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BOOK AND" JOB
Svacy "Wednesday Morning,
4 r KIX DOLLARS PER AXNTHL
Iwi-lrns frabecrtbrra, $'.60 to 810.00.
OrnoK ir tb sew I'ost Offiee Build-
THIS OFFICE IS SOW PREPARED
TO EXEOUTE ALL. ORDERS
For Plain and Fancy Printing,
OP EVER! DESCRIPTION.
1YITJT NEA C DISPATCH
Street, HonoJeVe, IL I.
YOL. vn-IT0. 12. J
HONOLULU, WEDNESDAY, APRIL 5, 1871.
IS6.00 PER YEAR.
MM aaai yMM br X. Ustttt. at the Oarera-
CASTLE & COOKE,
taalors in General Jlcrchandisc,
S. C. A LLCS.
WAMtnE A: AI.I.ITV,
fUppiBc ai femmteslon .Merchants,
C-. gaa IViBBiw .
v v. iBixrcit A; co..
far the raala mil Waste.
E. P. ADAMS,
aasl 0akston Merchant,
I. ;IOIIOIS, M.
-JOIIA S..1lc(:KI!V, .11. v.,
t Ui Ummi i C- K Arm;. )
ISSVasaaaas- - BSWX
um wholesale dealers
u r. ji;i,
AXB OWrNSTJLLOR AT LAW.
Smlinetj, Ourtery and News Depot
arvfJ Ctroutating Library,
All iirtl OMttae. lio-
AX raUS IN BfrOTS, SHOES
flia. IViVtsaa;, Ac, earner
iMf Oa. tssaWa iwdTrf,
of Bull la tbe
.V. C ItUI'I'dt. 31. ..
nTTStdAN, AND SUEQE0N.
Sjffaa Ml Tlllll I kaSfasa'a Mail, Hoti Straat,
atari wmm ni aaat Ma Helm a, rrfusa.rr,
asaa. ask. Mai, O.issSi. WW toaaW, (Mum,
MMitMtt. talMi - fcreaa. (0-IHU
JOIIA II. l'ATV,
: mai Onanmur of Deeds
iii.i.i;:isuuii .v c'.,
AX MALERS IX HARDWARE,
MM Orts, 4 Seaenl Mr-
II. IIACItl'lII.n A; CO.,
XXSXAL COMMISSION AOEHTS.
, H tstasa. HcA.i.1.. M. 1. jf
Eft. HWPPSCHL AUGER & CO.,
AXB MXXIStHON MERCHANTS,
v mm ini. ojw. r t fir
tiiiiou. e. ni:t;ci.
AX COMMISSION MERCHANT.
u. H I ly
I A. CIIAIiIMIt .V CO.,
J Hiailala. peaa, H. I- Qj
C V. fit J. C. MflESAX
t.lCWItltS A: IUCKSOA,
; AND BEAIXBS IX LUMBER,
lea MMai Material, Fart Stmt, Uanalarn.
ALLEX,& CHILL 1KGW0ETH,
I SaWac Iwiscu
aaar aa mvm4 w araiB lh
l Kaailtai PalaKM. al tack atkar llc-
aaaaa mama ay ratiala, at Ut abartaat atlte
aa 4Jaaaaat aaaaaataljia II Famwvwd miwiju oa
JOILA T. WATIIKUOISE,
BIWH11I AXS SEALER IX GEXERAL
t toaaa tcraat, Hk:1. H. I. Ij6
W. I- Gni!l,
enoassMX agext and beoexe,
JIcCOLGAA A; JOIIASOA,
Wiat- BiailJa. ainirlaT.C HaA. 1;
C It. WILLIAMS,
wammavKE, importer and dealeb
avaJIr Wara-laaat on
akaf- at aaa aU auaal aa Haul tuul, aaar Fort.
) aaaaaa)aaaaaaTlil a maa llj aaa-t4 to.
AND SHOE MAKER,
aaat aa tmt Butt I. Uaaatalii.
TIIBO. II. IAVIUS,
Un J u na, un X Co.
nmm mi eexxissiox keechant,
Maaafaaaal aW Urml Vmm a I llart.
alaraii lfcaartfccc uaiafaaf , and
X23"BrEES AXS 'WHOLESALE DEALERS
Hau. Caaa. Burt. Stwn, and
: raraaatrc wooaa. faaafa
L. I TOIIUKItX.
IX LVK3ER AXD EVERT KIND OF
S aMna.-Crvat Qaaaa aaal rrt atreau. Ut
ffSOGEE AXD SHIP C HANDLES,
aaay aa4 1 1 a aali anaM to SUa un tba Biett fenr
, atai Irraav (IjO
LICE5SED SHIPPIKG AGENT,
! es is sAisxea & Co'i 'Wharf,
aa kit M flu r MtUis aitb
aaal oa tWar aUtaaap .1 !,.
Jbtter rt ar iaJanat ouacn.tkn with aaTaat
MaaaHaaaaL aai aQriac ao acats tn mIWInI
' MaaaW aafcamtactra aa (aal aUklsctira il th fo
taaa aa k. W a fWyaat. lm
Career T Ilatrt aad Vort MrrrU.
IBS OHtHlB5T AXD BEST OF ALES. WINES
alaay ta be fausd ai tie Bx. M-ly
EXP od Cotton Sail Twine Far tile
V PJ BO LLCS t CO.
m am sr aWiSa-waSaa Paaket Iise.
MIM 1 Hi fa Haat.iisa,
Ml I IM I
eaussjsSss ilimi fM t ta ol .at
ItOLLKS .V CO.,
Ship Chandlers and Corsxiiacon Uercbaats.
Imperten and Dealeri In General Mmbia&kt, Queen Street,
HiiMjtala, UawaU&n JUnd.
rS- A pent far the KtaniktVal, Mounlni, and Eakuao
halt VTorke. 2 lT
Hu Opened a New Ertabtahment,
and will gire hit attention to
Carriage Trimrai-g, Saddle and Harnett Making,
and Repairing in all its Branches.
Every description of Artlrlea connected itb the Btuinen
coruUntl on band, at
SInderate Prim. Give Hint n Trial.
. MKhtc Street, nelt to LeU' Cooperasa. S0-6me
HONOLULU IRON WORKS CO.
RT11AM ESOISr.fi, Knftar Mllle,
Ji-nrtller-a. Cooleri, Iron, Urate and Lead Castings.
Machinery of Every Description,
S3- Made to Order. a
Particular attention paid to Ship'i Blaektmithing.
JOB WORK executed on the thorteat notice, 36-lj6
J. S. DICKSOX,
House, Ship and Sign Painter,
No. 1)2 Klnir Street,
Nearly oppoiite Htm. XHlUngbam t Co.
. , Oralniog, Marbling, Gilding, CalMnilniog, rapef
aTjaangtng, ac., Ac executed on tueeuoneei notice.
Dand (n the most reaaonaUe tennt.
Office, Cor. Fort & Hotel Streets.
CIIALLAMDL A CO.,
IKPORTERS AND DEALERS IN WINES,
Scarita, Alee, le., No. S, NnuannStreet, opposite Merchant
Street, Uonolnlil. IS-1)6
a. s. ci.i:noit.,
WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALER IN
GENERAL MEECH AND IS 1 ; ,
Frre-proof Stjre, corner of Qoeeo and Kaahnniann Streets.
Katail rMauliabmentfl. on Nuuaon Street, aod on the corner
f Fart and IlaUl Streets. lt-ljC
H. A. P. CAJLTtft
c inti:v. i:it & co.,
IIOXOL.ri.l7, il. I.
AGKXTS or the Iloaton ami Honolulu Packet
AGIS.VTS-Fur the JIakre, AVnlluku nnd llnnn
AGK.VTS Kor the I'urt lmsroml Sale or Island
B. r. EULERS. A. JAEGER.
it. i". i:iili:ies Ac co.,
DEALERS IN DRY GOODS AND GENERAL
rire-rroof Store on fort St., store Odd Fellows Hall. 37-ly6
i a. sciiAi:n:it.
fl GKXT for the 11HK.11UX 1IOA1TU or
Avaat for the Dresden Board of Underwriters,
Aaaotrwrtne lenna uoara ot uncerwnters.
c. s. iiAirrow.
Saleeroeei on Qoeeo Street, one door from Kaahnmanu
t!treet. 17-1 6
211. S. GKIIWIAUM A. CO.,
IMPORTERS AND WHOLESALE DEALERS
In Fashionable Clothing, Hats, Caj, Boots, Shoes and
etory variety of Genllemeo's anperior furnishing Goods.
St-e in Makee'a Block, Queen Street, Honolulu, II. 1.
Al'O.XS A; ACIIIJCtf.
Importers! Wholesale and Retail Dealers in
AaalCMaaGaodA, In theFire-proof Store on Xuuan? Street,
tbe inane nan.
D. H. HITCHCOCK,
IIIlo, Hawaii. Iy6
M. '1 DOAA'KLL,
CABINET MAKER AND UPHOLSTERER
Ktag Street, Honolaln, opposite Lewis' Cooper Shop. Will
tl) buy and sell second-baud Furniture. Iy7
Commitsion Merchant and General Agent,
Importer of Teas and other Clilnee. and Foreign Goods,
bateeale Dealer in Hawaiian Produce, and Agent for the
Pankaa and Amauola Sugar Plantations. Fire-proof
Store on Xnoanu Street, below King. Sl-lye
JAILS L. LLWIS,
COOPER AND GAUGER,
At the Old Stand, corner King and Bethel Streets.
A Large Stock of OU Shooki and all kinds of Coopering
Mtfials constantly 3D band, lie hopes by attention to
ImmImm to merit a continuance of the patronage which he
bas heretofore enjojel, and fur which he now returns his
Queen Street, Honolaln,
II ss constantly on band and for sala at the Lowest Market
Prices, a good assortment of the Best Refined Bar Iron, and
Ike Best Ulackamitb'a Coal. ' 3S-1C
V. II. A; G. SKKLIiIL,
TIN, ZINC AND COPPER SMITHS, AND
SHEET IKON WORKERS,
Xanana Street, between Merchant and Qneen.-
Ilave eonstantlyon hand, Stovee, Pipe, Galvanized
Iron Pipe, Plain and Hose Blbbs,Stop-cocks, India
Rubber Hose best 3-ply, In lengths of IS and SO
teec, witn eoopiiugs ana pipe complete. lUtn-Tnos,
aad also a very larce stock of Tinware of everr de.
Particular attention given lo Ship-Work. Orders from the
other Islands will be carerully attended to.
Tbaakfal to the Cttireoa of IIodoIuIu and the Islands
generally for their liberal patronage In the past, we hope by
strict attention to bosinoes to merit the soma for the future.
WAGON AND CARRIAGE BUILDER,
70 iwlng Street, Honolulu.
Repairing done witb care and neat-
ne,s Also, partkuiei attention siren
to Blacksmi thins ana Horse-ehoefDtr..
Offer from the other IcU&ds promptly executed. 4My6
HAVING OPENED A PHOTOGRTPHIC
GALLERY, nearly opposite mrfrnner aUud, on Fort
street, X ....all b roost happy to see my old atnns and
others who wish fur firs I-c1ilj Picture, and shall try. by at
teatita ! the tastea cf my customers, to merit their patron
ape. AUt tit sale. Photographs of celebrated personages,
views, 1c. Pictures of all kinds taken on the mst reasona
abU teems. (32 lyj II. U CHASE.
No. A Merchant Street, opposite the Sailor's Home,
A" ALL ITS BBAXCHES,
HAS COXSTAXTSVY OJf IIATtD a variety
Tjr IIOUK-MADE rURMTVRK. which be offers for
sale AT TUB LOWEST MARKET miCE consisting bl
BEST BLACK WALNUT PARLOR FURNITURE,
Spring-Back Easy Chairs, Lounges and Uatlfasaea..
Hair and' Sprint Uattrauca, ITIodow Mhiod Slip
covers made to order.
Oltl Funiltrtrc Ke-lpjiolsteicd,
Repaired and Tarnished, with aatistictlou wanantetL
ATS- Call and examine ay stock before purchasing else
where. C3- Teroj Reasonable. AH orders from Shlp-uaatert and
the other Islands, will be promptly attended lu -jJS-lrfc
AMBniCAXicss Fork In botd, and far
sale ly ' P SOLLIS A CO.
HACAR & CO.'S
TiJb-'jEU FO U JNJ JLirL"S" !
532 Clay Street, San Frantlaco.
SOLE Ajrcnts for It. Hoe A- Co.'g Tresses
and rrinlere' Material!, Gordon' Jdb Presses,
.Mather's Inks, etc. r 113m
H. W. SEVERANCE & CO.,
General Shipping & Commission
40S Front Street, corner of Clay, San Francitco
LEARMONTH, DICKINSON & Co.
General Commission Agents,
Will attend to the ssle of Sandwich Island Produce, and
arrange for advances on same.
fVT. L. OREE.V nonoinlo.
Kirra TO. . 1 ji acFAP.LANK, BLAIK t Co... San Francisco
D. P. ELATCHIED,
c. . Hoaotx.
WILLIAMS. BLANCHAED & CO..
SHIPPING AND COMMISSION MERCHANTS,
ly") No. 118 California Street, San Francisco. 30
JOBS U'CSAtlX. o. xtaaiLL
Portland. S. F. Cat
M'CEAKEN, MERRILL & CO.,
Haringbeen engaied in our preeent bnsioess for upwards
of twelte years, andbeinglocated In a FIre-proofBrirk Build
dinic, we are prepared to receive and dispose f Island Staples,
snchasSurar.Sirnns.Iilce.rula. CofToe, etc., to advantage.
Consignments especially solicited for the Oregon Market, to
which personal attention win u. noru, auu uwn .iucu cmu
adrancee win oe maoe woen reuireu.
Charles W Brockt Sn Francisco
J C .Merrill a Co
Fred Iken "
Badger a Llndenberger "
Jsmts Patrick a Co "
Wn T Coleman a Co "
iterelis. Baker a Co "
Allen a Lewis Tortland
Leonard 4 Green " l-ly6
i:. m. vaa itni:i,
IlATtiiR the best tictlitit through an Intimate connection
with the Jaipaneive trd for the past effiht jean, Is prepuri
to transact any bueinesa enirusiea 10 ma care. uu aistwiicn.
LANGLEY, CROWELL & CO.,
32 Cor. Battery 4: Clay Sta, San Francisco. Cm
PATRONIZED BY ALL THE WORLD.
T) IMJIEL'S" IHLANO-IHLANG, VANDA, IIEN
J na. Jockey Clob, Frangipane, and other per
fumes of exquisite rrngranee.
lUMMEL'S Larendar Water, dUtilled from Jlit
Rimmei's Toilet Vinegar, celebrated for its useful
and sanitary properties.
Riuiincl'j Extract of Lime Juice and Glycerine, tbe
best preparation for the hair, especially in warm cli
mates. Kimmel'a Dugong Oil Soap, perfumed with Austra
Kioinicl'a Glycerine, Honey, Windsor and other
Uimmcl's Rose Water, Costnme and Floral Crack:
crs, very amusing for balls and parties.
Rimmel's Violet, Rose-leaf, Rice, and other Toilet
A liberal allowance lo shippers.
Perfumtr to II R II tbe PrioceM of Wales, 9R, Strand,
12S, Regent atrret, and 21, Cornhill, London;
17, Ilooletard dea Italiens, Paris, and 76, King's
8m- Sold by all Perfumery Vendors. 37-lyO
J. NOTT & CO.,
COri'KU TIN SaMITIIS, make every de
scription of work in their line, used on Planta
tions or eleewhere. Thej alto keep on hand a full
Sheet Copper, Sheet Tin,
Sheet Lead, Sheet Iron,
Iron Wire, Copper Wire,
Soft at Brass Solder, Pail Bars,
Pressed Backet Covers,
Black and Tinned Rivets,
Copper Rivets, etc.
Also on hand, a few more of
THOSE SPLBKDID COOKING STOl'ES
Received b j the "Syren,"
"Cotton Plant" and "Gray Jackets," together
with a variety of Japanned Ware, and many articles
useful in the Kitchen. J& Work on Buildings,
such as gutters, spouts, water-pipes, ic. Ship-work
will meet with prompt attention at No. 9 Kaabutnina
C. W. GREY fit CO.,
Hawaiian Soap Works,
At Lelco, Manufacturers and Dealers
In all kinds of Soap. Beef, Mutton, and Goat
Office, 30 Fort Seet, where orders wilt be received
and promptly attended to. 39
M. DICKSON has fitted up
(the Gallery on Fort Street, cast
side, between King and Hotel Sts.,
and is now prepared to take Pic
tures of any desired style or size.
Island Views for Sale. 43-6tne
Hawaiian Rrless Beef,
PACKED on the IInnd of Kauai, by an
experienced Butcher, and warranted as good
as any Reef put up on tbese Islands. Tor sale by
BOLLES i CO.
Hemp and Flax Canvas !
BEST AHBKO.YTU 3IAXUFACTUKE,
assorted Numbers, in bond or duty paid. For
sale by 2 BOLLES A CO.
Paints and PaintOil,
HUBIIARD'S best Iloiled Oil,
Hubbard's White Zinc.
Hulbard's White Lead,
J. T. W., White Lead.
Fancy Paints, a general assortment. For tale by
2 BOU.ES 4 CO.
Iron Stock Anchors,
IZF.fi, from 100 lbs. to 4,000 lbs., in
iona or amy paid, ror sale oy
BOLLES & CO.
BEST LEAF LARD,
TN 10-IiU TINS, RECEIVED PER ST'R
1 7 BOLLES A CO.
RED SALMON, in barrels A small lot of
not rery good quality, bot as good as the aver
age that is for sale about town. Call at
J BOLLES A CO.
CALIFORNIA LIME. We hare a regular
supply from the celebtated Santa Cms Lime
Kilns, which enables us to tell at the lowest rate.
- BOLLES A CO.
CHAIN, CABLES.-AII.siiei-from i to 1 5-8
inch, in Bond or daty paid." For sale by
3 - j-i mt-, -'.- BOLLES A CO.
PERM OIL Warranted the pnre article. For
laae oy t-j Atuiiiiris A uu.
SUGAlt & MOLASSES
1871 , 1S71
iiilo, n. J. 'Oy
Sugar and Molasses,
CROP SOW COMI.tG IN, nnd for sale
in quantities to suit pumhasers, by
l-3m WALKIK A ALLEN. AgenU.
Susrar and HIoItihCsi Crop 1S71
COMING IN. FOR SALE; IN QUANTITIES
to suit purchasers, by
l-3m WALKER A ALLEN. Agents.
fiiifrnr nnd DIoInMSCfi Crop 1S71
COMINO IN, FOR SALE U QUANTITIES
to suit purchasers, by
1-3 in WALKER d, ALLEN, Agents.
A"ct" Crop of Stinar & iiloIrtsihCH
OW COMING IN, AND FOR SAL! IN QUAN-
tities to suit purchaser ty
l-3ra 0. BREWER A CO., Agents.
-VfEW CROP NOW COMINO IN. FOR SALE
JLN in quantities to suit purchasers, by
l-3m C. BREWER A CO., Ag-nts.
IjH'EHLVL FIRE IXSURAXCK COjIPASY
Of Londoa. Instituted 1E03.
CASH CAPITAL,, 98,000, 000 In COLD.
riHK UNDKRS1GNKB are prepared to l-soe policies on
JL Fire Risks (with or withiput the average clause) oa
Plantation Buildines and Machinery, Private Dwellings,
Brick, Slone and Wooden Store.. Merchandise, Cools, Loru
ber, Shls in Port, Ac., ou the nust favorable terms.
A3 All Losses Adjusted and Paid for here. 5S
For particulars apply at tLe office of
52-1 y Agents fjr the Hawaiian Islands.
MARINE INSURANCE COMPANY
Of San Francisco
fail IE UNDERSIGNED aiarlug teen ap
Jt poloted Agents for the a bore Ctmpany, ar) prepared
to Jsue rolIc.es ou Cargoes, Jnlphta aul Treasure-
M'ALKKK ft ALLEN,
. l-3m Afrnts.lIonolii1a.
nmiE UaMIKUSIGNED, AGENTS of the
JL alKive Company, hare leen anthorizetl to Iniun risks
on Cargo, Freight and Trensiire, byCoaiters
front Honolulu to all ports vf the Hawaiian Oroup, and vice
&-lj6 II. HACK FELT) 4 CO.
FIEE INSURANCE COMPANY.
fDHIE TJNDEltSIGNED having Ixrn ap-
JL pointed Agents of the above Company, are prepared
tofnsnrerliWs against Fire, on Stone and Uriel. IIulM
lK, and on illercIiainIUe stored ttierein, io the
most ferorable terms. Fur partlcnla-s apply at theofTtceuf
&-ly6 F. A. gCIIAEFEK A CC.
rflllE AGENT FOIl THE IIKITISII For-
JL elgn Starine Insurance Comiany, (Limited), lias re
ceived instructions to red ace the rates ot Insurance
between Honolulu and 1'ortsln the Pacific, and Is now p re
pared tofsiue Policies at the lsnvett JtaUt. with a special
reduction on Freight per Steamers.
TI1E0. II. DAVIF3.
4S-ly7 Agent TJrit. For. Mar. Ins. Co. (Limited)
rlHE UNDERSIGNED. AGENTS OF THE
JL above Company, hare been authorized to Insure risks
on Cargo. Freight and Treasure, from Honolulu
to all rts of the world, andtlce versa.
18-lj6 II. IIACKFELD k CO
,4g3f TO I.RT, nt Mrs. T. Thrum's,
Ijr Nc. 29 King Street. 49-lyc
'I'ltc lYortli I'ncilic Xrniisporlalloii
SAN FRANCISCOJJ0N0LULU LINE.
The Company's Splendid Steamship
A J A X ,
It. S. FI.OVD, ... Commander,
AVilt Leave Snit Franclkeo
On or about .April 16th
Freight for San Francisco will be received at the
Steamer's Warehouse, and receipts for the sane,
given by the undersigned. No charge for storage
or cartage. Fire Risks in Warehouse, not taken by
Liberal AtlrnnccH 3XaIc ou nil Ship,
niciilst per Steamer.
Insurance guaranteed at Lower Rates than by Sail
log Vessels. Particular care taken of Shipments of
All orders for Goods to bo purchased in San Fran
cisco will he received, and filled by return of Steamer.
rbiptnents from Europe and the United States,
intended for these-Islands, aill be received by the
Company in Sail Francisco.it consigned to them, and
be forwarded by their Steamers to Honolulu, Face
or Charge, except actual outlay.
XtrPassengers aro requested to take their 'ickets
before 12 o'clock on tbe day of sailing, and to pro
cure their Passports.
l-3m II. IIACKFELD A CO., Agents.
STEAM TO AUSTRALIA & NEW ZEALAND
The California, New Zealand
i and Australian Mall I!ne of
, Steam Facketa.
The Splendid Steamships
WO MCA WONGA,
CITY of MELBOURNE.
...T. Grainger, Com'r,
CITY OF ADELAIDE,
Will run regularly between Kcnelslu and the above
ports, connecting at Honolaln with the North Pacific
Transportation Co's Steamers.
IIojolclu- W. L. GREEN.
AtCKLA5D H. il.JERVIS
SrD.ier..... . ..tT. II. HALL, U. S. Consul.
- Regular Packet for Molokaiv -
Schr. Pauahi, dL
Will run a a regular packet between Honolulu
and Molokai, touching at Kaunakakai and Pukoo.
For freight or-pueage apply- to tha Captain'on
board or ?r A . ' ' . -T' . ' .
,14m; g. PRENDERfl AST. Agent.
For Kohala, Hawaii.
Schr: Active, 3u
. Will Tan as a regular packet to the above ports.
For freight or passage apply to
l-3at WALKER A ALLEN, AgenU.
For the Employment of the Mono-Sulphite of
Lime Process in the Manufacture of Sugar.
This process consists of an altogether special
method of preparing Sulphite of Lime, and of
appljin; it in the decoloration and purification of
cane-jaice and sjrap.
The conditions which mnst be fulfilled for the
utilisation of this process are comprised therefore
in two kinds of operations, the one having refer
ence to the manufacture of the substance itself,
the other, the manner of employing it.
PREPARATION OF JlOXO-SCLPniTK OF LIME.
The .Mono-Sulphite of Lime, (insoluble, sul
phite of lime, proto-sulphite cf lime,) is easily
susceptible of deterioration, which renders it but
very little sensible to the action pf weak acid
contained in large liquid masses, iW therefore, re
quires to be manufactured at the very moment of
its employment, nnd in a particular manner.
In the method of its preparation resides the
success of its application to cane-juice and syrups.
It is important, therefore, to follow implicitly the
following directions, which, happily, arc of prompt
and ea3y execution.
First, however, it is necessary to say a few
words as to the action of the apparatus, which
has been so adapted as to permit of the manu
facture of the substance employed at the very
time its use is required.
This apparatus, (see note at ond.) by its eolidity,
particular arrangement, and the perfect regularity
of its action, satisfies a3 nearly as is possible tie
exigencies and usages of Colonial manufacture.
Producing, by means of tho combustion of raw
sulphur, a solution invariably charged with an
equal quantity of sulphurous acid, it allows of
tbe continuous manufacture of sulphite of lime
in tbe phce where it is constructed, and the cost
price of this substanco is only that of the sulphur
and limo which enter into iU combination, or in
other words, a nearly insignificant sum.
A ton of sulphite of lime, which contains 532
lbs. of sulphur nnd 032 lbs. of lime, can not in
fact cost, even taking into account tho labor re
quired for its production, more than fc,om 2 1G
to 3, that is to say, less than what only the
packing and freight of the same quantity of this
substance would cost if shipped from Kuropo.
The manufacture of the sulphite of lime in the
sugar-house itself has, therefore, not only the ad
vantage of permitting tho employment of nil
excellent substanco until now never usefully ap
plied, but also albws it to bo obtained nt an
extremely low price, thu3 freeing planters from
the exigencies of foreign traders.
To function tho apparatus, a small quantity of
sulphur is set fire to in the furnace (about ft).)
and when, after n few minutes, tho product of tho
combustion dUcngages itself in abundance through
the chimney, tho water reservoir is opened, and a
small stream of water allowed to flow, of snch a
volume that when the valve which is placed at
the end of tho last column of the apparatus is
three-fourths closed, the sulphur continues to
burn freely without tho escapo of any whito va
pors through the chimney being perceptible. In
this way, nearly tho wliolo of tbe sulphur is
utilised, and forms itself into sulphurous acid.
This accumulates in the apparatus, being dissolved
in the thin shower of water which falls slowly
into the cylindrical reservoir to which is attached
a discharge tap. In order to regulato the action
of the apparatus in a proper manner, it is neces
sary, first, to add from time to time a large hand
ful of sulphur, which is to be put in the furnace ;
second, to keep np a moderate and continuous flow
of water; third, to open tho valve only sufficiently
to permit of an active combustion without an ap
preciable loss of white vupor through the chimney
And now, the apparatus taing sufficiently
charged with the sulphurous solution, the follow
ing is the next step : By means of a leaden pipe
communicating at its upper end with the reser
voir tap, the liquid in the apparatus is allowed to
flow to the bottom of a circular wooden tub,
snch as the half of an ordinary beer cask. Be
fore, however, tha acid liquid is allowed to flow
into this, a small quantity of common lime, or,
better still, quick-lime finely sifted, must be
placed on the spot on which tho liquid will fall.
As soon 03 the liquid falls on the lime, the- whole
must be stirred round, and the circular movement
thus given to tho mass must be continued I h rough
out tho operation, that is, until all the limo is
transformed into sulphite. This Information is
complete when the liquid contained in the tub.
previously milky white, becomes of a decidedly
Bat it is necessary, and is an essential point in
tbe operation, that a little more of tha sulphurous
acid should be allowed to flow from the apparatus
than is requisite to saturate tho lime. To de
termine the quantity,' there should be plunged
into the liquid contained in the tub a piece of
litmns paper which should at once turn red. This
acidity in the yellow mixture formed in the tub
need not be very decided, but it is indispensable ;
for, otherwise, it will not be long before the
sulphite will undergo modifications rendering it
little fit to act efficaciously upon tho cane-juice
As lime varies in quality according to tho care
taken in its preparation, it would be difficult to
determine once and for always what quantity of
this substanco should be ad Jed Us the sulphurous
solution so a3 to manufacture the Mono-Sulphite,
bat a preliminary experiment, easily made, wiI
enablo anyone to do so in his individual case :
Having allowed the sulphurous acid lo run into
the tub up to a mark indicating the volume of
fluid intended lo ba taken from the apparatns at
ea-ih operation, say 20 gallons then a fixed
quantity of sifted lime of the same quality as is
intended to be afterwards nsed. say 2 tt3. n to
be thrown by small portions into the liquid in the
tub until its acidity shall have nearly disappeared.
All thai then remains to be done is to weigh the
lima which remains in hand, so as to ascertain
the quantity required for 20 gallons of the sul
phurous solution. Having these data it will ba
easy tojiave a little tin vessel made which will
serve to measure very approximately the quantity
of lime required for each operation.
The litmus paper will indicate', in case of any;
change in the, quality. cf-lVw-liBMreissfysd,
whether, the., dose, of Ihk ftalistanee sfcoald be
augmented or diminished. The test hy raeBi of
this paper is necessary at each operation by per
sons not accustomed to prepare tbe sulphite of
lime adapted to this process, for alone by that
test can be recognized .the exaci degree of acidity
of tbe yellowish mixture ; and, 03 wo have already
stated, one of the essential conditions of the
efficacy of tho sulphite of lime is, that it is re
tained in a liquid somewhat acid until the mo
ment of its employment. This acidity, too weak
to increase to an apprccitble extent that of tho
cane-juico to which- the mixture is added only in
the proportion of from 2 to 3 per cent., serves to
keep isolated, and in a pure state, tho fine parti
cles which constitute the pair-Jar under form of
which the sulphite of lime has" been obtained. It
prevents, in fact, their change on their enrface
into a mixture or Sulphate and Snb-Sulphite,
which, enveloping them as it wero in a shell,
renders them unadapted to be submitted to the
action of weak and diluted acids.
To resume, then :
1. Tho snlphito of lime must bo prepared at
the same moment that it is to be employed.
2. It mast be obtained in tho form of a very
3. It must be retained in the liquid in the form
in which it has been made, so that the particles
or grains of which it is constituted shall remain
isolated and entirely pure.
Before using the limo in tho preparation of tho
sulphite, it will always bo well to wash it, as by
this means tha small quantity of soluble salts it
contains will be removed.
MODK OF F.MPLOrltEXT FOR CASK-JUICE.
Mono-Sulpbito of Limo being insoluble, neces
sitates certain precautions if it i3 to be success
fully employed. It is not sufficient that it should
be mixed with the cane-juice, but care must bo
taken that it is in conlnct with the sugar-juice
during the greater part of the timo occupied in
the proces of evaporation.
When the cane-juico fior73 from the rollers of
the sugar-mill it onght to be rapidly cleared from
all the bits of cane-trash it brings with it by
means of a strip ot brass not. It should then be
allowed to settle in the tank from eight to ten
minutes, so as to allow of tho precipitation of tho
finer particles of trash which tho sieve has let
Daring thi.i time, in order to provint any
fermentation, the surfiico of the cane-juico is
sprinkled with small quantities of the sulphite of
limo mixtnro: which will accumulate in a great
measure in tho scum thrown up, and -a ill ulti
mately be found at the bottom of the tank when
tho cane-juico is run out.
The cane juice is then conducted to tho evapor
ating apparatus, and to it is to bo added from 2
to 3 per cent, of the yellowish liquid, or slightly
acid liquid containing tho sulphitu of lime in
By tho movement given (o the cane-juice, the
sulphite, of limo, owing to the smallne3s of the
particles tn which it has been obtained, spreads
easily over tbe wholo mass of tho sugar-liquid,
upon which it will soon exercise its double
influence, that is to say, its purifying au.l decolor
Here it must be observed that thero are two
methods of openi'ion, deponding on, 1st, whether
the cane-juice is to bo sent directly into the bat
tery, (boiling-paus.) or, 2d, whether it has to
submit to a preliminary defecation in double
bottomed tanks heated by steam, and then con
centrated in the battery, or in tbe tripple-efiect
I. In the first case, the chief care during the
open fire evaporation process should bo tho isola
tion of the scum thrown up in the firit two boil
ing pans, and to prevent its mixture with tho
liquid contained in the forward pans. The surest
means to obtain thi3 result is to make use.of a
plank fixed at 18 inches below the surface of the
liquid, and adjusted throughout the length. of the
partition which separates the second and third
pans, and to for n an opening in the middle of
tho plank in which should be placed a moveable
blade. This should bo so swung as to allow only
tho purified cane-jaice to pass free from scum.
But thero Is one peculiarity which can not be
too mach insisted on, as upon it depends entirely
tho success of the process : it is that which con
cerns tho re-action in tbe sugar-juico. It is es
sential that tins re-action be slightly acid during
the whole duration ol tho work, not alone when
the joico is in the battery, but when ho clarified
juice, after sufficient decantering, i3 concentrated
in tho vacuum pan, or iti a low-temperature ip
paratns. The neutralization of this acidity, even
for a moment, will inevitably lead to modification
in the remits the process is destined to realize.
At the same time it would be wrong to allow
this acidity to develop itself beyond a certain
degree, fur pushed too far it will cause great in
conveniences. Here, again, tbe litmu3 parpcr is
to be employed, so as to ascertain the precise
limit which should be preserved. A slip of this
paper plunged in tbe different pans will constantly
indicate the acidity, which increases 03 the last
pan is approached ; and this is explained by tbe
fact of tho concentration of the liquid and the
liability of the cane-juico to becoma acid nnder
the influence of beat. If no lime were added,
tbe natural acidity of the j lice, which is gradually
evaporating, would exceed the degree necessary
to be maintained.
It is requisite, then, to throw on the boiling
surface in the fourth and fifth pans, (and there
only,) a certain quantity of very weak lime and
water, in such a way as lo reduce the acidity of
the sugar liquid when that acidity augments be
yond measure ; but a too large quantity of lime
and water mu3t be carefully avoided, (Or it is im
portant that the a:id or acids of tbe juice Shall
never be altogether neutralized.
To determine this essential point in.the process,
it mnst be stated that tbe acid rc-actiort. to be
maintained ought to be each thai tbe clarified
juice marking 20 to 22 3 BeaumV ahall redder;
the litmns paper to a somewhat greater extent
than when it U placed in the cane-jaice directed
into the bxUer.'
The carefal observation of this degretS of acidity
is most important In point of fact, tbe acidity
to be maintained sbonld be only somewhat mora
apparent than that which i natural to the cane
jaice. By ocliaj in the way described, the quantity
of sugar ioterverted, as has been shown by nu
merous conparative analyses, is very much tcss
than is generally produced by other procei5e3, for
t h ese are 1 rat fireft ra' fcsaed rfirieTjr pfeiy
theoretical Ideas), mi reawin coaseqaeatty ia pos
sible of execution, being incompatible witk, tha
actual restrarcts aad requirements" of Colonial
Tha clarified iaico withdrawn from tha battery
and marking 16 to 22 B rapidly tkrosoff
the solid atom3 it brings np with' it, and after a
few boars settling it becomes decolorized and
limpid. Afterwards, retaken from the vacuum
pan, it furnishes a mass of fair crystallino differ
ing rery slightly from that obtained by tbe use of
animal charcoal. Tha facility with which tho
juice crystallizes nnder this process, rendara it
necessary that the cooked juice should be run off
when less firm than is usual in other processes.
The tnrbinage is easily effected and requires less
water to be used than ia ordinarily the case when
whitening sugar in a complete manner.
2. AVhen tanks heated by steam are used be
fore sending the cane-juice into the battery, the
Mono-Solphilo of lime mixture is introduced
directly into the defecator, but only 2 per cent
is employed. After having thoroughly mixed it
with the juice, the defacaticn is proceeded witb.
and should last at least n quarter of an hour
Then the scum is removed, and the sugar liquid
is allowed to run into tha reservoir in which tho
decantering is effected. This being accomplished,
the juico is drawn off, and at the moment it flows
into the battery a further quantity of tho Sn!
phitQ liquid is added, say about I per cent The
rest of the operation is effected in the manner
3. When tho first work of concentration, in
placo of being accomprlied in operfirCajs effected
In a tripple-effect apparatus, the mode of proceed
ing just indicated may be advantageously modi
It is then easy to obtain from the first com.
mencement a complete defacatlon. which simpli
fies and ameliorates tho employ of tbe tripple
effect system. In this case the following is done :
The cane-jucice,to which only small dososj of
tho sulphite of limo inij.lure is added to prevent
fermentation, is directed into the dcsbte-boltom
tanks, where it is submitted at first to an ordinary
defacation by means or lime. This is thrown in
little by little 10 tho form of a fine powder, and
the quantity to be employed ought to bo such that
after the removal of tho scum, the juico should
evidently possess the same degree of aridity as
before the introduction of the lime. This result
is generally obtained by employing six to seven
ounces of limo for about CO gallons of juice.
Tho defacation accomplished, and tbe scum
removed, the Sulphite mixturewhich, boacver,
should bo made slightly mora acid than when it
is employed in tho battery, is introduced into the
liquid mass to tbe extent of 3 per cent Tha
whole is then mixed up and stirred about several
times ; it is again heated during eight to ten
minutes, and il is allowed to run into reservoirs
where the decantation is effected very rapidly.
The cane-juico thus prepared can bo concentrated
by the tripple-effect system without tearing any
deposit worth mentioning. .
MODE OF UMrLOYMRXT FOR gYRUrg.
Tho syrups remaining from tho tnrbinago of
sugars, when treated with Mono-sulphite of Lime,
givo most advantageous results. Under tie in
llueuco of that agent, syrups become purified,
decolorized, and crystallized with remarkable
. TLo inodo'of employing tho sulphite of limo
doe not differ from that already indicated in the
treatment of cane-!uicc. The quantity alone has
to be varied accord ng to tho degree of decolora
tion and purification obtained tbrorgh the pre
vious action of the sulphite on the cane-juicc.
This quantity should be from 1 to 5 per cent,
of the volume of gyrnp brought to 25 s B.. that
is to say. from 1 to 5 gallons of the yellowish
sulphite of limo mixture lo 100 gallons of syrup
mioglcd with water to tha degreo most con
venient for its cooking, namely, 25 B.
Tho syrup should be recently produced, and
have an acidity very nearly the same as that of
tbe clarified juico taken from the battery. When
it is not fresh, lime and water must bo added be
fore treating it with the sulphite. In point ot
fact, the syrup should bo mado, as far as possiblo
with regard to acidity, to rcsumblo tha Vcsoa,
and the quantity of Sulphite of Lime to ba em
ployed should be mora or less in proportion as
the syrup is darker colored and less pure.
Thero is ona poiut. to which it is most im
portant to csll attentionand that is,' that syrup
have generally a great tendency to become acid
as soon as their temperature risos above tha or
dinary heat. Consequently, it is ofun best to
add to them a certain quantity of lime and wider
before applying the Mono-Sulphitn. This quan
tity of lime and water shocld ba in proportion lo
the greater or less facility with which tha
syrups become acid when their temperature is
J Under these circumstances, great care should
ba exercised in observing tbe degree of acidity
of the syrup3, nnd before raising their tempera
tcro enough limo should he added to keep this
acidity sufficiently weak during the whcla boiling
Manufactured by this process, syrup mpjr.i
have a perfect grain and a very fine color. Thi3
amelioration, however, is not entirely due to tho
difect influence of the substance "employed ; it )
also results from the purification to which tha
Vcsoa has already been submitted, and tho
absence in the syrnp of those foreign soloole
matters which, as is koown, are ono of tha prin
cipal obstacles to tbo crystallization of sunn of
j the second boiling.
Notb. This apparatus is not exclusively adapted
for the application of tbe process In question. In
tended to manufacture Sulphurous Acid andtheSut
phllcs, It will servo to put Into practice other
methods which are not tbe object of special reserva
tion!, sucb, for Instance, as those consisting of tba
direct employment of Sulphurous' Acid or BI Sal
phtts solutions.- These methods, practiced at dif
ferent epochs by Melseos, Stowart, Ectogso. and
others, have this inconvenience, that tbey do not
J operate In a precise manne-ivand necetsitala a sur
veillance not alwavs obtainable la Coloob! sugar
nouses, .-lererineieis, lo experienced bands, laey
may glvo good results. Therefore, It is not oat or
place to summarize them In a tavr Hoes bt tho la
formation of those persons who may dolreto pot
them to the test of experiment. Leaving- aside tha
small differences which characterize tbem, they may
I tie considered to Cuibrace three modes of proceed-
log. Ona consists lo Introducing sulphurous acid,
j or a solution, more or less concentrated, ot bl-
suipniic utrcctiy into locczse-jaice as iv rsca irora
the rollers of the sugar mill, aod emplojlog lime at
a certain determined moment In tha cvaporatics
pr&ccat, AaotheracU In aaoppoaUe sense, that I
toaay,' ttra aeete U at aVtaatasaaVeJbaSYcaon; wife
llmc, end to t .Wee salftiaratatiseW site tiae Jafett
baa nearly reached It bollisg pata. The IMrd, U
the employment of a solutloa of W MpUte. acre
or lea coneeatrated, la the lriotf reaejered HaHa
by a heavy eVaae ofKajei-- Tba aslpharottt x'A to ba
used In taoe caaee-b tbe cU solatlon piodacve by
tbe appnratB. K-Salphlle of LIrar, to -widen
or all the Bl Sulphites the preierelKo- ahostd bo
given, is prepared by adding tho same solotloa to
lime nnCI (be mixed Hat, Id. alTnrst whitish, then
yellonrisb, becomes entirely transparent.