude. The existnee of an.
open basin is also rendered pobable by
the presence of the currents tha naviga
tors have met with in those regbns. On
the .western side of Greenland.one cur
rent, having a south-east direction collects
the ice in the Straits of Banks, ilcClin-
tock, and Queen Victoria. The lirection
of that considerable mass of waer is, be
sides, proved beyond tbe possilility of a
doubt, to those who remerr.ber that the
ship Resolute, abandoned in Maj, 1854, in
Davis's Straits, was found in the next
year 1,000 miles off to the turth, near
In Behring Straits, another swift cur
rent, sweeping along the coas of Asia,
seems to offer a semi-yearly character, as
it runs, alternately, south and nrrth.
A. third current moves fron north to
south, between Spitsbergen md Nova
Zembla, and the impetus of its waters is
sometimes so irresistible that itbrcaks the
icebergs and facilitates navigation in those
regions- The vast expanse of sta extend
ing between the western coast of Spitz
bergen and Greenland is likewise traversed
by a strong current which batters tbe ice
but does not melt it. It is the same cur
rent which, in 1827, dragged the icebergs
under Fairy's feet, and did not allow him to
go beyond tbe 82d degree of latitude, not
withstanding his almost superhuman -ef
forts. All these polar streams seem to
issue directly from a vast reservoir a sea
or tasin surrounding tua North Pole. In
the Antarctic regions, on tbe contrary, the
currents seem to follow circular directions,
and to run alongside of the icebergs, from
which fact we might suppose that there
is a continent at the Antarctic Pole.
Some other proofs may be adduced in
favor of this hypothesis by observation
of the appearance presented by the ice
bergs at tbe Poles. In the South can be
observed all the phenomena characteristic
of the glaciers, or heaps of ice, rising from
a fixed basi3 land or rock. One can no
tice there, every year, in gigantic propor
tions, tbe progress of that work of nature
which geologists have discovered in the
Alps, the Himalayas, and the Andes. As
soon as the bitter cold of winter begins,
the vapor, by which the air had been satu
rated at the time of the summer evapora
tions, are condensed into snow, which
uninterruptedly falls in thick, heavy flakes, I
accumulating during the mournful season
of a six months night. 'When, in the
spring time, the sun sheds its genial rays
npon those terrible countries, the ice be
gins to melt and the water to ran between
the fissures of the ice and in the crevices
of the rocks, where it freezes again and
repels, with incredible force, on account
of its increase of volume, all the obstacles
with which it comes in contact. On the
approach of winter, this force of impulsion
is mastered by the cold,' and gradually di
minishes till it is lost in the long sleep of
winter. The glaciers are one of tbe great
est dangers to be met with by navigators
to the Antarctic regions. "When the sea
son has been very warm, and the breaking-
np considerable, enormous blocks com
posed of l-ocks and earth, are thrown into
the sea, and the ships bare to make
their way as well as they can, through
floating mountains and hnee masses de
tached from formidable icy walls, which
seem to preclude any further advance. If
tbe configuration of the ice-lands of the
Antarctic Ocean the immense glaciers of
which most have been placed on fixed
bases, in the most remote times of the icy
period makes mi believe that they are
part of a continent, the study of the phys
ical nature of those ice-blocks gives an
additional proof of their terrestrial origin.
In the water they look black, while in the
light, they are transparent and of a ceru
But very different are the phenomena
taking place in the' regions of the North
Pole. The snow, falling in the sea, as
sumes the appearance of a thick substance,
which hardens when the weather 13 calm,
and forms a thin crust, half ice and half
BER 30, 1868.
snow. But when the wind rises, says Mr.
Lambert, every thing is broken into mi
nute fragments, producing one of tho
most admirable spectacles that can be seen.
Each little piece of ice, in melting away,
is surrounded by a sort of little pond of
fresh water, which does not mix with the
salt water, and when tho rays of the sun
pass through these diminutive pools, they
are all irisated, and reproduce on an im
mense scale, the phenomenon of Newton's
colored ring, in reflecting all the shades of
the solar spectrum, bat so lightly that tho
charm soon vanishes away, leaving a pain
ful and lugubrious impression : it seems,
at times, as if Nature was seen through
the folds of a cloud of gauze. These are
tbe embryo ice-fields, and the ice they are
composed of-is opaque, and of a white,
milky hue, and with it are never fonnd de
bris of rocks, or vegetable detritus, as is
the case at the Antarctic Pole.
The last, but not the least, proof is that
derived from the reports of the navigators
who have seen the Polar Sea at a distance;
and we may also mention the notable and
suggessive difference existing between the
climates of the two zones formed by the
islands extending to the westward of
Greenland. In the zone nearest to the
continent, animal life seldom manifests it
self, while proceeding northward it multi
plies to an extent that can be called ex
uberant, and seems to warn the traveler
that he will soon come to the limits of tbe
This fact, ftmpled with the observations
made or a line of maximum cold, extend
ing from 68 to 75 latitude, is of the
utmost importance, as it is intimately con
nected with the existence of an open basin
at the Pole.
The English expeditions of 1850 and
1851 have furnished as with many-interesting
documents in that respect. At
that time, Lieut. Austin had established
his winter quarters south of Cornwallis
land, while Capt. Penny was stationed at
a little distance from the entrance to Wel
lington's Straits. As soon as the long
polar days began to shine, jt was decided
that Austin's party should visit tbe outer
boundary of Mellrille's basin, while Pen
ny's crew should movo onward through
Wellington's Channel. Austin accord
ingly started with fourteen sleighs and 104
men, and the Ommaney division went in a
southerly direction to reconnoitre North
Somerset. For sixty days the courageous
sailors endured all kinds of privation, and
the most bitter cold. " In those regions,"
writes their heroic leader, " we had before
ns the same monotonous, snowy horizon,
where we could not discover anything to
relieve our wearied eyes. Oar presence in
that desolate region looked as if it were
a discordance and an intrusion."
Daring the time that Ommaney was
thus exploring the mournful deserts of
North-Somerset, McClintock wa3 making
many discoveries north of Melville's Basin,
and meeting innumerable flocks of birds
as early as the first days of May. The
snow wa3 already disappearing from the
hill-sides, and the moss, the grass and the
saxifrage were timidly peeping out. In
the first days of the spring of 1851, Capt.
Penny likewise began his explorations.
He advanced to the northward of Welling
ton's Channel, and detached Lieut Stew
o art to survey the western coast of North
Devon. On thn 30th of May, Lieut.
Stewart, having reached, by means of
slejghs, the northern extremity of the
straits formed by Hamilton Island on one
side, and North-Devon on the other, per
ceived, right before him, an open sea, the
shores of which were covered with birds.
Capt Penny, a few days later, (and after
a hard journey of 50 leagues through a
desert or ice), had also the pleasure of
resting his eyes on that animated scene.
He hastily returned to headquarters, had
a boat built at once, and on the 17tb of
June, in latitude 77, ho named, after Sir
John and Lady Franklin, the two remotest
points of tho Straits bearing his own
name. The sea was then extending before
him, beyond the horizon, and tempting as
a Siren, but prudence at last conquered,
and he returned. Sir Edward Eelchcrwas
able, the following year, to force hi3 way
through the icebergs that generally pre
clude the entrance to "Wellington's Straits,
and to take up his winter quarters in 76
52'. In the Spring of 1853, he went as
far as John's Straits, but was stopped by
an icy mountain that was drifting to the
southward. It was then the 20th of May,
and as far as the eye could reach from the
top of that eminence, no land could be
seen : an open sea was rolling, faraway, its
waves of a dark blue color. If all the
explorers who have gone as far as the 77th
degree of latitude, northeast of Parry's
Archipelago, have been able to ascertain
the existence of an open sea, the same
result has not been so easily attained west
of Greenland, as it is necessary to pene
trate the crowded, icebergs of Smith's
Straits, to leave the ship in about tbe 78th
degree, and to proceed along the coast in
sleighs, up to the 81st or 82nd degree bc
forearriving at the Polar Ocean.
In 1853, through private enterprise,
which U always willing and ready, in
America, to encourage and sustain any
great and bold undertaking, the money
6.00 PER YEAR.
necessary to equip an Arctic expedition
was collected ; and the command of a ship
given to Dr. Kane, a surgeon of tho United
j States Navy. With 17 volunteer seamen,
he started, and spent a very hard winter
j in the little bay of Rensselaer, situated in
, 78 52', bat the crow being exhausted,
and not having yet recovered from the
scurvy, the Greenlander, Hans, and the
steward, Morton, being the only able
bodied men, left the ship imprisoned in the
ice, and went on an exploring tour to the
northward. "When they had passed the
gigantic glacier of Humboldt, their progress
was easy enough on the marine ice, until
it became so thin and fragile that their
trembling dogs refused to advance any
The Australian and Ilatrallaxi
"We find the following Interesting tables,
regarding the trade between California, Aus
tralia, and these islands, iu tbe Sau Francisco
Commercial Herald and Harktl Hetiev of No
Herewith we present tabulated statements
of our trade with Australia' and the Hawaiian
Islands for the past fifteen years. Tbey will
be found particularly valuable, from the fact
that no other such compilation Is In exist
ence, and because tbey present, at a glance,
the ratio of increase in our commercial re
lations vvjth those countries. Tbe principle
article of import has been coal, and our exports-
thither hare consisted mainly of bread
stuffs and quicksilver. The grand aggregate
of our trade with Australia for fifteen years,
including cost of freights, passage money
and value of articles imported and exported,
is $21,700,090, in round numbers. This trade
Is sensibly increasing, and if it wen: stimu
lated by a steamer line, would soon become
of very great Importance.
Our relations with the Sandwich Islands
are assuming very interesting proportions.
Thersusar yield of the Islands has increased,
from 550,000 pounds exported in 1856, to 20,
000,000 pounds exported in 1SGS. Their wool
and hides export have also notably increased.
The value of our trade with tbe Hawaiian
Kingdom during the past eighteen years. In
cluding freights, passage money 'Snd values
of cargoes, inward and outward, amounts to
$15,953,340. The number of vessels employ
ed both ways, was 1,090, representing an ag
gregate tonnsge of 873,103 registered tons.
The main articles of Import liave been sugar,
molasses, rice, coffee, wool, bides, nulu, fun
gus, goat skins, tallow, whale oil, whalebone,
cotton and fruits. Oar exports thither have
consisted of assorted cargoes of manufactur
ed goods and some brcadeturTs. These tables
are complete, with the exception of our ex
ports for the years 1S53 and 1354, the passen-
fer movement for 1S54, and the receipts of
lawailan produce for 1853-4-5, of which we
hare no statistics In detail, and have there
fore estimated them. We commend them to
tbe attention of business men.
ISI-JS.SS.-S.S;-: : 8;
; "o ; S is 5-j oc i
ISO ACSTSAUa TO SAX raASOSCO.
. .S,8 .
. .8,735 .
raox bit raA5asco to bawahax llunn.
. 21 ..
raox aiwinax uuxm to sax raaxasco.
Telegrams to the Scs. The waves of
sound go only 377 yards In a second, while
tbe earth itself goes 18X miles, and light
10,000 times taster than that; while electri
city (which is probably another kind of vi
bration of the solid atoms of bodies, and
certainly not a fluid), runs along a wire
about half as fast again as light Bo, If tbe
earth were a cannon-ball, shot at the sun
from Its present distance, at tbe velocity It
now travels with, and the moment of explo
sion telegraphed to tbe sun, tbey would get
the telegram there la about 5 minutes, and
see the earth coming In about 8 minutes, and
would have nearly two .months to prepare
for the blow, which they would receive
about 15 years before they beard tbe original
explosion. This fa merely taking tbe'snn as
a target to be shot at, without regard to bis
power of attracting the earth at the final rate
of 399 miles a second. Dmitca't Aitraiwrny
BOOK AND JOB
PRINTING ESTLISHMIKT !
THE "QAZCTTE" 0TTICX
Is now prepared to execute all orders tot
mi m Finnic.
OF EVERY DESCRIPTION,
WITH HEATNBSS AND DISPATCH
The Cost or as Election. The follow
ing Is from the 8an Francisco Wttti'j Bulletin
or Nor. 23:
. The authorized system of registration In
use In this State has some advantages, and
ought to bavo to balance its Inconveniences
and the cost of working Its machinery. Here
Is an abstract of some of the principle Items
of expense Incurred by the city under Its pro
visions, and In connection with.the late elec
-Inspectors, Jodres, Clerks and rents $11,832 60
.--Tinting poTMists 2,343 80
Printing Supplement to Great Begtster.... 1,346 63
Slants and Stationary 696 80
AdrtrtUisg (some tuts not tnclndtd) 1,153 60
Ftaclne names on Great Kerlster, 24 cents
a name) to W Bartlstt tl,S01.7S, to D E
Harris 11,707 S,H J5
Snperrisors apportionment for election ex
penses (75 a precinct) 1,575 00
(This mates no extra allowances Sjr
double or treble boxes)
Expenscsof recount. 146 CO
Sundries 43 00
Total .$22,432 87
There is another bill to come In for placing
names on register, several advertising bill,
and if the Board makes any compensation .to
tbe special police employed on tbe day.of
election that allowance mnst be added ; these,
with othersundrles, will probablyreach $1500
more, making a total of 34,000 to come
directly out of the public parse. This amount
large as It Is, is trifling compared to the sums
spent by the County Committees and by tbe
State Committees In this city. Probably the
aggregate sum spent by the candidates on
each side reached as high a figure as that
spent by the city. But all these sums merg
ed iu oue grand total fall Infinitely below the
amount staked on the result In the form of
A FEAErcx, Ride roit Life. Mr. Edward
D. Taussig, of the U. S. S. Wateree, writes a
graphic account of the earthquake In 8outh
America. lie volunteered to take command
of a boat which put off from bis vessel to
pick np a man who was. seen drifting by .the
ship on a mass or earth and weeds, but waa
caught by the tidal wave and prevented from
returning. Finally his boat was thrown
against the Peruvian corvette America, and
he got ashore in a curious fashion. They
boarded the corvette amid a tremendous sea,
bat not before the boat had been dashed, to
pieces and sunk under them while they clung
to the ropes. Hardly had they touched the
deck before the vessel grounded, while the
sea broke over her fearfully. The crew were
crazy with liquor and clamoring for more.
The captain had been drowned a few mo
ments before, and the first lieutenant conld
not make his voice heard above the roar of
the waves, and tbe walling and crying or his
crew, until he finally gave it up In despair
and wept Two of the masts were carried
away, the sea continually breaking over tbe
ship, when suddenly the water receded, and
tbey were left on the sand. They descended,
joined bands In two ranks and ran for life In
land. The return of the sen caught them
again, bnt not rushing again with great Teloc
ity it did no barm, and after running half a
mile they were safe. The tidal wave by
measurement was forty-two feet high. Ez.
Lost Time. Let man pass an evening in
vacant Idleness, or even In reading some
silly tale, and compare the state of his mind
when he goes to sleep or gets up next morn
ing with its state some other day when he
has spent a few boars in going through the
proofs by facts and reasoning, of some of
the great doctrines of natural science learn
ing truths wholly new to him, and satisfy
ing himself by careful examination of the
ground on which known truths rest, so as
to be not only acquainted with the doctrines
of themselves, but able to show why he
believes them, and to prove before others
that they are true ; bo will find as great a
difference as can exist in the same being
tbe difference between looking back upon
time nnprofltably wasted, and time spent
In self-Improvement; he will feel himself In
one case listless and dissatisfied, In the other
comfortable and bopoy; in the one case, If
he did not appear to himself humbled, at
least will not have earned any claim to bis
own respect; In the other case he will en
joy a proud consciousness of having' by bis
own exertions, become a wiser, and there
fore a more exalted nature. Lord BroitgJiam.
Pointers ih Hongkong. The compositor
Is one of the enigmas of China, and therefore
worthy of a paragraph. There are some
twelve or fifteen of them, employed In tbe
composing room of the ftttt office, Hong
kong, who "set" from 8,000 to 8,000 per
day, each. While It is indisputable, It. Is
almost beyond belief, that notwithstanding
these compositors set type, not a single one
of them understands a word of English, and
they have not the faintest Idea of what tbey
are putting in type. They set manuscript
with as much facility as they do reprint, and
but tew American printers can set type
faster, or with fewer errors. These printers
are cheap workers, and consider themselves
well paid when they receive S15 per month,
and perhaps they arc, for that is big wages '
for a Chinaman in his own country. There
are some very tasty and rapid job printers
among the Chinese, who do work to the sat
isfaction of those who employ them.
Round tub Wobld is Eioutt Dats.
"When, the railroad across tbe continent of
America is completed, there will be constant
conveyances by means of railways and mall
packets for passengers desiring to travel
around the world. This grand tour of
23,000 miles In length, will cost about 300,
and will be accomplished In about eighty
days. The English tourist will be able to
visit America, Japan, China, Ceylon and
Egypt He will cross the Atlantic, North
Pacific and Indian Oceans, tbe red and Med
iterranean Seas, the Continent of America
and the Delta of Egypt. He will be able to
leave England, say the beginning of May. and
to arrive home again about the middle of
La Lastzbne. The last number of the
Lanterne consists entirely of extracts from
the political writings of the Emperor Napo
leon III, of course those passages which,
have a liberal tendency being selected. It
was to hive been published fii France, but
no one would take tbe hazard of printing It;
so IL Rocbfort Is enabled to say that tha
works of tbe Emperor can not be published
In the Emperor' own .dominion. This I
very smart, but it is also Tery silly. Isolated
extracts may be made to erre any purpose,
and the Emperor may fairly object to having
bis writings mangled, garbled and twisted;
to serve designs for which they were ncrer
Deitiso Horses. A correspondent of tbe
Scientific American give this advice to horse
men: Whenever they notice their horses di
recting his ears to any point whatever, or
Indicating the slightest disposition to become
afraid, let them, instead of pulling toe reia
to bring tbe horse toward the object assise'
its nervousness, pnll It on the other side.
This will instantly divert the attention of
the horse from the object which I exciting
hi SBspicIon, and In ninety-nine cases ooC of
a hundred, the horse will pay no more atten
tion to tbe object from which be Will fly
away ir forcibly driven to It by pulling the
Tbe Rev. Dr. Blaakoace told a Utile astate
dote or James Harper. "I asked tbe Mayor."
said Dr. Blank, "what be did. I hM to him,
1 know that John Harper attend to tbe tss
Iness; Wesley Harper look afteribe litera
ry correspondence; Fletcher Harper reeelves
authors, looks afte4m-.ew books a ad atteads
to the Mgazine,-banron, Mr. Mayor, I hiTe
never been able to discover what you do."
'Til tell yon," answered the Mayer, ta a
whisper, "bat yon must not let It ost, I en
tertain the bores."
A coxmrcTOB of a newspaper, tpetkituf of
a contemporary "He was AwsMsfy a
member of CoBgreM, but rapidly race tHI, be
obtained a repectMe poeitlea ae4Hi-f
.noble example of poHeveraBoe B4er depfea
ejng drcumttetces." t
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