BOOK AND JOB
THE "fliinrt" OTTIOS
It now prepared to xcaL all orders for
Ml ill MOT RIlTft
OF EVERT DeCEIPTIOX,
WTTH KEATNBSS AXD DISPATCH
Every Wednesday Morning,
AT $6.00 PER ANXTJM.
Stalled to Foreign Sulxsertbera at $7.0(1.
OrnCE On Merchant street, west of
he Post Office, Honolulu, H. L
Prialed and pblibed j 3. Sim Sana, at tie
Government Printmr Office, to whom all business
VOL. V NO. 21.1
HONOLULU, WEDNESDAY, JUNE 9, 1869.
$6.00 PER YEAH.
nicaxions most be lailwMil
nk- .up , j ii mm
A. C. BlIFFCJI. 31. I
FOB! PHySICIAK, AND EHESEOli.
Ofire and Residence No. S3 Fort Street, Honolulu,
Ini house makai tt the Catholic Church.
At booje day and night, when not pruI-ionalT
DILLUGIU! .V CO..
XMPOEIERS t BEALZES ET HA2DWAEE,
CutVrr. Dry Goods. Paints and Ofls. and Cmnl
Merchandise. So. . Klar Street, Honolulu. ftS-lv
rXAXK SROWX. GODFECT IB0W5.
MKOIITV Jt CO.,
ntPOETXaS & "WHOLESALE DEA1EES
In TTinn, Spirit, Ale, Porter, it, Hrttbiit St-,
c n. UTUS. J. C. SICKSOX.
LETTERS fc IUCKSOX
IMPORTERS ASS DEALERS IN LUMBER,
And all klnda of BuDdinr Material, Fort Stmt,
JO HA S.ncGREir, 71. I).,
PHYSICIAN ACT SURGEON,
Ofice In II. L. Chase's Bundle . Tort Street. Ofice
bean, from Eicht to Trn a x.. and from Three to
FiTe r. x. Residence on Chaplain Street, between
-tnuanu ana J on Brrccu.
ALLEN & CTTTTjT.IKGWORTH,
continue the General Merchandise and Shipping
business at the abort port, where the 7 are prepar
ed to fartrWh the jnstle celebrated Kswaihae Pota
toes, and each other Recruit as are repaired hy
whaleshipe. at the shortest notice and 04 the moat
reasonable terras. Firewood always on hand. S-1t5
JTOICV X. TVATEUIIOUSE.
IMPORTER ACT DEALER IK GENERAL
2 Queen Street, Honolulu, H. L lya
"IT. I- GUEEX,
GENERAL COMMISSION AGENT ft BROKER
Office in Fire-proof liuiWinrs en Queen Street.
23) Honolulu, It I. ljri
C. 5. SFESCEB. H. vactablaxe.
ClfAS. . SPEVCER fc CO.,
GEKEEAL COMMISSION MERCHANTS,
2V Queen Street. TJonolnla. H. L ljt
IcCOLGA.X At JOIIASOX,
10 Fart t-. Honolulu, opposite T- & Heack'l. I Ji
C. E. WILLIAMS,
MANTJFACTTIRER, IMPORTER & DEALEE
In Furniture of every description. Furniture Ware
Koam on Fort Street, opposite Chase! Photograph
Gallery. Workshop at the old stand on Hotel
-Street, near Fort. Orders from the other
41 Islands promptly attended to. Pro
BOOT ACT SHOE MAZES,
I Kinr. Street, next to the Bethel. Honolulu, lei
31. T. UOS.MXL,
CABINET VAirrB ACT UPHOLSTERER,
Klnr Street, Honolulu, op posite Lewis' Cooper Shop.
41 Wm hay and sell second-hand Furniture, flyi
JOHS TIBBCTS. TEO. SOEtSSOS.
TIltBEXS A: SOItirSO,
SHIP CAKPEKTEES & CAULKEES
At D. Jotter ft Co'i Old Stand,
&j Near the Honolulu Iron Works.
T1IEO. II. IAVIES,
Uvti Jixiox, Gexit 1 Co.
IHPOETZR & COHJUSSION HEBCHAST,
A5 AC EXT TO l
Lloyd's and the Lieerpool Cnderwritert,
British and Foreign Marine Insurance Co., and
Northern Assurance Company. 3-ly3
IHPOETEES ACT WHOLESALE DEALEBS
In Fashionable Clothlnc Hats. Caps, Boots, Shoes,
and erery rariety of Gentiemen's Furnlsbini; Goods.
Snow's Building, Merchant Street, Honolulu. SO-lyi
J. S. WALKER. S. r, AUXX.
WALKER Sc ALLEX,
SHIPPDfG COSQnSSIOK KZE CHANTS,
18 Queen Street, Honolulu, H. L Pi
L. L. TORBERT.
DEALEE 15 LTJHBEB ACT ETZEY BTND
OF BUILD IKG HATEEIAL.
13 Orna Corner Queen and Fort streeU. lyf
SOLX.ES & CO.,
SHTF CHANDLZES ACT COUHISSIOK
Queen Street, Honolula. Particular attention paid
to the purchase and sale of Hawaiian Produce.
umi si rtuit&xox to
C L Richard, a Co, U UackfeldaCo.
C Brewer a Co, C L Bichards a Co,
D C Waterman Ei, Cutle a Cooke. S-lyo
IHPOETEE ft DEALEE IS BOOTS, SHOES,
And Gentlemen's Furni&bin; Goods, corner of Fort
and Merchant StreeU, Honolulu. 9-lji
GEOCEE AHD SHIP CHASDLEE,
Money and Recruits furnished to Ships on the most
10 faTorable terms. lyi
CIIU. 110 o.
CotarsUiioa 3Ierctaat and General Agent,
Importer of Teas and other Chinese and Foreign
Goods, Wholesale Dealer In Hawaiian Produce, and
Agent for the Paukaa and Amaualu Sugar Planta
tions. Fire-proof Store on Xuusua Street, below
AFOrVG fc ACIICCK.
Importers,, Wholesale and Betail Dealers.
In General Merchandise, and China Goods, in the
Fire-proof Store on 'nnann Street, under the Public
GEORGE G. HOWE,
Dealer in Bedtrood and Northwest Lumber,
Shingles, Doors, Sashes. Blinds, Nails, Faints, ete
ZS at his old stand on the Esplanade. lyi
F. A. SCHAEFER ic CO.,
COMHISSIOH MERCHANTS .
SSJ nonolnht, Oahn, H. I fly
ED. HOFPSCHLAEGEE & CO.,
IHFOBIEBS ft C03DISSI0ir SLEECHAKTS
V Honolulu. Oahn, H. L (1S
THEODORE C. IIEUCK,
IKFOETZB & C0K3OSSI05 KZECHANT.
IS) Honolulu. Oahu. IL L fly '
IT. HACKFELl) Sc CO.,
GEKEEAL COKKISSIOK AGEKTS.
84 Qaeen Street, Honolulu, H. L fly
CltAU.-VCEY C. BE.ETT,
DEALEE IK KZWSFAFEBS, MAGAZUTES,
And Periodicals, Fort Street, Honolulu. lHyl
c. r. IHLrES. A. JAtfits,
B. F. EIILEKS iz CO.,
DEALEBS IK DEY GOODS ACT GEKEBJi
Fire-proof Btarosa Fort Street, abort Odd TeQon
Vl IT A WIDKlf A XV.
.. , .
NOTARY PUBLIC, W&ZZtZZ, JltZ R
J - Ofio. at the IterW Department. PyS I terras. - - liin J, 1-
X. C CKSIXIKtL. X. A. BLCKI
CIIAELA3IEL. & CO.,
MFOBTEBS ACT DEALEBS IK WLNES.
Spirits. Ales. Ir , Xo. 8, Scuanu Street, oppuaita
Jlercnant street, uoootuiu.
D. H. HITCHCOCK,
IS Hflo, Hawart lj
A. S. CLEGIIORA,
"WHOLESALE ACT BETAIL DEALEE
In Merchandise, Flre-prorf Store, corner of Qeeen
and Kaahuaiana Streets. Retail EitiWULmtJ, on
uuanu Street, and on the crner cf Fort and Hotel
HOUSE ACT SIGK PAIKTZE.
Kinr Street, between DuSSn's Market, and Camp.
belfs TaUor Shop. l-ly
IIOXOI.TJL.17, 11. I.
AGB3CTS Or tbe floe ton and Honolulu
AGENTS For the ?Iakrr, Wallutu and
AGKVT For the Purchase; and Sale of
Island Produce. MyJ
F. A. SCIIAEFER.
AGEST for the UHK.MKX BOARD
of DSDEK RITEKS.
Agent for the Dresden Board of Underwriters,
Agent for tbe Vienna Board ef Underwriters.
Z. P. AT1AW1. S. C.WILCIC.
AI.V31S .fc WILWER,
AUCTION 4: COKKISSIOK IEEE CHANTS
TT Queen Street, Hooolulu, H. I. ljl
C. S. BARTOW,
Salesroom on Queen Street, one dour from Keahu
manu Street. lT-lyt
31. S. GREVBAL'SI Jt CO..
LuCPOBTEBS ACT WHOLESALE DEALEBS
In Fashionable Clothing. Hats, Cape, Boots. Shoes,
and eeery Tariety of Gentlemen's superior Furnish
ing Goods. Store In Makee's Block, Qoeen Street,
Honolulu, IL L ClO-lyS
TUENPIKE STOBE CHOICE GEOCEE LES
Corner of Nuuanu A Paooa Talley Roads. 12-ly
JOII II. PATY,
Notary Public and Commissioner of Deedi
For the State of California. OSce at the Bank of
Bishop a Co Kaahumuu Street, Honolulu. 2-lyS
G. W. SORTOS,
COOPER AND G-AUGEE,
At the Kev Stand ca the Z3plaua.de.
tie u prrparl to AtietKi to all work in his lice
at the Shop next to tbe Custom Hoc?, where he can
be foot! at all working h-cr. He hi on bind
and for al. Oil Cut and BsureU of different fixes,
new and old, which he will U at the Tery Lowest
Market Rate All work docs In a thironxh manner
and warranted to fire atbiCtioii. AU kind of
Cooperf CLjtMateriaif and Tools fur sale, X3za
i ir. jc a. .si:gcuii:a,
TIK, ZIKC AND COPPER SMITHS,
AST) SHEET IEOJT VOEKEES,
Kuuaaa Street, between Kerch&a.t & Qeen.
, Hare constantly on hand, Store?. Pipe.Oal
racized Iron Pipe. Plain and Iltve, Bibbe,
PJSE" SUep-cockj, India Enbber Uo lt 3-fJy,
gVH iQ lstlu of 25 and 50 feet, with couplings
J? and pipe complete. Bath-Tut, and also a
Try larpe itucfc of Tinware cf erery decriptioiie
rarticnUr attention piren to i hip-Work. Order
from tbe other Iidand will be carefully attended to.
Thankfol to the Citizens of Ilcmolulo and the
Islands generally for their liberal patronage in the
past, we hope by etrict attention to hvineM to merit
the same for the fatnre, 37-1 J 5
JA3IES L. LEWIS,
COOPEE AND GATJGEE,
At the Old Stand, corner King & Bethel Su.
JL Larpe Stock of Oil Shocks and all kinds cf Coop
ering Materials constantly on hand. Ue hopes by
attention to tmjiness to merit a continuance of the
patronage which he ha heretofore enjoyed, and for
which he now retains his thanks.
J. II. XJIOMISOt
Queen Street, Honolulu,
Has constantly on hand and for sale at the Lowest
Market Prices, a good aiortment of the Best Eeflned
Bar Iron, and the Best Blacksmith's Coal. ZS-lyS
JO ICY AOTT & CO.,
COPPEE AND TIN SMITHS,
K&ahnmanu St, one door above xlitaer',
Beg lear to Inform the public that tbey are pre
pared to fnrnUh all kinds f Copper Work, snch as
Still, Strike Pans, ?orjhiini Pant, "Warm. Pumps,
etc JLLpo oa hand, a fall aortmeat cf Tin Ware,
which we offer for sale at the Lowest Marktt Price.
All kinds of Repairing done with .Neatness and
Dupetch. Orders zrata the other Islands will meet
with prompt attention. l-3m
HOUSE AND SHI? PLUMB ES,
Zing St, two doors west of Castle & Cooke's.
lias oa hand. Btb-Tab, Tater-CIoets, Tivb-Ba-int.
Force and Lift Pomps, Lead and Gal.anixed
Iron Pips and Plumber's Bras-works. Bang the
only Plumber In the city, he will execute all orders en
trusted to him in a wxckmanlike manner. fl-Sm
3IR. a. COSTA,
. JEWELER AST) EHGRAVER.
Tort Street opposite Odd Fellows' Hall.
Is prepared to ex rente with promptness, all work in
his line of business, inch a Watch and Clock repair
ing. Mancfactaring Jewelry and IigraTing. 1-Cm
GCOK4.E AV ILIXUI S ,
LICENSED SHIPPING AGENT,
Office on J&nies Bobinson & Co's Wharfs
Contisnea the bosinea oa hi eld pUn of settling
with oOcers and aeanicn immediately on their ship
ptce; at his oSca. Haling no direct or indirect con
nection with any outfitting eetabluhmtBt. and allow
ing do debts to be collected in his oSce, he hopes to
gire as good aaritftction in the fatnre as he has in
the part. I3a
THIS FAVORITE: and well-tnown
EstabUunent Is now open for Boards and
The Best the Market afiords. of erery rariety, win
always be provided, with good attendance.
Board per week$o.00 up stairs. 54 W down stain.
S4m AH no", Proprietor.
II. TR E3IPER,
Piano-Forte Maker & Tuner,
Has Returned Aaln.
An orders left at the Drug Store of
M. M. Smith A Co corner of Fort and
uoxes Mreets, or ax Mm. eiscoers
Furniture Booms. Hotel Street, win
meet, with immediate attention. . eac
House, Sign & Ship Painters,
King Street, near Xnunu.
- Graising, Marbling, GDdinr. Calaomining.
'sharteat notice, and on the 'asaet reasonable
UOI L XTtlX. JAKIS X. UKI '
LEOA R. 3IETERS &. CO., 1
IHPOETEES AKD XAKUFACTUEEES OF j
,. ,, . ' .
posite Catholic Church. San Francisco, CaL ltinc
- - l
K. W. SZTIXASCX.
C E. er.tr.
SEVESANCE, CLASS & CO.,
AXT :wrpprrrj r.nrrc.
ASB Sraifyise ACESTS,
40S Front St. corner of Claw, San Francisco.
tr. ni .. i. .i. r t- , . ,
-ardmg of Merchaodi. Ca!h AdmaJe or,
S. F. CaL
M'CSAKEK, MERRILL & CO.,
Hiring bees engaged in our present basioes for
upward ef twelre year, and belor; krated in a Fire
frwf Erifk BuiiiLnr. we are prepared toreceiTe and
difpoef Island Staples, snchas Scrxr, Symps. Riety
Pnlo. 0Ce. etc to adrantage. CoosIgnmenU es
pecially soUcited fsr the Oregon Market, tv which
peoonal attentiea will b paid, and cpon vhkh cash
adrancee will be znade when required.
Charles Brooks . San Francisco
JC Merrill Co....
Fred I ken
Badger Lindenberger .
James Patrick a Co "
Wtt TColeaaa a Co
Sterens, Baker a Co. . "
AMen a Lewis Portland
Leonard a Green.. " My5
Uaring the best facilities through an intimate con-
section with the JarascM trade for the rut eieht
years, is repareu to transact any business entrusted .
to his care, with Opatch. iMy.
B. . wmitxs, E. r. Bxaxcfiian, C- a. arcnei?.
WILLIAMS. BLAKCHAED & CO..
SHIPPING & COMHISSIOS MEECHAKTS,
305 Front Street, San Francisco. 6m
LANGLEY, CBOWELL & CO.,
; Cor. Battery & Clay Sta, SanFraniisco. Vm ;
Stniome Street, San Francisco,
Extending from Sacramento St. to UaUeck street.
HAVIXG BECX KECEXTLY RE.V
ovated and newly Fnrnffaed. make it the
rnott quiet, economical and cooiftrtalIe FAMILY
HOTEL to tbe State. Being centrally located. It of
fers erery inducement f jt ainess Men and the Pub
The Tables will be constantly supplied with every
Inxnry tbe market affords. The American Exchange
Uicn. witn iiJ latgnts, wtu be at tbe narres and
Depots to conTey puetengers to the !.tel free.
J-iy Tliiyi Ui fcAiWtT, Prop'r.
SEEDS T SEEDS!
FRESH SUPPLIES OP
GAEDEN, PLOWEE, FETJIT
AXD TREE SEEDS,
Keceired by Xrery Steamer Also
CRASS & CLOVER SEEDS,
Of suitable rarif ties for this Climate, comprising
The Iurrei collection or Seeds
To be tound on this Coast. Orders br Mail or Ex
press promptly attended to In their turn. Address
CEO. F. SYI.VESTKR,
24mc 317 Washington Street, San Francisco.
BOARD OF UKDER WRITERS.
nmiE CXDER&IGXBD tin v ing been
JL appointed Agen for the San Fransuco Board
of Underwriters, comprisicg the
California Insurance Company.
Merchants' Mutual Marine Ins. Co,
Pacific Insurance Company,
California Lloyd's, and
Horn Mutual Insurance Company.
Beg leare tu Inform Masters of Tesels and the pub
lic generally, that all Tessrls and Carrve. insnred
by either of the above Companies, against perils of
me seas ana tuner nsxs, at or near trie sandwicn
Islands will hare to be verified by them.
ism U. liAuKx EIaD s tu.
THE U.VDERSIGXED, AGENTS of
the above Company, have been authorized to
icrnre risks on Cargo. Freight and Treas
ure, by Coasters, frocj HaTCoIcJu to all ports of
the Hawaiian Group, and vice versa.
e-iy ii. MAtKrixu uu.
2LARIFE INSURANCE CO SIP ANY
Of San Francisco.
milE CXDERS1CXED nawlnn; been
JL appointed A rents for tbe above Company .are
prepared tolsue Policies on Cargoes, Freight
WALKER t ALLEN".
l-3m Agents, nonoluln-
THE ODESSIGSED.AGEXTS OF
the ahoTe Company, bare been authorized to
inscre ruts on Cargo, Freight and Trtas
nre, trvni uonctuio to an ports oi xne wuria, ana
lS-lr n. IIAjCKFELD t CO.
EIRE INSURANCE C0MPAKY.
THE trXDEItSIGXED hawing been
arvoioted Acente of the above CtaatonT. are
prepared talnsnre risks against Fire, on Stone and
Brlclc Buildings, and on Merchandise
stored therein, on toe roost fsrorable terras. Tor
particclars apply at the ofice of
O.Jy 1. A- SittSUSK 4 LXJ.
THE AGEST FOR THE BRITISH
Forebm Marine Insurance Company, f Limil-
Insurance between uonolnlu and Porta in the PadSe;
and is now prepared to issue Policies at the -Lowed
.gates, wttn a special redaction en rreirnt er&teas
ers. THXO. II. DAYIFS.
U-tf Agent Brit. Fur. Jfar. Ht. Ok (LivtiteJ)
THE TOM H00RE TAVERB",
BY JT. 0'.IEI.I,
-S Corner cf Sins; and Fort Streets. It
rO. 1 and COOLIE RICE always
t on hand and for sale br
lm . , WALKER i ALLES.Arentt.
THE ALAlt.VJLl TREATY.
, Speech of Cnarlea Sumner
XZFakATIOX TEOH XNGLAND.
I Atlast the rebellion taceambed. Ships and
,B,riUfrh11!SPi,,Kbsd do'.etbctr work, bat
i come, bnt with little appircut bense of
what ij tine on the part of En;Und. WHh-
ont one foothinc word for a friendlr Power
I dreplj unrrieTed without a sinirle rrgret
' for wbat Cobdes. In tbe House of Commotes
: .Sf WSm
i for the of crime," or for what a gen-
I ,-rous voice from Oxford Cnlversltj denoun-
I ced as a "flxrraul and maddening wrons"
i Eoslind eimplr proposes to enbmit the qoes-
"0Q "f'foi "inditldnal Uh2 to
f tribanaL wtere chance pbjs .
even on this question: no role lor the futnre
is established; while notbirij is said on the
icdijmlty to the nation. On an earlier occa
sion it was otherwise!" There is an unhappy '
incident in our relations with Great Britain, '
which attests how in other dijr "individual
losses" were onlj a minor element in re pa
ration for a wron? received by a nation.
Von all know how In lime of profound peace, t
and only a few milts onfeide tbe- Virginia ;
capes, the British frigate Leopard fired into
the national frigate Cfesaptale, ponrin; 1
broadside upon broadside, killing three per-1
sons and wonndins eighteen, some severely, I
and then bearded her, carried off four others ,
as British subjects. This was In the Sum-1
mer of 1S07. The brilliant Cannimr, the j
British Minister of Foreign Atturs, prompt-1
ij miuumitu uteiture? lur ou uevuuiULia.
tion, by declaring His Msjesty's readiness to
take tbe whole of the case into consider
ation and " to make reparation for any al
leged injury to the sovereignty of the United
States, whenever It should be clearly the wn
that such injury had been actually su.tair.ed,
and that such reparation is really dee."
Here was a good begiunlng. There was to be
reparation for an Injury to the national sov
ereignty. Alter years of painful negotiation,
the British Minister at Washington, acder
date of November 1, 1SI1, offered to the
United States three propositions: first, the
disavowal of the unauthorized act; second
ly, the Immediate restoration, so far as cir
cumstances would permit, of the men lorei
blv taken from tbe CTesuprair.' and thirdly.
a .Iubie pecuniary provision lor the suffer-
ers in consequence of the attack on the Ota-
aptaxt; concluded wllb these words.
"These honorable propositions are made
with the sincere desire that they may prove
satisfactory to the Government of the United
States, and I trust tbey will meet with that
amicable reception which their conciliatory
nature entities tbem to. I need scarcely
add how cordially I Join with you in the
wish that they may prove Introductory to a
removal of all the differences deoendinsr be-
Fonva Affaln, Vol, 3. p, 500.
i aaauce tuu nistorlc instance to Illustrate
partly the different forms of reparation.
Here, of course, was reparation to individu
als; bnt there was also reparation to the na
tion, whose sovereignty had been outraged.
There is another instance, n bich Is not ith
oat authority. In 1S37 an armed force from
Upper Canada crossed the river just above
the Niagara Falls and burnt an American ves
sel, tbe Carotint, while moored to the shores
of the United States. "Webster, In his nego
tiation with Lord Ashburtoa, characterized
this act "as of itself a wrong and offense
to the dignity of the United states, for which
to this day no atonement, or even apology,
has been made by Her Majesty's Govern
ment;" all these words being strictly ap
plicable to the present case. Lord Aehbur
ton, in reply, alter recapitulating some miti
gating circumstance and expressing a re
gret " tbat some explanation and apology for
this occurrence was not immediately made,"
proceeds to say:
" Her Majesty's Government earnestly de
sire tbat s reciprocal respect for the Indepen
dent jurisdiction and authority of neighbor
ing States may be considered the first duty
of all Governments; and I have to repeat
the assurance of regret they feel tbat tbe
event of which I am treating should have
disturbed tbe harmony that they so anxiously
wish to maintain with the American people
and Government." Webster's Works, vol.
C, p. 3000.
Here, again, was reparation for wrong
done to the nation. Looking at nhat is dne
to us on the present occasion, we are
brought again to tbe conclusion tbat tbe sat
isfaction of individuals whose ships have
been burned or sunk is only a 6mall part of
what we may expect. As in the earlier cases
where the national sovereignty was insulted
there should be an acknowledgement of
wrong, or at least of liability, leaving to tbe
Commissioners the assessment of damages
only. Tbe blow inflicted by that fatal proc
lamation, which insulted our national sover
eignty and struck at oar unity as a nation,
followed by broadside cpon broadside, driv
ing our commerce from tbe ocean, was kin
dred in character to those earlier blows and
when we consider tbat it was in aid of sla
very. It was a blow at civilization itself.
Besides degrading ns and ruining our com
merce, its direct and constant influence was
to encourage tbe rebellion, and to prolong
the war waged by slave masters at sncb cost
of treasure and blood. It was a terrible
mistake, which 1 cannot doubt that good
Englishmen must regret. And now, In the
interest of peace, it is tbe daty of both sides
to find a remedy, complete, just and concili
atory, so tbat tbe deep sense of wrong and
the detriment of the republic may be lorgot
ten, is that proper satislaction which a nation,
loving justice, cannot hesitate to offer.
THE EITE5T OF OCK LOSSES.
Individual losses may be estimated with
reasonable accuracy. Ships burned or sunk
with tbelr cargoes may be counted and tbe
Talne determined; but this leaves without
recognition the vaster damage to commerce
driven from tbe ocean, and tbat other dam
age. Immense and Irfinite, caused by the pro
longation of war, all of n hich may be called
national in contradistinction to individual.
Our national losses have been frankly conce
ded by eminent Englishmen. I have already
quoted Cobden, who did not hesitate to call
them "cruel losses." During tbe same de
bate in which he let drop this testimony, he
used other words, which show bow justly be
comprehended the case. " Ton have been,"
said he, " carrying on war from tbese shores
with the United States, and have been inflic
ting an amount of damage on tbat country
greater than would be produced by many or
dinary wars. It is estimated tbat tbe loss
sustained by the capture and burning of
American vessels has been about (15,000,000
or nearly 3,000,000. But this is a small part
of the injury which has been inflicted cpon
tbe American marine. We have rendered
tbe rest of her vast mercantile property use
less." Thus, by tbe testimony of Cobden,
were those individual losses, wbicb are alone
recognized by tbe pending treaty, only " a
small part of the Injury inflicted," After
confessing bis fears with regard to "tbe heap,
ing up of gigantic material grievance snch
as was then rearing," he adds in memora
"Ton have already done your worst to
ward tbe American mercantile marine.
"Wbat with the high rate of insurance, and
.11U tUUCC MjlUICS, UU " wim uic
raraount of damage yon have done to that
which it left. Ton have virtnallv made value
less tbat vast property. Why, if you bid
gone and helped the Confederates by bom
barding all tbe accessible seaport towns of
America, a few lives might have been lost,
which, as it is, have not been sacrificed, bnt
yon could nave hardly done more injury In
the way of destroying property than you
have done by these few cruisers, pilar
With that clearness of vision, which he
pseeeed In soeh rare degree, that statesman
saw that England had "Tirturlly modeval
onlesa a vast property," as much as If this
Power cad bombarded "all the accessible
seanort towns of America." So strong and
complete is this statement tbat any further
ciiauou sccuia superuauus , uuii vsuwunwr
bear adducing a pointed remark In the same
debate bv that able gentleman, William E.
Forster:" "There could not," said he, "be
a stronger illustration of the damage which
bad been doue to American trade by these
cruisers than tbe fact that so completely was
tbe American flag driven from tbe ocean
that the 6'coryio, on ber second cruise, did
not meet a single American vessel In six
weeks, though she saw no less than seventy
a e&sels In a very few day." This is most
SDggcstirc. So entirely was our commerce
driven from the ocean that for six weeks not
one American vessel was seen. Another
Englishman, in an elaborate pamphlet, bears
similar testimony. I reter to tbe pamphlet
of Edge, published in London by KIdgeway
in leVH and entitled "The Destruction of
tbe American Carrying Trade." after set
ting, forth at length the destruction of our
commerce by British pirates, the writer
thns foreshadows tbe damages: "Were
we," says he, " the sufferers, we should cer
tainly demand compensation for tbe loes of
the property captured or destroyed for tbe
interest of tbe capital invested In the vessels
and tbelr cargoes, and. may be, a fair com
pensation in addition for alt and any injury
accruing to our business Interests from the
depndauons upon onr shipping. The remu
neration may reach a high figure Iu the pres
ent case; but it nould be a simple act of
justice, and might prevent au Incomparably
greater loss In future." Here we have tbe
damages as assessed by an Englishman, v, ho,
while contemplating remuneration at a high
figure, recognizes It as a simple act of justice
Such is the candid and explicit testimony of
EngIUbmeu,poiutIng tbe nay to the proper
rnieot damage, lion to autuenticaie tnc
extent ot natioual loss with reasonable cer
tainty is not without difficulty; bnt it can
not be doubted tbat such a loss occurred.
It is lolly to question It, The loss may be
seen in various clrcumsrances, as In tbe rise
of insurance on all American vessels ; the
fate of the carrying trade, which was oue of
toe great resources oi ourconntry ; tne uim
lnution of our tonaage : tbe falling off in our
export and imports,' with due allowance for
our abnormal currency and the diversion of
These are some of the elements; and here
again we have British testimony. W. E.
Forster, in the speech already quoted, an
nounces that "the carrying trade in the
United States was transferred to British mer
chants ;" and Cobden, with bis characteristic
mastery of details, shows that, according to
an official document laid on tbe table of the
British Parliament, American shipping had
been transferred to Eugiish capitalists as
follows: In 1S5S, 33 vessels, 13.C3S tons;
1S59. 49 vessels. 2LC73 tons; IsCO. 41 vessels,
13,633 tons; 1S01, 13! vessels, TI.bTJ tons;
ISttJ, 135 vessels, Gi,573 tons ; and hi 1S03, 34S
vessels, 253,563 tons, and be ndds: "lam
told tbat Ibis operation is now going on as
fast as ever;" and this circumstance be de
clares to be "the gravest part of the ques
tion of our relations with America." But
this "gravest part" is left untouched by the
pending treaty. Our own official documents
are in harmony with tbese English authori
ties. For instance, I have before me now
tbe report of tbe Secretary of the Treasury
for 1SS, with appendix by Nimmo on ship
building in our-country. From this report
It appears tbat In the New Eugland States,
during.the year 1855 tbe most prosperous
year of American shipbuilding 305 ships
and barks and 173 schooners were built, with
an aggregate tonnage of S2t,4) tons, while
during the last year only 5S ships and barks
and 213 schooners were built, with an aggre
gate tonnage oi 35,697 tons. I add a further
statement Irom the same report:
"During the t l years from lS52toIS62,
the aggregate of American vessels entered at
seaports of the United States from foreign
countries, was 30,225,475 tons, and tbe ag
gregate tonnage of foreign vessels entered
was 14,659,193 tons, while during the five
years from 1S63 to 1603, the aggregate ton
nage ol American vessels entered was 9,299,
877 tons, and the aggregate tonnage of
foreign vessels entered was'14,116,427 tons
showing that American tonnage in our for
eign trade bas fallen trom 200 to GO per cent,
of foreign tonnage in tbe same trade. Staled
in other terms, during tbe decade from 1852
to 1S62, 67 per cent, of tbe total tonnage en
tered from foreign countries was In American
vessels, and during the Ave years from 1863
to 1S6S, only 39 per cenL of the aggregate
tonnage entered from foreign countries was
iu American vessels, a relative falling off of
nearly one-half." flai Report for 186S,
It Is not easy to say how mnch of this
change, which has become chronic, may be
referred to British pirates; but it cannot he
doubled that they contributed largely to pro
duce it. Tbey began the influences under
which this change has continued. There Is
another document which bears directly on
the present question. I refer to tbe interest
ing report of Morse, our Consul at London,
made during the last year, and published by
tbe Secretary of Slate. After a minnte in
quiry, tbe report shows that on tbe breaking
ont of the rebellion, IS61, tbe entire tonnage
of tbe United States, coastingand registered,
was 5,539,513 tons; of wbicb 2,643,625 were
registered and employed In foreign trade,
and tbat at tbe close of tbe rebellion In 1S65,
notwithstanding an Increase In coasting ton
nage, our registered tonnage bad fallen to
1,602,525 tons, being a loss during the four
years of more than a million tons, amount
ing to about 40 per cenL of our foreign com
merce. During the same four years, thetotal
tonnage of tbe British Empire rose from
,S05,3O) to 7,322.604 tons, tbe increase being
especially in the foreign trade. The report
proceeds to say that, as to tbe cause of the
decrease in America, and the corresponding
Increasein tbe British Empire, "there can
be no room for question or doubt-" Here Is
the precise testimony from one who at his
official post In London, watched this un
precedented drama, with the outstretched
ocean as a theatre, and British pirates as tbe
" Conceding to tbe rebels belligerent right
of tbe sea when tbey bad not a solitary war
ship afloat. In dock, or in the process of con
struction, and when tbey bad no power to
protect or dispose of prizes, made their sea
rovers, when tbey appeared, the instruments
of terror and destruction to onr commerce.
From tbe appearance of tbe first corsair In
Eursuit of their ships, American merchants
ad to pay not only the marine bnt tbe war
risks also of their ships. After the burning
of one or two ships with tbeir neutral car
goes, tbe ship-owner trad to pay tbe war risk
on tbe cargo his ship had on freight as well
as on tbe ship. Even then, for safety, tbe
preference was, as a matter of course, al
ways given to neutral vessels, and American
ships could rarely find employment on these
hard terms as long as there were good neu
tral ships in the freight markets. Under
such circumstances there was no course left
for our merchant ship-owners bnt to take
snch profitless business as was occasionally
offered them, let their ships be Idle at tbelr
moorings or in dock with large expense and
deterioration constantly going on, to sell
them outright when they could do so with
out ruinous sacrifice, or put tbem under for
eign flags for protection." Erport of F. IT.
ilone. United Statu Oontulat London, dated
January 1, 133.
Beyond the actual loss to the national ton
nage; there was a further lots in the arrest
of our natural increase in this branch of in
dustry, which an intelligent statistician puts
at five per cent, annually, making in 1S66 a
total loss on this account of 1.384,958 toes,
which must be added to 1,229,035 tons ac
tually lost. The same statistician, after esti
mating the value of a ton at 40, gold, and
making allowance for old and new ships,
puts tbe sum total of national loss on tbis
account at $119,000,000. To these authorities
I add tbat or the National Board of Trade,
which, in a recent rerxirt on American thin-
ping, after setting forth tbe diminution of
onr sailing tonnage, says that it 1$ an to dc
traced to the waf .on the ocean, and tbe re
sult is summed up in the words, that "while
the tonnage of the "nation was rapidly dis-
1 appearing by tit raragtt cf Ou rebel tntUert
and by sales abroad, there was no construc
tion of new vessels going forward to counter
act tbe decline even in pan." Such is the
various testimony, all tending to one conclu
sion. This is what I have to say for the pres
ent on national laua through the destruction
of commerce. These are large enough ; but
there Is another chapter, where they are
larger far. I refer, of course, to tbe national
losses caused by the prolongation of the war
and traceable directly to England. No can
did person, who studies tbis eventful period,
can doubt tbat the rebellion was originally
encouraged by hope of support from Eng
land; that it was strengthened at once by the
concession of belligerent rights on the ocean:
tbat It was led to the end by British supplies'
tbat It was quickened Into renewed life with
every report from tbe British pirates, flaming
anew with every burning ship; nor can It bo
doubted that without British. Intervention
tbe rebellion would have soon succumbed
under tbe well-directed efforts of tbe Nation
al Government. Not weeks or months, bnt
years, were added In this way to our war, so
full of the most costly sacrifice. Tbe subsi
dies which in other times England contrib
uted to continental wars were less effective
than the aid and comfort, which she contrib
uted to the rebellion, it cannot be said too
often that the rural base of tbe rebellion was
not in America, but In England. Mr. Cob
den baldly said In tbe House of Commons
tbat England made war from her shores on
the United States "with an amount of dam
age to tbat country greater than In many
ordinary wars." According to tbis testi
mony, the conduct of England was war; but
it mnst not be forgotten that this war was
carried on at our sole cost. Tbe United
States paid for a war waged by England on
the natioual unity. Thesacrlficeof precious
life is beyond human compensation; but
there may be an approximate estimate of the
national loss In money. The rebellion was
suppressed at a cost of more than four thou
sand million dollars, a considerable portion
of which bas been already paid, Ieavlngtwen-ty-flve
hundred millions as a national "debt to
burden the people. If, through British In
tervention, the war was doubled in duration,
or In any way extended, as cannot be doubled
then Is England Justly responsible for tbe ad
ditional expenditure to which our country Is
doomed; and, whatever may be tbe final set
tlement of tbese great accounts, such must
be the judgment in any chancery which con
sults the simple equity of tbe case. This
plain statement, without one word of exag
geration or aggravation, is enough to exhibit
the magnitude of the national losses, wheth
er from the destruction of onr commerce or
tbe prolongation of tbe war. Tbey stand
before ns mountain-high, with a base broad
as the nation, and a mass stnpenduous. as the
rebellion itself. It will be for a wise states
manship to determine bow this fearful accu
mulation, like Pelion upon Ossa, shall be
removed out of sight, so that it shall no
longer overshadow the two countries.
THE RULE OF DAMAGES.
Perhaps I ought to anticipate an objection
from tbe other side to the effect that these
national losses, whether from tbe destruction
of our commerce or the prolongation of the
war, are Indirect and remote, so as not to be
a just cause of claim. This Is expressed at
the common law by tbe rule that "damages
most be for tbe natural and proximate conse
quences of an act." (2 Greenleaf, Bt., p.
210.) To this exense the answer is explicit.
Tbe damages suffered by the United States
are two fold individual and national being
In each case direct and proximate, although
In the one case Individuals suffered, and in
the other case tbe nation. It Is easy to see
that thete may be occasions where, over-topping
all Individual damages, are damages
suffered by tbe nation, so that reparation to
Individuals would be Insufficient; nor can
the claim of the nation be questioned simply
because it is large, or because tbe evidence
with regard to it is different from that in tbe
case of au individual. In each case the dam
age must be proved by the best possible evi
dence, and this is all tbat law or reason can
require. In tbe case of the nation, the evi
dence is historic; and tbis is enough. Impar
tial history will record the natioual losses
from British intervention, and it is only rea
sonable that tbe evidence of these losses
shonld not be excluded from judgment. Be
cause tbe case is without precedent because
no nation ever before received such injury
from a friendly Power this can be no reason
why the case should not be considered on tbe
evidence. Even tbe rule of tbe common law
furnishes no Impediment; for onr damages
are the natural consequence of what was
done. But the tuleof tbeRomanlaw, which
is tbe rule of International law, is broader
than the common law. The measure nf dam- I
ages, according to tbe Digest, is, ''whatever
may have been lost or might have been gain
ed:" ouantuin nlni alett, atumixmaue lucrari
potui; and tbis same rule seems to prevail in
tne rrencn taw, oorrowea irom tbe Koman
law. This rule opens tbe door to ample re
paration for ail damages, whether individual
or national. There is another rule of the
common law. In harmony with strict justice,
which is applicable to the case. I find it in
the law relating to nuisances, which provides
tbat there must be two distinct proceedings,
first, in behalf of Individuals, and secondly,
in behalf of tbe commnnity. Obviously, re
paration to Individuals does not supersede
reparation to the community. The proceed
ings in tbe one case is by action at law, and
in the otber by indictment. Tbe reason as
signed by Blackstone for the latter Is "be
cause tbe damages being cotnmnn to all the
King's subjects no one can assign bis partic
ular proportion of it. (3 Slack. Com., p.
219.) But this is tbe very case with regard
to damages sustained by tbe nation. A fami
liar authority furnishes an additional Illustra
tion, which is precisely in point:
"No person, natural or corporate, can have
an action for a vulAic nuisance, or punish It;
but only tbe King, In his public capacity of
supreme governor and pater fammai of tbe
kingdom. Tet tbis rule admits of oue ex
ception ; where a private party suffers some
extraordinary damage beyond the rest of tbe
King's subjects." TomlMt Lav Diet., art.,
Applying tbis rule to the present case, ibe
way Is clear. Every British pirate was a pub
lie nuisance, involving the British Govern- j
ment, which must respond In damages, not
only to tbe individnals who have suffered,
but also to the national Government, acting
as paterfamilias for tbe common good of all
tbe people. Tbns by an analogy of tbe com
mon law, in tbe case of a public nuisance,
also by tbe strict rule of the Roman law,
which enters so largely Into International
law, and even by the rnleof-tbe common law
relating to damages, alllosses, whether indi
vidual or national, are the just subject of
claim. It is not I who say this; It is thelaw.
Tbe colossal sum total may be teen, not only
in tbe losses of individnals, but in those na
tional losses, caused by the destruction of
our commerce and tbe prolongation of tbe
war, all of which may be traced directly to
Corpora, rt ex ens pendebat oriaiae bellrim.
Three times is this liability fixed ; first, by
the concession of ocean belligerency, open
ing to the rebels ship-yards, foundries and
manufactories, and giving to tbem a flag on
tbe ocean; secondly, by the organization of
hostile expeditions, which, by admissions in
Parliament, were nothing lets than piratical
war on tbe United States, with England as
tbe naval base; and, thirdly, by welcome,
hospitality and supplies extended to those
pirate ships in ports of tbe British Empire.
Show either ol these, and the liability or
England Is complete. Show the three, And
this Power Is bound by a triple cord.
Mr. President, in concluding these rev
marks, I desire to tay tbat I am no volunteer
For several years 1 have carefully avoided
saying anything on this most irritating' ques
tion, being anxious that negotiations should
be left undisturbed to secure a settlement,
wbicb conld be accepted by a deeply injured
cation. Tbe submission of tbe pending
treaty to tbe judgment of the Senate left me
no alternative, Jt became my daty to cos-
tlder It carefully In Committee, and to review
the whole subjecL If I falleel to find wort
we had aright to expect, and If tbejust claims
of our country assumed unexpected propor
tions, it was not because I would, bear hard
on England, but because I wish most sincere
ly to icm'OTe all possibility or strife, between
our two countries, and It Is evident that this
can be done only by first ascertaining the na
ture and extent of difference. In this spirit
I have spoken to-day. If the case against
England it strong, and If our claims are nu
precedented In magnitude, lt.lt only became
the conduct of this Power at a trying period
v.. mMt nmM.nl. .nit SH. tnlnelnn. MrtlS.
quences of this conduct were on a scale cor
responding to the theater of action. Life and
property were both swallowed np, leatlng
behind a deep-seated tense of enormoas
wron-. as vet nnatoned and eren unac
knowledged, which Is one of the chief factors
In the problem now presented to the statesmen
of both countries. The attempt to close thlt
great international debate without a complete
settlement Is little short or puerile. With
tbe lapse of time and with minnte considera
tion tbe case aralnst Endand becomes more
grave, not ouly from the. questions of Inter
national rcsponsiDiiity wnicn it involves,
bnt from better comDrehenslon of the dam
ages which are seen now in their tme propor
tions. During the, war and lor some time
thereafter it was Impossible to state tbem.
The mass of a monutaln cannot be measured
at Its base. The observer must occupy a cer
tain distance, and tbis rule of DcrsDectlre Is
justly applicable to damages which are vast
beyond precedent. A few dates will show
the progress or tbe controversy ana how tbe
case enlarged. Going as far back as Novem
ber 20, 1SC2, we find our Minister In London,
Mr. Adams, calling lor redress rrom the Brit
ish Government ou account of tbe Alabama.
Tbis was the mild beginning. On the 23d
October, 1S63, In another communication tbe
same Minister suggested to tbe British Gov
ernment "any fair and equitable form arbi
trament or reference." This proposition
slumbered in tbe British Foreign Office for
nearly two years, during which tbe Alabama
was pursuing her piratical career, when, on
August SOtb, ISC5, It was awakeued by Lord
Kuseell, only to be knocked down In these
"In your letter of October 23, 1S63, yon
were pleased to say that the Government of
tbe United States is ready to agree to any
form of arbitration."
"Her Majesty's Government must, therefore,
decline either to make reparation and com
pensation for tbe captures made by the Ala
bama, or to refer the question to any foreign
Snch was our repulse from England, having
at least the merit of frankness, if nothing else.
On 17th October, 1S65. ourMlnlsterlnformcd
Lord Russell that tbe United States had final
ly resolved to mako na effort for arbitration.
Again the whole question slumbered until
27th August, I860, when Seward presented
a list of individnal claims on account of the pi
rate Alabama. From tbat time negotiation has
continued with ups and dawns, nutll at last
tbe pending treaty was signed, ilad the early
overtures of our Government been prompt
ly accepted, or bad there been at any time
a just recognition of tbe wrong done, I doubt
not tbat this question would have been set
tled; but tbe rejection of onr vary moderate
propositions and tbe protracted delay, which
afforded an opportunity to review tbe case
in Its different bearings, have awakened the
people to tbe magnitude of the interest In
volved. If onr demands are larger now than
at onr first call, It is not the only time In
history where such a rise bas occurred. Tbe
story of tbe Sibyl Is repeated, and Eogland Is
tbe Roman King. Shall these claims be
liquidated and canceled promptly, orallowed
to slumber until called Into activity by tome
future exigency i There are many among us
who, taking counsel of a sense of national
wrong, would leave tbem to restwithtout set
tlement, so as to furnish a precedent for re
taliation In kind, should England find herself
at war. There are many In England who,
taking counsel of a perverse political bigotry,
have spurned them absolutely; and there are
others who, invoking the point of honor, as
sert that England cannot entertain tbem with
out compromising ber honor. Thus there Is
peril from both sides. It is not difficult to
Imagine one of our countrymen saying with
Shakespeare's Jew, "Thevlliany you teach
me I will execute, and It shall go bard, bnt I
will better tbe instruction;" norls It difficult
to Imagine an Englishman firm In his con
celt, that no apology can be made and noth
ing paid. I cannot sympathise with either
tide. Be tbe claims more or less, they are
honestly presented, with tbe conviction that
they are just, and tbey shonld be considered
candidly, so that tbey shall no longer lower
like a cloud ready to burst upon two nations,
which, according to their inclinations, can
do each other such Infinite injury or
sncb infinite good. I know it Is some
times said tbat war mnst come sooner or
later. I do not believe IL But if It must
come, let It come later, and then I am sure
It will never come. Meanwhile good men
must unite to make It Impossible.
Again, I say this debate Is not of mv seek
ing. It is not tempting, for It compels criti
cism of a foreign Power with which I would
have more than peace, more even than con
cord. Rat it cannot be avoided. The truth
must be told, not in anger, bnt In sadness.
England has done to tbe United States an In
jury most difficult to measure. Considering,
wnen It was done and in wnai complicity, it
Is most nnacconntable. At a great epoch of
history, no less momentous than tbat of tbe
French Revolntion or tbat of tbe Reformation,
when civilization was fighting a last battle
with slavery, England gave ber name, her In
fluence, her material resources to the wicked
cause, and flung a sword Into the scale with
slavery. Here was a portentous mistake.
Strange that the land of Wllberforee, after
spending millions for emancipation, after
proclaiming everywhere, tbe truths of liber
ty, and ascending to glorious primacy in tbe
sublime movement for tbe universal aBoli
tionof slavery, conld do this thing 1 Like
every departure from tbe rule of justice and
good neighborhood, her conduct was perni
cious in proportion to tbe scale ot operations,
affecting individuals, corporations, commu
nities, and tbe nation Itself. And yet down
to this day there Is no acknowledgment of
this wrong not a single word. Sncb a gene
rous expression would be the beginning of
a just settlement, and the best assurance of
tbat harmony between two great and kindred
nations which all must desire.
Sijscis.it ExriRiXEXT. A curious physi
ological experiment was recently made by
placing a few grains of barley before a hun
gry pigeon. While peeking at tba barley, the
bird I train was froien by meant of a spray of
ether. The bird, being thus deprived of con
eiooineu, ceased pecking-, and remained at
if dead. The barley was then removed, and
the ether spray having ceased, the brain was
allowed to thaw. The bird soon returned-to
life, and its first act was to renew the peeking
for a time, although so food wat before It,
A Slight Mistake. Old farmer Seitth
wat somewhat lacking la literary culture,
bnt did not know It; and hit attempt at
long words were sometimes quite amnsing.
Having several daughters, he moved into
the village to live among the "arittocracT."
An acquaintance mee'Jng blra a short time
after, cned out : " Hello, Sraith I sold
Siur farmf" "Tet," was the reply, "I
nder got tired of rami lag, to r moved Into
the village, to be among the Irittotletl"
A Wzstjxs alderman lately visited a
synagogue Jottr a the people were rising for
one of tbe prayers at which it it em ternary
to stand. As be entered, he exclaimed, to
the astonishment of the congregants, "Oh,'
don't, good people, I'm not deserTing tsM
honour. Pray keep yonr seats."
"Torafuture hatband teees very exacting;
he hai been stipulating for all sorts of things '
said a'aother to a daaghter, who ns oa t4s
poiet of getting married. " Never snind, .
mamma," said the affectionate girl, who
was already dressed for tile wedsSsg, 'I tissw 9
rt his lart wihM." ."
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