BOOK AND JOB
Stctt Wednesday Morning-,
A T SIX POLLAXS PER A DTJC
Qhm Strv in the eld
to txiouTc Aa,i. onamt9
Tor PUfi asd Tmmmg,
WJTJf JSrA T.VJiM t 2I8PATCM
KoaoMe, H. I
V X ttris. at th Gm
neasas x aixx u mrnimiir
VOL. YIIST0. 2.1
HONOLULU, WEDNESDAY, JANTiTAEY 25, 1871.
16.00 PER YEAR.
Une9Ca jajrw rnnMattn
t xpsmbb owe ln8aB:
KUOL S. C. ALUS.
WtAACIIU A. JU.UA,
SWppHu: asd CeBKsion 31 rrc bants,
'IpsB JrlttStniich: lis.
4MV" " bnwnnweannnn'ha 1 fifMBVM'tt MtflftitttpB
9t-- tTl- iiiwi annnnSrnian eCa.sxnrrsee Iwn
iA. tv. rmncu Jt oo..
1 General rv-t '.- ilrrtht-ts
E. P. ADAMS,
C. I'. CIIO US. XI. 1.,
xanaal I- AeeJ.)
naanwnv . ex
A. I'- Jl'UD,
xE3asr axb Mcasoxes at lav.
ajj enwsa-aU lwi.lUh Pj7
thus, a. xiiitcji'j
SutJonetcy:. Outcry and News Depot
aad Cat-cutatirtg Library,
nn-nnwan. a. a, imiiii nwa.
OiVSXI.il V COOKE.
CQPteSESa. ixaavvtytT. XE3SHA5TS, ASD
91k at SWac tm ay anane eh Chapel
as wiTTsg or seers, shoes
A. C BCmil. JI. D
PtSX KSXitCtAJf. A53
JUltA II. IMTV,
JTa-; SaantxussA Oa.. istK-fT- cf Beij
NransSsnS f 0 1 RiMtfM
K-totll I BSl l I. lkfc. f-r
DIIXIAGHUt A: CO.,
AJT3 TTT"- IX HASDWASS,
II. IUCKKBLU A: CO..
6Z53XAZ. CSXZXSSieS AC-E5I5.
B. Stan tareex. Urn Tata. H.I. rty
EH. HKTSGHLAJEGES & CO.;
rrPtKTESS A 53 C8YYTS5I0X rSXEXHASTS,
i ililn. On, tt L (Vi
TllliOI). C IIETJCIi.
XKFKSEZ AXB CeiOCISSleX XE2CHA5T.
VOX faafc, Om. K L "fly
n. jl. ciiai:fi:ii a co.,
I ML L riyt
n?tSI3S A53 DEAIXZS IX LXFXBZE,
iirit,i rinniiiiiiiiii rn 'ii i n niifi
'T.T.T.y t CHHU5GW0RIH.
J Oil A T. ATAXEUUOUSE.
Z2ggfFS ASDaDEALES IX GESEEAL
X aaa Staeex. bank B. I. ly
W. I taKKXCr.
t-rr-'i 'T tXXJSSS93 AGESX ASD RTIOrFT;,
CaaSa aaiiCriaMiam Qnrui S-. Bmafc, H.
TIcCOLGAxV A JOItSO.
Ji ax, aWaaaata. )t i ixe T C gearifa lj
C C WIULIAJIS.
XASSTACrSETS, rTPtlSTO ASD SEALED
-n in(ii giaarj. Trt
aa Baeat Same aaar rorr.
railaala awaafat xtxeaixe xa, pi.
X83X ASD SH9E -gxTrr-a,
TXXCO. H. MATTIES,
lin JxiSx, Cxrxit A tV ;
mrtfTr V AS9 C3XXC2ICS XESCHA5T.
Xtllaa mA JFereSpt Xaaav Zaaarxeca Cacipaai, aa4
i . j ija WB01XSALE Trricrrae
la SaakanatW Wirt I n. Satx Cafa. Basfa, faaea,aatf
aaxr 'JJliai aC ff iiaaTiiin ,a fxnftiaiaj BmaTe, Sacaa
m AV -aa5B. fcMjT
I- I TOKRCKT.
STjrrg n xst?? ass ztxet sxsd ox
:Muirt tcratx. Iri
Bea: zatt, Hia 1H. rjrn ta. Hxir DrraSar:
. aariiiii as xnr aatzs. xa vatxaaa
(aaaMrajrT aaa cxxtxxXkJ ta- Ctaoatxa
WiBOS AXS ciygrttn-
3 JEtne Krrat, (iaaaalaits.
waMxtaeae 'wfint ear. aaa mi
a, AJa.x. m.ali aeaa tfrea
Im TwfciM faun, laatannaxy, !
an . uMi ff Co. Ma ii i i, I
ll a ' I
taesa nan Miklh taMMM tat. 1
ataBatR.-aal oaf ar. anaiiO tiial kaW 1
axaata aatatamaat Kaawoae Km i. aaa eacx tarb- i
amaa.aa aaaaaee a? aaili aaj .axtaahatteataaaate- :
aaat tattal naailai uraax. HixaaJ xww o ,
a 0btarAaVci!a peaatpfy eaxestei.
Tntlt; oa th fuso Torts gai Sis$ig.
Q-MnktmbMu mm. lullt. He. Alt tk Ulnt
MmMu Sr. T C. ItmV, Mrtiiint dmt, w U
W nJlw i!r. stxar. vat iter tbm Mr. AMi.
w iwMi. rr-wPJ mttw4 , K Stc
s-iScpuria is all its Enriicj- I
En7 OtmlftKn t Attkh mumlrd vttk tfc Batia".
?todcrmlr Prtr. Clrr lUm a Xrl.l.
HONOLULU. nfON WOSKS CO.
STEAM OfllNES, Scar 3IIU.
11-11, f. Owfari. Im. Bim ul UmA Oaft.
Machinery of Every Description,
PsrtifsUr ttf stiss psii to Slip's JlicisnitMr.
House, Ship and Sin Painter,
Xc 94 Kin? Stmt,
(SmH? tni Mtwrv CObflui 1 CK
nlM. ItuWlBc. OW, CiUM.fc rrf
OagAW tfc.ttit ;iwhiiMi Mnn Sat
0Se. Cor Fcrt 4 Hotel Strtcts.
. . caAUAHSl. J. a. Burnt.
ciiahvii:i. &. CO..
tHPOEXESS AND DEALERS IS "WTSIS.
SsMHi Alr, lc. Nx S, Nauae Mit. vMr Jltinat
A. s. CLix;noit.,
WHOLESALE AXD EETAIL DZALES IS
CESEEAL XEECHAXDIS K,
Firtd Ifctri SreM. tt-li
cx- x. x. T CAXTSX
C. UREWKK Jk CO..
iio5oi-ri.r, ii. i.
ACE.VK-Or tbc Itoatou and llonalaln Ficstl
1GEXT For ttxr 3Lxkr, AVallixtn and liana
AGli.T For txt Piuthxitud Sale or IxtaMd
Prod nr.. 5-19
r. ULXKS. A. JAECIX.
II. F. EHI.eJS & CO.,
PrT.TltS IS DST GOODS ASD GESEEAL
F. A. SCIIAJuI'EII.
ACEST for Ihr I!ltlK' BOARD oT I
Aant tar ta BraUm tmritC Caaii n i Hin.
A(M Ikraa. Tlama EaaKtrf CMararttrn.
- pr .
C. S. IIARTOIV, I
Sltnilmn as ftma Street, ax &ar (ram Exxaaaxaa ,
31. S. GRaJYBAinr A CO..
LSFOETTRS ASD WHOLESALE DEALEHS
la MIXMta Clataaac. Bxtx. Gaaa, Sarfa, ;W aut
t'mj aacaatjr it CwtlnMxt'i ieaa raraMOas Saoli.
Son ta XxWa Stack. Qseea ftreet, Uoaurxia, SL L
AFOSG A ACIIUCK.
Iporterjt Wholesale asi Setsil Dealers is.
AnxClxanflwli. ta ta.nrereec'srjr. .-a 5asaax Street,
D. H. HIXCHCCCS,
M. T. MOSAIXL,
CABISET yoiTTTt ASD CFEOLSXEEEH
Eaxr Street. BMaCaia. afMU Lii Caurer Saep. KB
kj ul Mil fecueaV&xoa' raraiare.
JAJIKS I- Z.X-WIS.
COOPER AND GAUGER,
At the Old Stazi, eerier King ad Eethel Sbteta.
A Larre Slat, of Ofl Saaexx xasi aO fcraaa af Cwperiar
lliniaili eaKSuxtf ja hi ml He bape. r xttraCaa U
oaaoaeM x. Berit a easXtaaaace of oW patmorxre arkirft b.
aaa Wlatuaat erjwyW. aal Sx akica H aov rttxrai hie
a. ir. xiiojipsonr,
Que2 Street, EeisTsfc,
Bxs onxtxay .a axa xa4 far xxkt xt tx Lvwext Market
Frirer. a rved amvrtaieat f tax Beef Sefaea Bxrlreo.aa4
aVe Beat EfatXJjixxi CaaL SHjt
F. II. At. G. SEGLUJxE.,
US, 2JSC AST) COPPER SMITHS, AKD
SHEET IE0S WOSSEBS,
Sznsxs. Street, tctvees aTtrrhiTTt ard Ge.
Hare aaaataxar ecrbxa4. Savres. Tfce. Gil-TinUrd
Ins ftpe. Tbia aat BWa BiMaioecxe, IsdJx
BaMer Hue t.'t J-fJy. ia leartalef S xadU
! Sfr-t, vitfc mayfts r xai pif-f Bato-Tal.
t xb4 xIm a ttt UrreitaekafllaTxregfeTerT de-
IVrnraaxraltesxIan rJrea ta sMp-Wwk. 9rtr, ha tie
aer Maaita V rareMe xtteaae4 ta,
TaxakM ta tke Oxtteae af Daaalaax xoi ta IuxaJt
reoerxOy So t&efer Hjrxl patrcaxfa xatBepaat, ire hope by
xsrietatxeataK t. Lssfaen X. mxrtt ta. sxa. fee tfce fararr.
Carriage and Sign Painting.
T7IE rSTJITIl'IfiSEI) tcv
1 vroearaj t&e jrsicea at a campetaat
.varxzaaa, sxeww preparal lo
aa ararre ia ti tax f CAiXIAfit ant SKiS fJBTlSG
la a. y-;-rr to Warrast Sfitirft.-tiag. S3.
36-ta 7 Pay "trrgt. Haaotahs.
HCTTSX ASD SET? FLTT2EBEZ,
ft-; Street, zext ta tie Seazte'i E-tieL
Sti as haatf. ZxSa-Ta&a. tTxterOtaetx, Triaa-Baalax,
ram aal lilt ramp. Lea4 sal ealiaaxtM Inn rlpex,
xna FSaadw. BiXJw.mix. Baiae; ta. aoly Plaaxberbita.
eny. a wnl execatexS ariera ealrxsteil ta aiaa fa a wtarfc-
J. NOTT Sc. CO.,
IOPPER & TIS SMITUS, mate ererj de-
icstm af ware in their ace, ssed acFlaata-
tu ar elsewhere. They ao keep ea hand a fall
Sheet Casfr, Sheet Xjj,
Sheet Lead. Sleet Ins.
Irea Whs, Cej per Wire.
SctTAErauSalder. Tail Ears,
- Pressed Backet Ceers,
Black asd Tiasetl Hit els,
Capper Eintr, etc
Also in haad. few core cf
those: srpjzsrmiB cookxsg stotss,
ReeetTei'c-y the "STrenv
"Ctttm FJxat" aaJ "Slay JxrlttJ," together
with a rariety af JaeasneJ War, anal xxaay articles
osetal Sx the Kitchen. Sf Werkt a BcMrEjT,
snhv as cstters. tsvats. w xier-ptyex. Ac Sii.wrk
wiB seat with prsart attsstisn at So. 9 Eaahwoiaaa
Stmt. " IJ-IjC
rfTKK C.CitieXF.D, AGEJfTS F THE'
JL anreaCnaejUt. fen taaetartl4tiMBTrtts
aw C.r, a, yrelejeae aad 1'reare, tram Hmalalw
SjaSperst cf ta wari aaTic eerax,
is-ijt iL HAOcrzzs a ca.
H. W. SEVERANCE & CO..
General Shipping & Commission
403 Trsat Street, terser cf day, Sxa Traaeiseo
I Tfer AHStralias Stras .ariratioH (o's
j Patent Slip & Engineering Works,
I STU.VEV, X. S. AV.
ukmkI rtmfij anl vxpeiKtiMH C Vntb cX th.
tarxH timaMf tu w tun bp.
StljS ITiEU. It TKQCTO.V. Mlj-r.
LKAEMONTH, DICKINSON & Co.,
ST II SKY, X. S. IV.,
General Commission Agents,
(ff. L nrrrv IImmIcts
" ( UACTAKLAXn BLAIB1 Co.. .SiB frucixo
x. x. imiiiTs x. T. uutxm, c x ntux,
WILilAMS. BLAK CHARD & CO..
sHiPPixc aso cosuassios hebchasts.
IjT So. as OLfjnix StrMt. Sxa rnocfacc (3d
rut faiux, i. c rniint
rurtixi 5. r. Cxi.
JTCRAKEK, MERRILL & CO.,
llirtag cb;xt1 im wr prwrat IwiaM. fcr cpvxrU,
tvalv. jt&rx, 4 trlB kvatrJ is a Hra-proof BrVk BaiW
diac. . ar. prrard t rtcH. 3Aiil-f IUW Supl
m4 a. S csxr. vraw. BkPao. CaS. tc, t. aJvaau..
OBunti rfyMr wHritrJ tor tit. Cnpa Mxrko, t
wfcaca y30calattaatioaaillbpak, xnl vpaa wbkh catt.
a4iaam viQ b Kta-i. wbca ihx.
CKarb. W Enwxi
Btdrtr & Uorabrr...
Jxsm. Fatrfctk x Ox.
ADea . Lrwts
i:. ji. tax iti:iii,
Hxriai: tar Vest ciotivs t&rctif h xs fxtiate coactkn
with ta. Jxpaato. tratlc tjr ta. past Hi lit years, if prepmrea
to trxasact xst bwtoesa eatrxsted to hL cxrr, aita dapatcJx.
LAKGLEY, CROWELL & CO.,
' Cor. Battery SCUjSu, Sis Francisco. Cm
PATRONIZED BY ALL THE WORLD.
R DIM ELS IULAXG-iaLAXG. VASDA. HEX
dx. J jckey Club. Franxxpxce, and ether per.
fxate of exqautte fraacre.
KIlIilEL'S LaTesdxr Water, .JL-tUIed fron Mit
BuBmtla ToStt ATtnejar, celebrated far itl tutfal
xad xasnarr prer-ert:ei.
RttaiaetV Extraet .r Lime Jsie. and Gltccrice. the
test arenxratitn ftr the hair, eipecixllj in vans cti
Bates. Rkmssel1 Daesg Oil Seap, perfczied with Aaitxa
RstBti'x Gljeer&ie, Ilerejr, Wfatdsor and other
RinmePs Reie Water, CsstaEtacd Floral Crack
ers. Terr astcsin fir frails and parties.
Kiactl'i Tialtt, Rase-kaf, Rice, xs4 other T.Het
A Irieral xSewxcce ta shippers.
Perfamer to B E H U Priaeexa tt ""xfv S. Srrxsd,
' IS. Brrest Street, aa4 -I. Ctratflt. DtcJao;
IT. Batucrxni in ItxbcBi, Farix, xxd ". Riay"i
IS Soil by ait Perfumery Teadrs. 37-1 y$
NOTICE IS HEREBY GIVEN,
I anin put in Workia Order.
This Itailarar is capable or (akin;
Bt Ves neasanar as to 45 netrrs (US ft.
act 1 or tret.
The draft of water forward mast sat exceed 2 me
tres iS centimetres (71 ft- abt.), the draft aft ealca
lated at the taaxUaast Lsereasc af S centimetres (I
inches) Sir each metre f keel.
The charges far takic-cp a resiel. and stayicg the
same Epn the EaHreai. remain the same as fixed
per taril of ISth Dee, 1S :
rtrxt aar. eoar tfarat
Vessel csdtr IW Uss 5f. $ IS 09
Vessel from HI to IC t'ci.ISJ N
f. i3 H
I Vessel fram Ml te 39 - lit
j Vessel from 1 taefiO IM
i And besides fur each ton 1
56 (4 99 13 CO
IS 09 IN : 99
?o. 4 Hotel Street.
ROBERT LETT bees tn ln-&Jjf'
tra toe- eaMr tlut tw Baa reaei taeaLxaJua
abvee Market aad that ke ax preearet the m tt
ZPixrzart Clnss Sutclior.
H- trsc, that dt kSnar ealr the 6E--T CATTLE, aad
payaiT eey xtieonaa ta the bwiacae. ta merit a xhare cf
ta paxtiC patracxra,
Seef & P.-tk Saixg3, Ssbepu et Blood Fziiisgi
Mate ta Orter.
J-TZSH5 CIIEAE rK C15U. SIoc
5"a. Merchant Street, appceite the SaOors Ilaae,
JX ALL ITS BRASCBES,
HAS COSSTA3TLT. OS llAXD a variety
af DOUE-3ZADE ICEXTTTEE. wax k" aT fcr
atl AT THE ZO HTST JtXEKZT FEICTi, cotuiatac c
BEST E LACX, WALSTTT FA2XCH FTJESlIliiiE,
Sprfaz-Back Ky Ctifre. Lcaaree xsl Stxttrxeeex.
Qxtr xad eyiuLt; Itxttnatex, Yttaddw Shxdea and flip
Corers atade ta cr2er.
Old Fxu-xUtare Ke-Upholtered,
Eepairedxad Taransel, with fatlsficuoa warranted.
aaCxtlaad examine ary stock hea-e raTrtawrrr eixe-
a?Terau BeaaocahSa. AHariers&aGS Salpaxtxrs xnd
the ether Iilaada,wig Wcramstlj attmtedto. My
Cee Hi Jaw BiasB ft Cc'i Wiarf,
CraUixei th hsstaexa a klx U clxa af r-KEar wit
aaferrs artimi a lataaei&xteir on tk sfciCas at kia
at&R. Ernxaetarl9iSrrecIBee. 'vrtbaayaat
&l&JXratomrz. tz.t ab-aiiir Baaastsx. eeoUeexi
fcx kia itati, fce fcwai tawje. aa tajl aariaSKtSoa the fa
tsrr mm a kaa ia iaa put- lxa
eSStffit. 13TB SSIF CKAIULIX,
JtmeyaadBtaBa faraiised ta SU?rea ta xxcet txrsr
K aMe trnaa, PyS
Cow " lain Jtaroiajit atai Cessal Agtst. ..
Isaartcr af Tea and ctser Caiaeee aad rwtz Gaalc;'
SI tnuiaw w ii na r HaTI tuaii fiaaxj, aoaasrsxaat
xfcakaa aaA Aaaansa awaa
Stcnea mat Same, htw m
Mb. Korroit: I uotiea with raach pleasure,
jour remarks opoo Mr. Brigham's capers, publiih
ci3 in the Memoirs of the Boston bociety of lat
eral JIUtorT. so fir they reler to his exrlana
tions or 1 lawaiixn name. Aa joa hare correctly
pointeJ oat where Mr. Brighara has erred in his
etTmoIogr of Hawaiian names, permit me to
indicate one or two places where I think that
jour own rendering of the meaning of a name
mar be somewhat impfored, and then enlarge the
subject a tittle by allodingla the nomenclature of
a few of the Polynesian Islands, and the inference
as to origin, which that saggests.
You render the word Suu-anu. 'the cold cleft
or mountain pass." Bat the word is composes!
of -Vkk. "an eleted place," from the verb .Auu,
-to swell np. to be fall or high ; and aau, -cold,
chilly;' thus literally, "the cold highland." In
the Samoan, we find the word -Ytru. which means
"a Tillage or secernent." and such was probably
the original meaning applied to this celebrated
raller oa Oaha. In further confirmation of this.
etymology. I woald refer to "the platform or rais
ed place in the Htiau where the idol or idols
stood, and where the offerings were laid." which
was called .Yam. and was synonymous with Kitpa
rnt. 1 therefore fail to see. and beg to be in
formed, how the word JVub- can ba made to sig
nify "a cleft or pass." Yoar definition of the
name Ifonoinlu is probably correct, if the word is
read a3 joa write it, and if it had always been so.
Bat it has possibly escaped your inrestigations.
that in old Jkks and Kaaos, (songs and legends)
as late even as the time of Knalii.of Oihn, this
place was called Hono-nimu. and that the pres
ent pronunciation, "Honolulu." is "a comparatively
modern exchange of for A which so many words
in the Ilsrraiian dialect have undergone, eupho
nire grtttia. And thas yoa will perceire that
the original Hmonimu suggests a different ety
mology from the present Hono-hdu.
I thank yoa for the information that Waimea
is the same a3 Wai-mehameha, or " lonely, far
off, sacred waters." and that the word is foand in
Xew Zealand geography. Permit me to add
that the word JlthameJvt, in the sense of " sa
cred," has become obsolete in the Hawaiian lan
guage, bat still retains that sense in the old
legends where reference is made to 3Tuu-mita-lan
or, as seme write it, Suu mea-lani, " the
sacred, heavenly, dwelling place, or habitation ;"
and here yoa wjll also perceire that the word
Nuu occurs in iU anzient Sanioan sense. In the
Marquesan dialect, the won! Mit occurs as an
epithet of gods, as Tu rn .the first-born of
- Atea." I am unable, therefore, to decide
whether "Ilea" or "MehA" be the ancient,
Yoa are very correct in saying that " the mean
ings of the names of the principal Islands are
probably buried in obscarity." Bat if their
meanings are obsrare, tbu descent of many may
be plainly traced to the Aliiatic Archipelago, and
beyond. Thos we find" the protonom of the
Island of Oaha in 1. Ouahou, a tract of country
in central and South east Borneo, occupied by
Dyat tnbes ; anil 2d, in Ouadjou, a State, or
formerly iodpende'ht territory, id central Celebes,
occupied by a Bagii population.
Moluhji. or. as it is called in the ancient songs
and sagas, Moittai-ti-liaa, refers itself to JUaro
Aiy, Morotif. Marty, (according to Spanish, Dutch
and English orthographies,) one of the Moluccas,
Xortb-east of Gilolo. The Moluccas were called
liy Ptnlomy, and-other ancient geographers, thn
- Sardas." and This name is referred to by Span
ish navigators of the 16th century as a collective
name for the whole group, before the name of the
" Moluccas" obtained. Oar JTohlai-a-lIina,
therefore, or 2Ib!ohxi-a-Suia. as it would be pro
nounced in the Samoan dialect, points very
plainly to the derivation of its name, as well 33
to the people who named it.
natrtii.&nraii. Bccicnihi, AicaVci xoi ilatai,
as diSerestly pronounced, is the special name of
tie principal island in these separate groups. It
is a compound of lima or SUtra, and it or Hi,
the former of which is the proper name, and the
latter the descriptive adjunct or epithet. This
name, both in its single and compound form, re
fers itsIf to Sneni, on. the North coast of Ce
ram ; to Satcaii. in the South-west of Borneo ;
to Aanua, oa the South cpast of Oram; to
DJmea, a river on the East coast of Borneo ; to
Djaaa or Java, the second of the Sunda Islands,
known to Jlarco Fob in the Uth century, under
the name of Ciatca; known to the Arab traders
f the 9th century, as the Empire of Ztpaya,'oT
Zapagz, asd, jointly with Sumatra, known to
I'totoray. ic the 2d century, as 'Jcsbaiu, or
Jaba-diot insula." Notwithstanding the na
tional vanity of the Hinda-Malayan historians,
who claim that the island received its present
name from Hindu con(aerors in the first century
after Christ, these various readings of the same
one came, ffawa, Djawa, Jawa, Ciawa; Jaba,
and Zabx, -point as stili farther trest, to that
Cashite-Arabian Zoia or Silo, whose commerce
and colonies bad visited and fettled, and moulded
to iu own dvillralion and culture, both the coasts
of India and the Indian Archipelago, long before
the Vedic Arians had crossed the SaraswatL
Lthita, of the Hawaiian group, and Isfuka. of
the Tonga group, refer to Lalouk, a province on
the North side of Borneo. .
Niihnu, Hawaiian group, points to Lifao, on
the Island of Timor,
Yazoo, one of the Friendly Isles, owes its
came to Babaa, the .ancient came of the bay of
Conpang. and probably of the whole island before
the Malays cooqsered, settled and named it
Marat, or Eimeo, an leknd West of Tahiti,
finds its namesake in the Mcrea'mcanUia range
in the east of Jawa.
Taioa, a bay in Xskakrva, 3fargsesa grosp,
looks to Kaioat oce of tie Moiaccas, West of
Giloio ; and serenf otkeri, cot to prekwg- tfci
attieie, wtrch fsrsiaw. great and eaainwtire eri-
deoce that, those who Wiethe Iacts Ashed.
within the Prfynoiwarwonfstt lire naam
with them Prom Asncaati ita srdiijaaoe, before
the Xalaj Umiij ham tted or Mpeedei
them with ottrerz.
WWthcr the rsasaaerow sad Mattered grosp
of the PadSc are - the relics cf z great Pacafe
continent," I leave te rnUniaaVite aad geologists
to settlp. It U fcmMe, tt U pksajUe, evea if
it be set prefab"; fcwt that the tcaest Potyae
..r ,v r.-. -ri-x,...i.-.T '. . . .
' aa -J lawrHcaa re
tilaacc at the AustraUaa Colonies".
Sew South Wales.
This Colony Is, perhaps, the most self-defend-ent
ol any in Australia, by reasca of its vast
area and comparatively small population. It Is
the pioneer ol the Australian . Colonies, and.it
was there that gold was first discovered in 1851.
What a mighty changu since then i Then, the
whole country was one vast sheep-ran, and Syd
ney an insignificant sea-port town ; note, a
thriving, prosperous Colony, with Its important
inland towns, (mining and agricultural.) its rail
ways and its commerce, and Sydney transformed
into an Important and flourishing city, with a
population of 120.0UO I In all it produces, tho
supply is more than equal to the demand, and,
moreover, alt colonial productions are placed ia
the market at-och rates as to defy foreign .com
petition. Sydney the Naples of the South is worthy
oj a visit, if on no other account than to see itr
barbor, .ne beauties 01 which defy description,
and must be seen to be appreciated. It is n well
laid-oal city, and has a number of handsome pub
lic baitdings, and tho country surrounding it is.
perhaps, the most picturesque in the Australian
Colonies. The lorm of government is similar to
that of New Zealand, except in tho matter of
Provincial Councils. In their place are substi
tuted Shire Boards, Road Boards, and Munici
palities. Earl Belmore is the present Governor.
New South Wales is essentially a 'squatting"
colony, that is. it is devoted to pasloial pursuits,
the Ierm "squatter" being applied td any gentle
man who is the owner or lessee of a large tract
or land on which he raises cattle and sheep. On
every station there is a "boiling down" establish
ment, where sheep, after being di veiled of their
skins, are thrown into boilers and their fat ex
tracted, the refuse serving as food for the "din
goes" native dogs. The fat and wool from this
source are in due time forwarded to Syduey,
where they are either utilized or shipped in their
raw state to other countries. " Squatterdom" is
the ruling power of the Colony ; it is a highly
profitable pursuit, aud the majority ol those en
gaged in it arts men of great wealth. But if its
advantages are great, many of its disadvantages
are equally so. For.instance, the country is bat
poorly watered, and many of these stock-owners
are dependent on rain-falls for the sustenance of
their Socks. It not nnfreqoenlly occurs that a
drought of six or eight months duration, sets in-
all the creeks, and in Kome instances the rivers,
are dried up and slteep and cattle die by
thousands. Then, again, they very often suffer
from the opposite extreme: floods of a serious
nature inundate large tracts of country, sweeping
away everything in their course, and bringing
ruin and devastation upon many prosperous sta
tions. In addition to wool, tallow and hides, which
are the staple productions ol the colony, New
South Wales also produces diamonds, gold, kero
sene, and coal. The latter is foand in great
abundance at Newcastle, about seven hours'
steaming from Sydney, and the quaiity of the
coal is the best in the Colonies. It is the great
coaling depot of Australia. The principal gold
producing dutrict3 are, Ophir. Sofala, the Lacb
lan. Mudgee, Yoaog, and Braidwood. A mint
for the coinage of money has been established in
Sydney, and the greater portion or the gold coin
in circulation in the Colonies is issued from that
mint. Diamonds, of considerable value, have
been found at Tuena Creek, in the Mudgee Dis
trict, but mining for these precioa stones is still
in its infancy. Kerosene oil, of good quality,
has, within the last few years, been foand, to
exist in paying quantity, and already the psodace
of the Hartley oil wells forms no inconsiderable
portion of the amonnl consumed in the Colony.
In addition to all this, New Sonth Wales is a
manafifctunng Colony. Amongst its other in
dustries may be quoted, as the -most flourishing,
the manefactcre of tweeds, which, for durability
and quality, cannot be excelled. Its wines too,
are of a fine flavor and boqaet ; and tobacco, in
some parts of the Colony, flourishes luxuriantly.
The cultivation of sugar ba3 also been essayed
by some enterprising spirits, but, financially; has
proved a failure.
With all these elements of prosperity at her
command, there can not be the slightest douft in
any thinking mind, that New Sooth Wales will
eventually become a great and prosperotu coun
try, foe following are the leaning nespapers
MTtrtM, Empire, and Town and County Journal.
published in Sydney.
Previous to the gold era, Victoria formed a
portion of the New South Wales Colony, and
was known as the " Port Philip District." It
was then, as New South Wales is now. a great
squatting country ; but the gold discoveries, to a
certain extent, changed all this. As the dis
coveries of fresh fields followed each other in
quick successions the diggers gradually encroached
upon the Iquatters' lands, notwithstanding the
strenuous efforts, of the latter to prevent them ;
so the squatters, to compensate themselves for
their losses, and to have revenge on the diggers,
resorted to the only means left them, and that
was, to charge a high price for their mutton.
Since then, their interests have been on the
wane, as from time to time large blocks of land,
prenoosly in tbefr possession, have been thrown
open to agriculturists and others ; but notwith
standing, those interests are still large. Imme
diately after the gold discoveries, "Port Phillip,
impressed with its growing importance, caused
by the great influx of popaku'oo. began to clamor
for a, separation from New South "Wales, and
eventually attained the deered oijett, their gov
ernment being established ea the taste xtw as
that of the'parent Colony. Daring lire laai few
years, every encooargemeat has bees jriraa jay
the Government to the growth of native iadtw
tries and prtidoctioMraaal tlx foe afjisjat af
this policy are evidencee! by- taw praaw ypaitioa
the Colony now holds. YkHeem, 'awayying the
most southern portioa of tw Aastiawaa Or.tr
nent, akhoagti tfce jomgmt J uiiataaat ia araa
cf thoe Colosies, is ky har Ui: 'jaiaailaaL
It Is greatly in advisee, of if awgirfrors ia Oh?
art asd xdencex, in iU Bwailaataret and iouVm
tne. Its yield of gold m uafcrtely greater, aad
it potsesse a populalioa eiesVa; that of tJl
the other cxlociea pot together.
Never was there a bettayajaaipae af tlx
V,feM.Oa3 U W eiaraf tiiu tjT
yaara ago- we awe "ia at aaw aaaeaat a
wiliersst; to-ay,it ia the great aasttriaai af
sawan fItxbtaW Wl ttal Sftaf xanwaxatwaawawaT t.Vtaaaaaaaaaaaataaaxaaa aaaVxtaaxanaa
xtVlfxti "Tt aSB tFaTTjaaajiaaaB ana"ani93nvailaxaxa la PaTaajaaanaaaraBj
Babylon I Ona can scarcely credit that In so
short a time so magnilcesl a cHy eoM be bwk
up. Everything Is done on a grand settle there
no haU-racasums. Its jiablic hikrifs tach aa
tho Post-oSco (generally adaitt-ed to ha the
finest in the world,) Parliament IToates, the
Treasury, Government Printing HoaM, and
Public Library are models of architeetafe and
stability. Its streets are wide aad regu.'w; it
has its public gardens and domains ; and, indeed,
possesses every luxury and convenience that even
a denizen of New York or London could wish
Next to Melbourne, in imparUnco, comes
Ballarat, tho " City of the Mines." It has a pop.
oration of from 60.000 to 70,000, tho majority of
whom are dependent, more or less, upon its min
ing resources. On this field, at the present time,
all mining operations are carried on by public
companies, this being rendered necessary by the
great depth to which shafts are suak and tha
expense attendant thereon. These companies
go to vv oik on a grand scale, and a short descrip
tion of the mtxlus optrantU may cot prove unin
teresting. A number of speculators apply to
Government for a lease of certain lanthTon which
to carry on mining operations ; having obtained
it, they then proceed to issue a prospectus and
form a company. This done, they commence
erecting machinery and sinking a ' main shaft''
throush basaltic rock, until they arrive at the
desired pipe-ctay " bottom," on which the gold
rests. This generally lies at a depth of two or
three hundred feet from the surface, ,and conse
quently, owing to the difficult nature of the
sinking, it is often a work of one or two years
before it is reached. 'I hey may happen, luckily,
to strike a golden "lead" on bottoming; if eo,
they have nuthing to do bat follow it leads
being generally pretty well defined. If, however,
as is more often the case, they do not strike the
lead, they have to "drive," (tunnel.) underground
in all directions to find it, being guided in their
search by small leaders, which feed the main one.
Oo finding it. should it prove remunerative, tram
ways are laid down in the drives leading to the
main shaft, along which the wasb-dirt is conveyed
and brought to tho surface, where it is put
through the machine, and the gold extracted.
Many thousands or pounds are expended before
gold can be expected to be found, and In many
instances it i3 not found at all at least, in paya
ble quantities. This, in addition to the risk of
being flooded out, might be thought sufficient to
deter partie3 Troni speculating ; but, seeing that
the failure of one company is generally counter
balanced by the success of another, the spirit of
speculation is, and always will remain rife at
Ballarat The richest claim on the field and
perhaps the richest ever opened is tho " Band
of Hope," which Tor the last ten years has been
paying enormoas dividends to its lucky share
holders. Castlemaine, known in the early days of the
gold-fields as Forest Creek, is the central gold
mining town, and was, when first opened, the
richest field in the Colony. Here, many lucky
diggers earned a competency one week and spent
it the next ; the sinking wa3 shallow, averaging
about thirteen feet, and seldom exceeding forty
feet nence it is- that the mining interest there
is now on the wane the old alluvial workings
being left to the Chinese and a few straggling
Europeans. Bat the quartz reefs in the locality
still continue remunerative, and it will be-many
years before they are exhausted. Caitlemaine,
hdwever, is not depeudent on its mines to any
great extent ; it has something more stable to
depend upon its agriculturists and wine-growers.
It is celebrated for the abundance of its crops,
the quality of its ales, and its choice b'ght wines..
It has its foundries, tanneries, breweries, floor
mills, etc, and, altogether, may be pronounced
one of the most prosperous Inland towns of Vic
toria. I he Castlemaine district has a population
of between 7,000 and 8.000.
Sandhurst the Bendtgo of the early days la
about twenty-five miles from Castlemaine, and
nearly all that has been said about the latter is
applicable to the former. Gold;mining, however,
is carried on with more energy in Sandhurst, and
next to Ballarat, yields more co!J than any other
field. The population or the place is about
In addition to those already mentioned, there
are the following important gold-mining towns in
Victoria: Amherst, Aroca, Ararat, Archdale,
Benalla. Beechwortb. Chewton, CreswichvClunes,
Dayjesford, Dunolly, Fryertown, Guildford, In-
gtewocd. Kingower, Maryborough , Maldon, Ma
jorca, Ovens, Rochdale, Smytbes, and Tarnagul
la. Some idea of the present yield of these
fields may be gleaned from the fact that for the
first six months of 1870, the returns received in
Melbourne and all the gold doea not find its
way there more than equalled in value the total
retains of the Thames, in Auckland, which had
been in operation for more than two years, and
the richness of which field had been to extolled.
So great was the impetus eiven to agriculture
and horticulture by protection and the liberal
land policy of late yeara adopted by Victoria,
that the colony is now self-supporting in matters
of breadslnfls. fruits, wines, etc. By the Land
Act, persons of small capital were enabled to
take up tracts of land for agricultural purposes,
for which they paid an annual rental, and at the
end of a given time, this rental was accepted by
Government aa a payment in fall for the land.
Under tb: arrangement, tha landholder bad to
make a certain amount of improvements yearly,
or in default, forfeit all claim to his land ; and so
well has this system worked, that the colony now
abounds with happy and aoirrishlsf boaeada.
The principal ugricaitBral districts are Geetoftg ,
Warrnaaibool, Sawatou. News-tend, Kilmore,
Kynelon. Uisborae, Wos4a4, (jteaae, Haat
Hofl. Tatadale, XaJaatWy aad Mo&nmkmA.
Mot af these district, and atas Hat goid-Mk'
towae, ant e!actd hy ran wit. IMfcearaa, aa
that tM the prodactiow of the intarior id qskk
aa4 ctsaaf) tnasit to tha kftraatit. It mj
IteVe b Mitariteti that taa VietrwM QwariaiMt
1m aparaa so exaeaea k tha aaewtraetkHt
of tnfeaaa of x aaswuotasi tartar. uAnetaar 1
freest work that i jatt aaiag rapWd, M th 9
taaftfyitig of water to the ap-eontry tfctrkts, for
imaiB: aad agricokaral porpoaaa. Wave the fall
ItttM of the works bagia to he felt, ft will
atoesHieei add to th tcaperity f th eoioay.
mm anad ofxnannaVaxxn
, H msf (at tvMai, a ipvvat;
He wajraiiaa ii asslrh, taa. aat to m
tho raise of the goM ajstmaati treat te'whjn
0e,M. The pmiwt eoferaaraf ta
The priaeipat aewnataisri m Titatria atv-tn
Argm, Age, Lamer, Auateeiuimi,
Post, MerWae; iHr, OssrsV, 1
dofrcin'tTrr, Geeteaf ; -xtjssn jtluaaiiatr M
Caatlemainar Atjrrti94r,9mim f mi
host of others of ntraor Importaaee.
Sn ttan a annfvnunBarnnn
Of this cotoey, which lie t the taeti of Via
toria. there is little to be twi thtwnl;b of
interest to Hawaiian readers. TH ittUi mi
only town of importaaee, ie AdWaa, wMoli,
with its ssWrbs, pottMiea a poeulMioa of aaaat
The cokey m the gr!rry of the cota aeas-
isphera, the greater portion of Re laade sw('(l
voted to the prod action orctiMakv a4.l4eet It
exports largely In these coaMnOnitief, aaa, aa
showing the quality of its wheat, H asaf le atea
tioned that it took first prisee in the great Iatar
tfonat Exhibitions or 1851 aad 1S2.
It is also a great producer of copper. Th
famed Bam Burnt and Mooata miaea bana yield
ed princely returns, asd there are sow raat Sehk
being opened by railway caterpriee. which ia being
extended some two hundred and fifty mia iato
All the colonies are coBBeeted by telegraph,
and there is one thing in coBaectioB with; thie
department which may not be generally kaewa :
At the present time, a sum of XVMfm, which
has been voted by the Soa'h Aatr!ia Gov
ernment, towards the cost of a liaa cxteading
fiom that colony to the most northern point of
the Australian continent, is being expended.
This line, which Is to connect with that of the
Anglo-Indian Telegraph Co., must be cotspfeted,
under heavy penalties, within a period of fifleea
months from the time of its cnmtaeacffiat, aael
there can be very little doubt that before the
expiration of the current year, telegaaph commu
nication will have been established between Eng.
land and the colonies. Sir James Ferguson it
the present governor of the colony.
. Queensland adjoins the northern bowdery
of New South. Wales;, and as yet, hae attain
ed no very great importance. Perhaps, more
than anything else, tho inteae heat of the cli
mate militates against its progress otherwise, it
possesses many elements of prosperity within it
self. It produces co inconsiderable quantity or
gold, and there yet remains vast areas of country
to be tested, which ia known to contain more or
less of the preciou3 metal. Cotton of excellent
quality is raised there in abandance, bat unfor
tunately, the article has of lata becsss- quite a
a drog in the market. Sugar plantations also ex
ist, bnt whether from want of experience or from
climatic causes, the planters are unable to arrive
.-at satisfactory results. Tho cane itself flourishes
luxuriantly, bat yields a very small quantity of
saccharine matter, which, moreover, is of-an acid
Colonel Blackall is tho governor of this colooy,
' and its principal towns nre Brisbane and Rock
ihampton.. , N.
Eqcatios or Payments. Prof. Ware's offer tt
' $10,000 for the best rule fur the equation of pay-
ments has drawn outa.very excitiDg competition
I , I ,1 ,t . - ti .v.. .
oeiweea iaa maiueniaucinua nti over uiu couuir.
The rules already received by Prof. "Ware and the
Messrs. Greenbaum Brolhersjn whose hands the
money is deposited, come from every section cf
the county, and Include soma marvelous mathe
matical efforts. The award for the best plan will
be made Dec. 1, 1870, at the Attor Hone, at
which place all interested parties, will assemble at
12 o'clock. The judges appointed are the chief
book-keepers of Messrs. II. B. Chain k Co.,
Messrs. A..T. Stewart & Co., Messrs Aaron C.
Ctaflin Sc Co., Messrs. Jay Cooke & Co., and the
Adams Express Company.
The Fiji Time of the 20lb of Augott writes :
'There is many a slip betwecil the cop and
the lip.' A marriage between a wealthy young
gentleman from Melbourne, and a pretty young
lady in Levuka, was arranged to take place at
the American Consulate. In addition to tho
American Consul, the captain of the U- S. ship
Besaca was to witness the ceremony. The 'fair
and beautioos bride' appeared, bat the bride
groom did not It was soon rumored that he had
changed his mind a few boors before the time ar.
rived for the wedding, and made his escape from
Leraka. Captain Lewis, U. S. N., and the
American Consul, drank the 'health of the djs
appointd ebride and her belter success next tuse,'
In a bumper of champagne."
As instance of the caprice of fortune is af
forded by the career of Isabella, the tower girl
of the Paris Jockey Club, who' has saiteed a
large fortune in the discharge of her floral "func
tions. She went lately to the Lyons races, ex
pecting to reap a harvest oa the strength of her
Paris fame; bat the members of the Jockey
Club of that city disgaste-i her by their mean
ness, as they only gave her a coaple of franca for
a rosebud, Instead of givisg her a nspoteoB for
each Sower, as do ber- protectors of the Paris
Club. Isabella has an elegant victoria, in which
the lolls back with that aSeetation of ine lady
ism that tee im la delight Iter a3aire ; tkeegtt
as she Ie bow over forty, it woalel teets te be
about Hate for her to cede her post to soma
Tbc Gtrstaee cislm that the new sUvariea as!,
rajlleate, wktefa wa 1.-st d deriejc oe-e tA tha
sorties feaca rarfc, is by ft nnerior ta th Trcsck
wespon. Itlaa; oppored to e o( lac Trench Bait
rxlHenSM ht oae ofiboao ayhta, tt teaa laceasaael Sa
ajlEcin; tt eoarfHctcly. Tan asHeta arc teal aC ia
t tart rffcatefcr alrtclkMS. On redfary af aanat ia
Mid to hav nawblr-J two kairdred t ,
m m awaaaai w i imiueaRa i, a , p 1 1 1 1 aHa
ta taw antirtBtlii ii ut 11 irtar pttwtan Unt rnacii lVrk
"HiiiiiI tsatistl aad mmtf," aWafy toeaa tpatlrl
yrevjilaatsi aasih ia ma (laws latthiinil nmstaf nil,
who aaa raa tha anseaila af a wxni ftaialiia'
inaaavatry nre.'j tx: hU W anaasnl ntaean ; loan kali af
their asatrirnt edaoangx; tsnrenaaea aat aa aya
kaoehad aat, or tMr bacthone, aad stlaV raattk the
Tac esren prop rkt ore are aiaaoat nasVy ta for
swear tba loath. There W very Met at peaey to ba
WkW itMi cmh ftr b isnwflsfb w i4ifllr
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