Every "Wednesday Morning,
AT 60.00 PER AXSVH.
Malted to Foreign Subscriber at SI AX.
OrriCE On Merchant street, west ol
he Post Office, Honolulu, II. I.
Printed and pabllebed by 3. Mott Surra, at tie
QoTeroment Prlatlng Office, to whom all builnes,
eommttnlcaf toni mott be addressed.
BOOK AND JOB
PRINTING ESTABIMMUtT !
TEE u GAZETTE OITICS
la now prepare! to extent all orders tor
fl'ill Jill MKT flllTIK.
OF EVE&T CBBCBIPTIMf,
with irEATirass and dispatch
r0L. IV NO. 51.1
HONOLULU, WEDNESDAY, JANUA ET 6, 1869.
$6.00 PER YEAE.
J. G. DICKSOS,
Importer, "Wholesale and Setail Sealer
Id Lumber and Bonding Material.. Fort, Kin; and
S Merchant Streets, Honolulu, II. I. jlji
AV. L. OltEE.-V,
GENERAL COMMISSION AGENT & BBOKER
Office In Fire-proof Buildings on Qoeen Street,
58 Honolnlo, II. I. ljrl
c. X. spexcek. n. MlcranLiXE.
CIIAS. IV. SPE.ACKK Ac CO.,
GENERAL COMMISSION MERCHANTS,
II Queen Street. Honolulu. II. L py
McCOLGAI A; JOItVSOX, .
10 Fort L, Ilonolnln, opposite T. C. ltcnca's. Ijt
' C. E. WUX.IA.HS,
MANUFACTURER, IMPOETEE & DEALER
In Fornltore of eTerj description. Fornltore Vare
Room on Fort Street, opposite Chase. Photograph
Qtllrj. Workshop at tlie.otd stand on Hotel
Street, near Fort. Orders from the other
41) islands promptly attended lo. ly
BOOT AND SHOE MAKER,
1 King Street, neit to the Bethel, Ilonolnln. ly
CABINET MAKEE AND UPHOLSTEREK,
King Street, Ilonolnln, opposite Lewi.' Cooper Shop.
41 Will boy and U .ecood-band Fornltore. fly
SHIP CAEPENTERS & CAULEERS
At D. Totter & Co'i Old Stand, jgg
Kear the llonololo Iron "Works. T3m
XIIEO. II. DATIES,
Laic Jinu, Ctrxx t Co.
IMPOETEE & COMMISSION MERCHANT,
An iqixt roa
Lloyd's and the Iirerpool Underwriters,
British and Foreign Marine Insurance Co., and
Northern Assurance Company. S-ly4
LMPOETEES AND WHOLESALE DEALERS
In Fashionable Clothing, Hats. Caps, Boots, Shoes,
and every variety of Gentlemen's Furnishing Goods.
Snow's Building, Merchant Street, Ilonolnln. 60-ly4
J. S. WALKER. 8. C. ALLEX,
WALKER Ac A1X.E:V,
SHIPPING & COMMISSION ilEECHANTS,
Vfj Qneen Street. Honolulu, II. I. Iy4
L. I.. TOKBEUT.
DEALEE IN LUMBER AND EVERY KIND
OF BUILDING MATEEIAL.
13 Ornca Corner Queen and Fort streets ly4
IIOLEE.S Ac CO.,
SHIP CHANDLERS AND COMMISSION
Queen Street, Honolulu. Particular attention paid
to tne purchase ana esie or Hawaiian iroanoe.
KfrUS BT FIKMISSIOX TO
. C L Richard Co, in Hackfeld a Co,
C Brewer a Co. I C L Itichards a Co.
C Waterman Esq, CastIe a Cooke. 2-lyl
A. S. CLECHORN
TESPECTPIILLY calls tile attezi-
-tion of LADIES to
HIS WELL SELECTED STOCK OF GOODS
At IUs lletall BstabllsUment
38 On Xuoana Street. 3m
IMPOETEE & DEALEE IN BOOTS, SHOES,
'And Gentlemen's Furnishing Goods, corner of Fort
and Merchant streets. Honolulu, v-ij
GROCER AND SHIP CHANDLER,
Money and Recruits famished to Ships on the most
1UJ laToraui. terms. ty.
Commission Merchant and General Agent,
lmporier of Teas and other Chinese and Foreign
Goods. Wholesale Dealer in Hawaiian Produce, and
Agent for the Paokaa and Ainaoolo Sugar Planta
tions, lirs-prooi Diore on iuuann circct, www
King. . 21-ly.
AFOIX'G Ac ACIIUCK,
Importers, Wholesale and Retail Dealers
In General Merchandise and China Goods, in the
Fire-proof Stars on 'uuanu Street, .under the Pnblic
GEORGE G. HOWE,
Dealer in Bedwood and Northwest Lumber,
Shingles, Doors, Sashes, Bllodi, Nails, 1'alnts, etc.
38 at his old stand on the Esplanade. lyi
E. S. sFJLAGG,
CIVIL ENGINEER AND SUEVEYOE,
AsDaiss Post-Office Box No. 22, Hopololu. 2S-m
F. A. SCIIAEFF.R Ac CO.,
S8 nonolnlo, Oaho, II. I. . Py4
ED. HOEFSCHLAEQER & CO.,
IMPOETEBS & COMMISSION MERCHANTS
4 Honolulu, Oaho, H. L py4
A. 8. CEEGIIOR-V,
WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALEE IN
Fire-Proof Store, corner of Queen and Kaahumaau
Streets, Honolulu. Be tall Establishment on Nuoano
TIIEODOKE C. IIEIICK,
IMPORTER & COMMISSION MERCHANT.
1) Honolnlo. Oaho. II. I. Py
II. HACKFELD Ac CO.,
GENEEAL COMMISSION AGENTS,
8 Qneen Street, nonolnlo, 11. 1. lj
THE TOM MOORE TAVERN,
BT J. O'l-VIEJLI.,
25 Corner of King and Tort Streets. lyl
CHAUTVCEY C. BESXETT,
DEALEE IN NEWSPAPEES, MAGAZINES,
And Periodicals, Fort Street, Honolnlo. p-ly4
B. r. EtTLERS. A. JAEGEK.
II. F. EITLERS Ac CO.,
DEALEES IN DEY GOODS AND GENEEAL
Fire-proof Store on Fort Street, abort Odd Fellows'
S. P. ADAalS. S. 6. -WILDER.
ADA3IS Ac WILDEK,
AUCTION & COMMISSION MERCHANTS
27 Qoeea Street, Honolulu, H. I. Py4
C. S. BARTOW,
Salesroom on Qoecn Street, one door from Kaahn
nann Street. 17-ly4
JOHN II. PATY,
Notary Public and Commissioner of Deeds
For the Stat of California. Office at the Bank of
Bishop a Co., Kaahomann Street, Honolulu, 2-ly4
II. A. WIOEHAIVIV,
- NOTARY PUBLIC,
- 6 Office at the Interior Department. Ij4
surasux net. h. x. i. cairn.
C. IIKEIVKIl Ac CO.,
noxoLtn.tr, 11. i.
AUE.YTS Or the Boston and Ilonolnln
AGENTS For the Sinker, tVallnku and
AGENTS For the Purchase and Sale of
.11. S. Gltl.-VBAim Ac CO.,
IMPOETEBS AND WHOLESALE DEALERS
In Fashionable Clothing, lists. Cap., Boots, Shoe.,
and eTery Tariety of Gentlemen's superior Furnish
ing uoods. blore In Jlakee's mocK, wueen fctreet,
llonomio, 11. i. liu-ly
J. P. HUGHES,
IMPOETEE AND MANUFACTUEEE
Of all kinds trf ddlery. Curiavge trimming done
wiid aeatuess ana.awpaicn. au oraen prompt
ly auenaea to. uorner 01 Fort and Hotel
F. II. Ac G. SEGELKEK,
TIN, ZINC AND COPPER SMITHS,
AND SHEET LEON WO EXES,
Nuuann Street, between Merchant tc Queen.
IlaTe constantly on hand. Stoves, Pipe, Gal
vanized Iron pine. Plain and liose Bibbs.
Stopcocks, India Rubber Hose best3-ply,
in lengths of SS and 60 feet, with coupling,
land pipe complete. Bath-Tab., and also a
very large stock of Tinware of every description.
Particular attention given to Ship-Work. Orders
from tbe other Islands will be carefully attended to.
Thankful to the Citizens of Honolulu snd the
Islands generally for their liberal patronage in the
past, we hope by strict attention to business to merit
me same lor tne luture. sj-iy
J. II. TIIOMISO,
Qneen Street, Honolulu,
Has constantly on hand and for sale at tbe Lowest
Market Prices, a good assortmentofthe Best Hefined
liar iron, and the Best Blacksmith's Coal. 3S-ly
HOUSE AND SHIP PLUMB EE,
King- St, two doors west of Castle & Cooke's.
lias on hand. Bath-Tobs, Water-Closets, Wash-Basins,
Force and Lift Pnmps, Lead and Galvanized
Iron Pipes, and Plumber's Brass-works. Being the
onjy rtnmoer m mecny, ne vnu execute all orders en
trusted to him in a workmanlike manner. p&-3m
JS0. K0TT. SAK'L SOTT.
JOIEV KOTT Ac CO.,
COPPER AND TIN SMITHS,
Kaahumanu St, one door above Hi trier's,
Btg lenTe to lufuna the public that tbejirc pre-
ared to furnish nil kin da of Copper Work, eucfi as
duiii. Mriife ran , Aorconm ran. , orms, rnrnpa,
etc Alstf on Land, a full assortment of Tin Ware,
wbich we offer for vale at the Lowest Slarkut 1'rices.
All klnda of Repairing done with NeatncM and
Dispatch. Order from tbe other ItJand will meet
with prompt attention. 38-3m
COOPER .AND GATJGER,
At the Old Stand, corner King & Bethel Sts
A Large Stock of Oil Ehooks and all kind of Coop
ering Materials conctantlj on hand. He hopes hy
attention to bnineai to merit a continuance of the
patronage which he bag heretofore enjoed, and for
WLucn lie now mnrn mm tuoHi. x-iui
MIC. J. COSTA,
JEWELER AND ENGEAVEK,
Fort Street, opposite Odd Fellows Hall,
Is prejMixedtoexecnte with promptness, all work in
Lis line of bosIneM, auch as Watch and Clock repair
Inc. 3Ianafactnrine Jewelry and En prating. 3S-3m
LICENSED SHIPPING AGENT,
Office on James Boblnson & Co'i "Wharf,
Continues the business on hJsoId plan of settling
with officers and seamn Immediatelj on their ship
ping at his office. Ilaring no direct or Indirect con
nection with any on tilt ting estiblhihinent, and allow
ing no dents to be collected tn nis omce, ne nopea to
give m good saiuucuon in me iaiare as ne nas in
tbe past. 3SCm
COOPERS AND GAUGERS,
At the New Stand on the Esplanade.
We are prepared to attend to all work In our line
at the Shop next to the Custom House, where we can
be found at all working hours. We bare on hand
and for tale. Oil Casks and Barrels of different sizes.
new and old, which we will sell at tbe very Lowest
Market Rate. All work done In a thorough manner
and warranted to rire satisfaction. All kinds of
Coopering Materials and Tools for sale. SS-3m
PIANOS and other Musical
Klnstruments Tuned and Repaired, br
1CHAKLE3 DERBY, at the Hawaiian
licssons riven on the Piano & Gnltar.
The best of references given. 51-ly4
CKATEE OF KILAUEA, HAWAII.
f3 THIS ESTABLISHMENT IS y
now open for the reception of visitors to jf
the Volcano liouse, vrbo may rely on finding com
furtable rooms, a good table, and prompt attendance.
Experienced guides for the Crater always on hand.
STEAM AND SULPHITE BATHS !
Horses Grained and Stabled if Desired.
Parties visiting the Volcano via Ililo, can procure
animals warranted to make the Journey, by D. H.
IltTCnCQCX, Esq. gy.ly
Sole & Saddle Leather & Tanned Goat-Skins.
AUEGUI.AU S CP PLY, FROM the
and for sale at the Lowest Market Hates by
A. S. CLEG HORN,
I HAVE ON HAND A SUPERIOR
Selected by Messrs. NEVILLE & BAEEETT,
whose facilities are second to none. The attention of
Peelers Is requested before purchasing elsewhere.
For sale in quantities to suit by
3S-3m A. S. CLEGIIOIW.
AT THE PHOTOGRAPH GALLERY
On Fort Street,
MAY BE SEEN TIII3 VIEWS taken
of the Late
I-aTJi Flow at Kaltoka,
And the Effects of theLste
Karthqnake at Walohlnn, Ban.
Views of Silanea and other places. Also Cards
of the Kings, Queens, Chiefs, etc, all for sale at low
prices. Also, Oral and Square Frames of all sizes,
which will be sold cheap.
SS-3m It. L. CHASE.
Restaurant and Boarding House,
Corner of Hotel cfc Xatuukea Sts.,
HE TABLES WILL BE SUPPLIED
with the best in the Market.
Steals at all Honrsi.
Board per week, $3.00 and &.00. Single
Heals down stairs 12 cents. 3S-3m
H. W. SITXUXCt.
c. K. CLtar.
SEVERANCE, CLARK & CO.,
AHD SHIPPIHO AGEUTS,
405 Front St, comer of Clay, San Francisco.
TCe will attend to the sale of Sugar and all kinds
of Island Produce, also to the purchasing and for
warding of Merchandise. Cash Advances made on
J. c. XIEBILL,
e. t . tjai.
M'CRAKEH", MERRILL & CO.,
Harlng been engaged in our present business for
upwards of twelve years, and being located In a Fire-,
proof Brkk Building, we are prepared to recelre and
dispose ii lilana staples, sncnas aupar, tyrupa, luce,
Pulu. Coffee, etc., to adrantago. Consignments es
pecially solicited for tbe Oregon Market, tn which
personal attention will be paid, and upon which cash
aarances win De maae wnen required.
Charles W Brooks San Francisco
J C Merrill a Co....
Badger Llndenberger 41
James Patrick a Co
Vtm T Coleman a Co
terens, Baker a Co
Allen a Lewis... Portland
Leonard a Green 1-1 j4
E. M. VA1V IIEED,
Ilaring the best tadlitfei throueh an Intimate con
nection with the Japanese trade for the cast elrht
jean. Is prepared to transact any business entrusted
10 uts care, ttu aw pawn. lwy
H. B. WILUAXS, H. P. BLASCHAED, C. B. UC&QsUT.
WILLIAMS, BLANCHARD & CO..
SHIPPHTO & COHMISSION HEE CHANTS,
1 305 Front Street, San Francisco. 6m
LANGLEY, CROWELL & CO.,
32 Cor. Battery & Clay Sts, Ban Francisco. 6m
SAi Fit A3 CISCO
BOARD OF TJNDERWEITERS.
nnilE UNDERSIGNED haTtncr been
JL appointed Agents for tbe San Francisco Board
oi unaerwriters, compruing me
Callfurnla Inaurat.ee Company.
Mcrcbatita' Mutual Jtlarlne Ins. Co.,
Pacific Itiaurnncc Company,
Calirorula Z.lojtl,. and
Home Mutual Insurance Company.
Beg leave to Inform Masters of Vessels and the Pub
lic geoerally, that all Vessels and Cargoes, Insured
by either of the above Companies against perils of
tue teas ana oilier nsics, at or near tne canawicn
Islands, will hare to be verified by them.
25-301 U. JlAUlilrtlaU CV,
milE UNDERSIGNED, AGENTS of
JL. tne above Uimpany, have beeu anthnrtzed to
Insure risks on Cargo, KrefEht and Treas
ure, by Coasters, Irom Honolulu to all ports of
tne jiawauaa uroup, ana vice versa.
MARINE INSUR.ANCE C0MPA1TZ
Of San Francisco.
nn HE UNDERSIGNED liarlutr been
JL annotnted Arenta for the above Comoanv .are
prepartMi to issue roucies on iargori. u reiguts
WALKER & ALLEN,
3S-3m Agents, Honolnlo.
FIRE INSURCE COMPANY.
THE UNDERSIGNED bavins; been
appointed Agents of the above Company, are
prepared to insure risks against Fixe, on Stone and
llrlclc Buildings, and on Merchandise
stored therein, on tbe most favorable terms. For
partlcmars apply at the office of
o-iy r. A. CUll At tK. s w.
J. D. AVICKE,
AGEUT FOB THE BREMEN BOAED OF
All average claims agalnBt said Underwriters, oc-
enmng in or aoout ims lungaom, win nave to be
ceniuea oeiore me. i-lj
THE AGENT FOR THE BRITISH
Foreitrn Marine Insurance Com tun v. 'Limit
ed), has received instructions to reduce the rates of
insurance between Uonoluluand Ports In theracioc.
uuw iirrpareu iw imus i oiicies -ac toe MJXolXl
icaut, witu a special reduction on Freight per Steam
ers. TIIEO. II. DATIFS.
43-tf Agent BriL For. Mar. Int. Co. (LxmiUd).
SUGAR & MOLASSES.
I? 18 6 9
IT1X.O, IT. L
Sngnr and Molasses.
CKOP COMINO IK AND FOR SALE Df
quantities to suit purchasers, by
Sufjar and Molasses Crop 1S69
COMINO IN, FOK SALE IN QUANTI
ties to suit purchasers, by
IVAhKiSK 4 ALLEN,
Sugar and 3Iolosses Crop 1S89
COMING IN, FOE SALE IN QUANTI
ties to suit purchasers, by
WALKER & ALLEN,
"VpW CKOP NOW COMINO IN. FOK
Sale in onailtitt.s ta snit nnrrfias.r.
V C. BREWER A CO.,
IVetr Crop of Sugar Ac Molasses
VTOW COMING IN. AND FOR SALE IN
JLM quantities to suit purchasers br
C. BREWER & CO.,
Tbe Recent Expeditions to tit
IVortH Pole, and Contemplat
ed French xpedItfon.
From La Berse da Dux,Moudes.
Morton, justly alarmed, patiently waited
until the thick veil of fog, by which they
were sorroanuea, naa cleaned away, ana
when it suddenly disappeared, their as-
tonishmentwaa exeat at beholdine Smith'
Straits entirely free from ieo.nnd thronged
with a prodigious number oi birds. The
tide was felt by them in Kennedy's Chan
nel, and the thermometer bting plunged
into the water, marked two degrees above
the point of congelation of salt water.
Having turned Jackson Capf, in order to
follow the seashore, they rapidly proceeded
on an icefield, at the rate of ax miles an
hour, and the farther they advanced north
ward, the higher the temperature became,
and everything seemed to be reviving.
Notwithstanding it was so early in the
season, they found many plants. "In the
Bay of Rensselaer," writes Kane, "with
the exception of the walrus, we bad no
thing to Bhoot at, while where Morton
went, the brant-geese 'and eider-ducks
were so numerous that he was able to kill
two at a single shot. The brant-goose
had not been seen since we passed the
southern entrance to Smith's Straits. It
is well known by all the Polar navigators
as being a migratory bird from the Amer
ican Continent, and lives on vegetable
matter, generally marine plants, and the
molluscs attached to them. It is rarely
to be seen in the interior, and its habits
are indicative of the presence of water.
luo rocks were covered with sea-
swallows, for miles along the shores of the
channel, from the point where tbe water
was free, but as they progressed to the
north, swimming birds gradually took their
place. There were four kinds of gulls.
Of the flora there is little to bo said, and
I would not like to infer from it anything
as to tbe temperature, as the season was
not sufficiently advanced for the develop
ment of Arctic vegetation. Strange to
say, the only specimen that wo3 brought
back was a crucifer Ilceperis pygman,
the siliques of which still contained some
seeds that had survived the long winter.
This plant had been found north of the
great glacier, and had never been observed
above (ho latitude of the southern zone of
As our travelers went on, the ice which
had served as a path for the .dogs, became
thinner and thinner, and at last disap
peared. Morton then climbed the rocks
near the beach, and noticed for the first
time therethe Arctic Petrel Procellaria
glacialis which bad not been seen since
they left the watera frequented by the
whalemen, 200 miles, to the southward
On the 21st of June, the two explorers
found their way stopped by a high Cape,
which they were not able to pass, and
having ascended to an altitude of about
1,000 yards, Morton planted the American
flag, and called the Cape Independence
Cape. He hod then arrived at 81 22',
and could see nothing east or north but
an open sea, extending beyond his visual
This precious discovery, giving such un
expected information respecting the na
ture of the Arctic regions north of Smith's
Straits, could not be accepted without ve
hement discussion ; but it nas triumph
antly confirmed seven years after, by Dr.
Hayes. The latter gentleman, who was
with Kane daring that voyage, in the ca
pacity of physician, fitted out, in 1861, a
new exploring expedition. He took up
bis winter quarters at Fort Foulk, and on
the 3d of April, left his ship and pro
ceeded up Smith's Straits in sleighs, but
having traversed about half tbe channel,
ho was obliged to send lack to the ship
most of his exhausted crew, keeping with
himself only three hardycompanions. They
passed the Straits and proceeded along
the coast, on the ice. On the 18th of
May, in latitude 88 30', and at a dis
tance of 825 kilometres from the Pole,
Hayes saw before him a vast sheet of
water. "Everything," says be, "was to
me an evident proof that I had reached
the shores of the Polar basin, and that
the largo Ocean was rolling at my feet."
At some distance from where he stood,
the waves, sweeping along the coa3t, were
breaking to pieces the ice, which finally
disappeared. There, Dr. Hayes hoisted
the flag of the United States in the north
ern breeze. But it was time to think of
returning, and, after having named that
extreme point of the world, Union Cape,
nayes went back to Port Fonlk.
These are the precise and trustworthy
observations which certainly bring with
tbem the conviction that there is an open
sea, northwest of Greenland, at least dur
ing a certain time of the year.
Previously to the discoveries of Morton
and Haye3, some Eussian navigators had
already found an open sea north of Si
beria. Hedenstrom saw it, for the first
time, in 1608. From 1821 to 1823, Wran-
gel and d'Anjon were oble to determine
certain points of the coast of the Polar
Sea. This expedition, which ha3 been
long forgotten, now acquires a renewed
importance, for the sound appreciation of
the - French project. The failures of the J
sleighing expeditions render possible an
attempt entirely carried on by a ship, and
explain Mr. Lambert's plan, which can be
expressed in two sentences : "1, to clear
the land. 2, a ship can go where a sleigh
It was on tbe 26th of March, 1821, that
the courageous men commanded by Wran
gel commenced their journey to the north.
For some days they made good time, on a
smooth, icy plain, when, in latitude 70
53', the snow becoming moist and salty,
warned them that they were not far from
the sea. A little further on, the quick
silver of the centigrade thermometer began
to rise, and, on tho 1st of April, reached
40 below zero, and the ponds of water
were so numerous that they were unable
to pursue a direct course. Having thus
arrived at 7L 11', "Wrangel was obliged
to return southward, for the ice was bnt
five inches thick, and rapidly melting
away. Some days after, they tried again
to proceed to the north, but on the 7th of
April, the Expedition was obliged to give
up the hopeless strnggle, and return to the
coast. But Wrangel considered- this baf
fled enterprise as a trial one, and mado up
his mind to renew it, as he was more cer
tain than ever that he would discover land
north of the Polar Sea a land which
d'Anjou, discovered about the same time,
a little beyond the Islands of Nova Zom-
bla. In the following year, profiting by
his experience to have his ship in good
condition, and everything well fitted out,
he started on the 13th of March, and soon
met with tho same obstacles as before.
On the 11th of April, 1822, the signs in
dicative of the vicinity of the sea were bo
characteristic, that be halted, and detailed
Mr. Matiouchkin3 to reconnoitre, and as
certain if it were possible for the party to
proceed any further. He accordingly
started, and in a short time, in latitude
71 52', ho saw tho sea, covered with
broken icebergs, now appearing on the top
of the rolling billows, and then disappear
ing in the foaming abyss, to re-appear,
soiled with mud and sand. "Nothing
can convey." says he, " an adequate idea
of that terrible destruction. The immenso
icy surface, dead and motionless, suddenly
shaken from its basis, broken to pieces,
and mountain-like masses of ice thrown
np on the waves as if they were mere
fragments of timber. The thundering and
continual noise of the breaking ice min
gled with that of tho chiding waves."
Unable-to contend against such mighty
obstacles, the intrepid explorers tried a
northwest direction, but on the 12th of
April they were warned that the sea would
soon stop their progress, for they heard
the terrible roaring of the waves, and saw
dense, blue vapors rising, while the ice was
getting thinner under their feet, and the
ponds of water more numerous. Wrangel,
however, continued his journey up to 70
50, bnt from that point he was forced to
return on account of the health of bis
men and the want of provisions.
In a third and last voyage, in 1823, the
undaunted Wrangel went still further
north, and was allowed to contemplate a
magnificent scene of the breaking np of
the ice. Having reached 70 51', ho was
abruptly stopped by a large chasm, more
than 300 yards wide, the length of which
he could not determine. He climbed to
the top of a block of ice, and perceived
before him "an open and boundless sea."
The ice was melting with such rapidity
that the field on which they stood, being
attacked by tbe combined efforts of the
wind and currents, and half dissolved, was
on the point of sinking under their weight.
They had, with tbe view of discovering
a Polar Land, bravely encountered the
most unheard of difficulties, and now, said
Wrangel, " we were obliged to give up the
long-cherished idea, tbe realization of
which bad been pursued for more than
three years of unceasing labor, accom
plished in tbe midst of numberless obsta
cles, dangers and privations of all kinds 1
But we had at least done what honor and
duty commanded U3 to do."
All the above statements agree upon
one certain fact : that there is a Polar Sea,
freo from ice, and that a sleighing expedi
tion, such as that proposed by Mr. Sberard
Osborne, would have but very little chance
of success. There remains, then, to dis
cuss tbe choice of the way by which a ship
may reach the Pole with tbe least possible
danger. If we cast a glance over the lab
yrinth of islands, channels and bays which
is spread northwest of Baffin's Sea, we
can not help apprehending that the neigh
borhood of the land, and of the mountains
of ice which are detached from the coast,
should render tho navigation extremely
dangerous. " Every ship enticed north or
east of Parry's Islands, into the Polar Ba
sin, must necessarily be smashed in pieces,"
says Mc Clare. Scoresby's opinion on the
subject is the same, and the fate of so
many ships, which have disappeared in
that terrible region, is a sufficient reason
to discard the idea of an expedition in
that direction. "To clear the land,"
must be tbe motto of the projected French
Bonos, December 3. Gen. Grant visited
Cambridge to-day and arranged forUie tuition
of bis son.
A Voyage to tlie Fijlls.
Written for the Oaistt.
Charley Pkkcrioc'a house resembled, in
outward appearance, a huge barn, but In the
interior, It was decidedly comfortable. There
were no partitions, and the whole of the
floor, with the exception of an excavated fire
place in the centre, was spread with a thick
layer of fine mats, that sunk to the step, and
were delicious for a tired man to repose on.
The sides of the house were beautifully wat
tled with reeds and ornamented with parti
colored einet, braided from the fibre of the
cocoanut husk. The uprights were stout
cocoannt logs, handsomely smoothed and
polished, and also ornamented with Bluet.
Tbe honse itself stood, within an enclosure,
formed of cocoanut logs with reeds, about
fifteen feet high, with a small entrance, capa
ble of admitting but one person at a time.
In the yard, which was In extent about a
quarter of an acre, were magnificent bread
fruit trees and towering cocoannt palms, be
sides various other beautiful trees peculiar to
the Fijiia, which I will describe hereafter.
Pickering was well-to-do he owned a tract
of land,- which he roughly estimated was
two thousand acres in extent, and owned
also the two or three hundred people that
lived on it men women and children for
the common people were serfs. He had
twenty wives, exclusive of tbe marama or
qneen, his head wife. This was the status
of Charley, an ignorant runaway sailor a
Sydney ''beach-comber" who had somehow
drifted ashore In these beautiful Islands, and
getting into favor with the King of Bewa,
had been made a prince and ruler.
When we entered, the "hay-bags," as Char
ley termed his wives, were sitting about la
various parts of the house, engaged in va
rious occupations. Some were braiding Blu
et, others-making mats, and one was plait
lug a hat from the pandanus leaf. They
were all young, and as to features, quite
good-looking, but quite dark. Their only
clothing was the llku, a braided aflalr, made
of the Inner bark of a tree, abont six Inches
broad, and worn around the middle, with
fringes that extended half way down tbe
thighs. They all appiared cheerful, and were
chatting, laughing gaily and quite noisily.
After we were seated on the soft, yielding
mats, a few words were spoken to one of
them by Charley, when she went out, and in
a few moments returned with a basket, In
geniously braided from tbe green leaves of
the cocoanut, in which were a dozen of the
young nuts. These she proceeded to open,
with a dexterous tap on tho end, removing
just enough of the shell to make it conveni
ent to .drink the delicious liquid which na
ture has deposited within. Theso she pre
sented to us, one each, kneeling gracefully
as Bhe did so. While we were enjoying
for the first time, to me this refreshing
drink, the head wife of our host entered.
She was tall, quite fair for a' FiJIlan, and
walked with the true air of native nobility.
The moment she appeared, tbe other women,
who had previously been so chatty and live
ly, became suddenly silent, as In the presence
of a superior, and applied themselves with
extra diligence to their work. Charley In
troduced her to us, as she came and seated
herself beside him, with the observation
'Boys, this Is my Moll," apparently a dis
tinctive title from that of "hay-bags," which
he applied to the other members of his harem.
These latter were now addressed by the
Madam In a few short, sharp words, and they
immediately dropped their several employ
ments, and while one attended to the fire
which in a Fijil house Is never allowed to go
out others prepared fish, taro and bread
fruit for cooking. Their style of cooking
struck me as nbvel. Op the fire-place, which
as I mentioned before, was an excavation In
the centre of tbe honsc, and which was nice
ly lined with stones, was three Immense
earthenware jars, vase-shaped, lying on their
sides. Into one of these was placed the fish,
with a small modicum of water, and then
the mouth, which was about four inches
across, was closed with fresh bread-fruit
leaves. The same process was followed with
thejaro and bread-fruit, each In its separate
ar or pot. Then came tbe yams. These
were small abont six Inches in length, and
one Inch and a half In diameter, and were
placed to roast on the embers of the fire. I
watched all these preparations closely, not
only with the cnrioslty of a young fellow,
for the first time in a strange land and bow
very strange that land was but with tbe
keen sense of hunger that naturally resulted
from a sixteen mile pull up the river. "Have
a Bmoke?" ssys Charley. Forthwith, two of
tbe dsrk-Eklnned honris produced some leaf
tobacco, drying -which by passing It rapidly
over the coals, they proceeded to crush It In
their hands ; then rolling np a small portion
in little square pieces of banana leaves, tbey
handed one to each of us, and presented a
coal of fire with which to light the uluka,
as they term these "clgarrltos." The Fijll
ans do not nse pipes, bnt smoke only the
mild and comparatively harmless tduka.
After these were dlssussed, Charley shout
ed, " Mama na angoaa t Na nngonia lews."
"Chew awa, young girls," as it may be ren
dered In English. In came a dozen young
girls, none of them over twelve years of age,
who seated themselves In a semi-circle In
front of us. A lsrge root of the narcotic
plant so generally used in the Pacific Islands
called cava by the Samoans, aiea by the
Ilawailans, and anjfma by the Fljllans was
brought in and cut Into fragments. Each of
the girls, taking her portion, proceeded to
stuff her mouth with the root and to masti
cate the same with all imaginable Industry.
Immediately In front of the ch ewers -was
placed s large shallow wooden bowl, made
of a beautifully grained wood. Into this,
the girls each dumped the chews as they were
ground to the proper consistency and they
were remarkably dry, with no apparent mix
ture of saliva. It Is a rule among these island
ers, that no one can chew awa bnt virgins.
These that were grinding tbe material for the
soporific draught that was to precede our
dinner, were very pretty creatures for the
the daughters c! cannibals and were pos
sessed of pearly sets of teeth that would have
set a dentist half crazy. When the bowl was
half filled with this singular-looking mass,
some water was poured in by an elderly-looking
native man tho first of the male sex that
we bad seen in Charley's honse who pro
ceeded to knead and mix the mess, and thea
to strain It through a mesh of the fibres of
the tapa tree. Meantime, the dinner waa
placed emoUng-hot before us, consisting of
baked pig, baked turtle how rich was.the
green fat of the latterl boiled fish, bread
fruit, taro, yams, and sweet-potatoes a feast
fit for a king. First, however, before falllng
to, each of the guests waa handed' a polished
cocoannt-shell, holding about half a pint of
the awa mlxture.'whlch not however, with
out some Inward misgivings we managed to
swallow. Tbe taste was slightly acrid, and
I compared It to that of soap-suds. Char
ley's assurance that the chewers were all un
blemished maidens and had unexceptionable
teeth, may have had something to do with
overcoming our natural scruples to taking
such an outlandish dose. The effect was not
Immediate, bnt came after we had eaten
awhile. Charley said, as Boon as we had
drunk our awa, "Pitch in, boys; eat while
yon can, for you'll soon feel It creep over
you." And so we did. Eating alternately,
pig and turtle, with Interstices of vegetables,
with a dessert of vakalolo a curious com
pound of poi and cocoannt milk, served up
warm and taiatow, baked bananas, the
cores of which had been cut out and refilled
with grated cocoanut, together with a species
oi plain peculiar to those islands, called by
the natives ndavea. This is a very delicious
fruit, and in all my travels through- tropical
regions they have been many and varied I
have never met with anything of the fruit
kind that suited my taste so well. It Is about
the size of an ordinary peach, but quite
round in shape, with a green rind, and In the
centre is a small seed. The flesh is a pulpy,
Juicy, Jelly-like substance, that almost melts
In one's mouth. Besides these, we had the
various kinds of bananas, plantains, rose
apples, mame-apples, (papaicu In Hawaiian
parlance) oranges and shaddocks, and wound
np with some nuts, called by tbe natives ifl,
that grow on a large, spreading tree, ranch
resembling the oak in appea ranee. These
were very pleasant to the taste, though rath
Before we had got through tho dessert, I
began to feel an odd sensation In my throat,
as thongh tbe glands were contracting, and
there was a difficulty not, however, a pain
ful one In swallowing. Then commenced a
ringiDg sensation in the ears, and to my ap
prehension, my bead had become suddenly
swollen to twice Us ordinary dimensions,
while everybody and everything that I look-
ed at, appeared to be diminished in size. A
person sitting just alongside of me, seemed
to my vision, to be several hundred yards off.
But the sensation was not by any means an
unpleasant one. On tho contrary, I felt su
perlatively comfortable, and It was a matter
of extreme Indifference to me whether there
was any school that day or not to use an
Illustration often heard.
"Kings may ta great, but I was glorious.
O'er all the Ills of Ufa victorious."
.But a few minutes sufficed to lay me out
on the mats, not to go to sleep, bnt to lie
still in a very quiet, contemplative mood,
eminently satisfied with myself and all my
surroundings. One of Charley's wives placed
pillow under my head, and stretched a (au-
namu a mosqulto-bar, made of very thin
tapa over me, and there I lay till morning,
dreamily dozing for an hour or two in the
first part of the night, and afterwards falling
Into a deep sleep from which I did not awake,
till at daylight Charley aroused me with an
Invitation to join him In another bowl of tbe
same decoction of the evening before, bnt
which I politely declined. I had satisfied
my curiosity and that was enough. The rest
of the boat's crew were about similarly affec
ted with myself. As for tbe captain, he
npnt Ihn nlirM nlih ha TTt. ..
as he heard that "Mlssa Wallis'" had arrived,
sent a messenger for him. In my next, I will
give an account of tbe town of Rewa, Us
cmers ana people.
RimnvAu Tl.,. r1l.l T ,
.'" -f, 1 iuub.mvuuuiiwu tttSLCB UI tad
reigning sovereigns of Europe, are taken
fmm a Pari. Tnrwr
4.11. mMntln. 1,a mmtwnnt-.l . l
Napoleon III. Abstemious, cautions;
never making the slightest remark to' tbe
..rvant. Vnrt.Mta - .
smoker. Duretlt, the Emperor's kind and
luu.iucittto tusuuer in ercry memoer OI uLS
household, however humble his position'. Is
nvikuj ut lujii.tiuu.
Qneen Victoria. Abateminns lltlnt. hr
Alexander IL Hearty eater, connoisseur
' u.bivia.uK uunuiUC SUU 13Ur-
gundy, and fond of came.
til. D 1 . I . . . n- ...
.rru.siao juajesij. uooa annKer,
(Roederer, eta,) beef, mutton and sweet
things. A pleasant and unaffected host.
His Majesty of Austria. Silent at table,
eaU dark meat, especially mutton and game,
and drinks the national wines of Hnngarr
Victor EmmanueL Mighty hunter. Cap
ital appetite, eats only white meat and small
game. Kills wild boar but never eats their
meat: drinks the Cote d'Or wines.
Isabella of Spain. Great appetite ; prefer
veal and white meats, drinks Spanish winett
rice, pastry, Eastern fruits, and Burgundy
xuo iuitu iuajcstj wis sue unesi cellar la
Pnmn.1 I. fnwA nf M.S. ' ..1-11 ,
Tit. nfnhH, nf Tt.Mtim ut. 1 1 .1 1 - .
always smau game, and drinks sparingly of
w ..." " I LI lite Utl XKIBC-
Tnl.n tlhMt.nt ttitt Trr .1 -I. ... 1 1 I
Th v.1Tfntv At TT....U II T-.
and smoked ham or Styria, and drinks Mo-
as.t. suu inc. 1.U1UC 1 1UCB.
iung Louis of Portugal is the smallest
eater fn Europe.
Was it ma List Joral-Tn thn vahmt
of the Sun . 8ir. II waastitnllna "Im.
beam" which appeared In your paprsome
time since that the execnter of the late Arte
mnsWard bad been unable to discover Iht
fortune which was bequeathed by hl;to
eventually found an asylum for Indleenttwd
worn out printers. As no farther devSeV
ments have appeared in regard to tUs raav
ter, I have come to the cosclaaloa thai jf
mutt nave been that tresis! hti mnrUt. last
Joke. .From a speech Artemns made t a torn
ner given to the delaatea of the Nattotraf
Typograhical Convenyjn held at Clevetatel
a few years since, I know that ha considered
Erlntera "a dry set or kssses," so bs proba
Iv. tbOBCUt thev woald annnvUttt si uul
joke such as the idea of hU leaving a jam
lortnne. Being one of tbe taasy who Urt a
pleasure in having "set up a thooaasd " to
ward erecting' a monument to bis mtmorrl
I should like to know whether ibe turn Bar
porting to have been left by hit will was iW.
or, like his -wax works, " Sgsnrs" at nK9
iiaagtestlon. Whrf esm fanrfrtasvy
tkm about the ihIulj or the aotVBtrf7
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