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NOVEMBER 9, 1894.
EMPRESS DOWAGER OF CHINA.
The history of the present Empress
Dowager of China is a romantic
one. It surpasses in incidents
the fairy tales of the children. Sold
in Canton as a slave, to a celebrated
Chinese general, owing to
the extreme poverty of her parents,
Ehe became his adopted daughter
and, on his receiving great distinction
and honor from the Emperor,
Hein Fung, he presented her as a
gift to the Emperor, and she became
one of his wives. She was
celebrated for her beauty and tact.
Although a Chinese, and forbidden
by law to become the wife of a Tartar
Emperor, the fact of her Chinese
birth was concealed, and she
was made the first wife, but lived
on cordial terms with the other
wife. She became the mother of a
Heavenly son," who was heir to
the Empire. The royal family was
driven from Pekin by the French
troops, in 1SG0, and the Emperor
died. In spite of great intrigue
against her, 6he placed her son on
the throne, by masterly strategy,
and she became Regent. Her son
ascended the throne in 1873. He
suddenly died in 1S75. The son of
Prince Kung was then declared
Emperor, and the Empress Dowager
continued to be the chief adviser
in all political matters, although
Prince Kung is the Regent. After
many years she declared her Chinese
origin, and sought out and
found her brother, who waB living
on a farm in poverty, and she raised
him to a high station. In spite of
her violation of the law, in marrying
a Tartar ruler, she allayed all
hostile feeling against her, and remains
a great power in the vast
THE JAPANESE COUNSEL.
The report of the committee of
the Planters' Association, on the
labor question is admirable, in
many respects. It contains, however,
a statement which is, we
believe, incorrect. The counsel
employed, in the defense of the
Japanese, who are charged with
offenses, receives no compensation,
whatever, from the Japanese
Govemmen, but is paid
out of the sum received by the contractor
who supplies laborers. The
employment of such counsel is
done, we were informed by Mr. R.
"W. Irwin, in order to assure the
Government of Japan, that the
Japanese, many of whom are ignorant,
would be fully protected under
the laws of Hawaii. He believed
that any miscarriage of justice
would imperil the immigration
from that country.
Regarding the remarks of the
counsel for the Japanese, on their
trial for offenses, we do not attempt
to defend Mr. Xeumann. He can do
that for himself. It must not be
forgotten, however, that the public
policy of the Anglo - Saxon
race, permits, and even protects,
extravagant Epeech. Counsel are
not required to "pick out their
words." The history of jurisprudence
shows, that counsel are allowed
to use absurd, impolitic, and
-even seditious language, in the defense
of clients. This may be an
evil, but it is a lesser evil than that
of defining their limits of speech.
The intelligent, and honest committee
failed, for the moment, to
see, that their criticism was far
reaching, and might be taken to be
an attack on our system of jurisprudence,
rather than an attack on
the counsel for the Japanese. It is
unfortunate, of course, that we have
ignorant laborers here, who do not
understand all this. "Gentlemen
of the jury," said an excited lawyer,
"if you convict my client, you
turn back the wheels of time, and
break up society, and stains your
hands with blood." And then they
convicted his client, and all was
HAWAIIAN GAZETTE: FRIDAY, N0VE2O5EB 9, 1894.
LABOR IN THE TROPICS.
In the able and valuable report
on the labor question, read by Mr.
Swanzy on Monday before the
Planters' Association, he says that
"laborers Bhould be of a race
capable of continued exertion under
a tropical sun, and no other
class of laborers will ever be able
to thoroughly assist in the development"
of our agricultural resources.
There i3 much difference of opinion,
everywhere, regarding "capacity
to labor in the tropics," be-
I cause tne subject nas not oeen
thoroughly investigated. We remember
that, before the civil war
in America, the Southern planters
claimed that the white men could
not work in the cotton fields. At
that very time we saw, in Louisiana,
gangs of Irishmen digging
ditches, and the boss 6aid, "No
nigger can do the work of these
men." Thousands of German
farmers are now raising cotton in
Texas with their own hands. Tens
of thousands of American farmers
who, before the war, did not believe
that the white men could work in
the hot sun of the South, are now
tilling the soil. Northern men,
who have emigrated to Florida, are
personally cultivating the land.
The Japanese live in a semi-cold
climate; so do the Germans and
Belgians. The Norwegians worked
without difficulty in our cane-fields,
we are told. During the
working season in California the
heat greatly exceeds that of these
Men from the higher latitudes,
when they live in the tropics, make
the error of clinging to the habits
of labor common in those higher
latitudes. It is we believe, a fact
that wherever such men have wisely
considered the climatic conditions,
and adapted themselves to them,
they can produce the same results
in agricultural work in all climates.
The growing season in Canada is
limited to about four months of the
year, while in the tropics, there is
no limit. This great climatic difference,
must, and should, greatly
modify the methods of labor in the
Heretofore, the men of the higher
latitudes have made the "inferior"
men of the tropics work for them
with cheap wages, and have, themselves,
superintended the work.
"Whenever they fail to get this
cheap labor, and are compelled to
do their own manual labor, they
have done it better than the men of
the tropics can do it. In theBe islands,
the climate is singularly favorable
to open air work. The labor
trouble does not arise from climate,
but from the refusal of the white
men to work for $15 a month.
Opinions on this subject have greatly
changed during the last few
While the matter of the cultivation
of canaigre is attracting much
attention here, it is wise to look
closely at the commercial side of it.
Already its cultivation has begun
in California on a large scale, and
there is a vast territory open to it
in New Mexico and Arizona. Time
only will settle thr question of overproduction.
Mr. D. B. Mason, the
Vice-Consul General of the United
States in Vienna, has lately sent to
the State Department, in Washington,
a valuable paper on the subject,
in which he 6tates that the chemists
are agreed that the tanning material
of the canaigre is especially excellent.
As to commercial value,
he sayB :
"It is very similar to gambier in
its tanning properties, and, if it is
ever to be exported in large quan
tities to Europe, it will have, for
the amount of tanning power, to be
as cheap as, or cheaper, than the
last named article. It is for this
reason that gambier has a particular
importance for everyone interested
in the sale of canaigre."
This statement of its probable
value is important in making an
estimate of the profits to be made
out of it.
While the tanning material derived
from the use of bark, is decreasing
slowly in quantity, every
year, it will not be exhausted for
many years, and canaigre will
come in competition with it. There
is no reason for any discouragement
in pushing its culture here,
but the safest course is, to make
moderate experiments, at first.
A NEW PARTY.
The "American Protective Association"
is a new and disturbing
elements in American politics. Its
moving spirit is anti-Catholicism,
and its membership is recruited
mainly from the Republican party.
So far, it has worked secretly, and
within the lines of the Republican
part', and it shows the greatest
vigor in the Western States. The
rise of the "A. P. A." is due to the
great growth of Catholicism during
the last few years, and a foolish
fear that it will dominate American
Rev. Dr. Lyman Abbott spoke
recently, in Plymouth Church, on
the subject :
"The American Protective Association,"
he said, "declares that the
Roman Catholic Church is opposed to
our public schools. That is not true.
Some Roman Catholics, some power-
lui members oi tne cnurcn, are opposed
to the schools, but the Church
Dr. Abbott said that it was the duty
of all Christians to commend the good
done by all denominations. It was
an easy thing to pass judgments on
this or that creed. Some say that the
Roman Catholic Church is the only
Divine Church, and others that it is
Antichrist, the Scarlet Woman, but
both these judgments are wrong.
While there were pages of the Roman
Catholic Church written in blood, yet
there were other nacres luminous with
light and noble things. It was their
duty to commend the good and condemn
Dr. Abbott declared that the Protestant
spirit of intolerance was
shown in the American Protective
Association, and he read a nortion of
the oath of the association, in which
the members pledge themselves not
to employ a Catholic servant.
"I would rather," he continued,
"combat the intolerance of the nineteenth
century than combat the intolerance
of the dead Popes of the fifteenth
century. Combat intolerance
wherever you find it; combat intolerance
in your own hearts; combat the
intolerance that sneers at the black-
robed women, who have devoted their
lives to the care of the sick and poor,
who have cared for the wounded on
the battlefields, combat the intolerance
which manifests itself in your
breast at the sight of a man who
wears a cross on his breast."
Dr. Abbott said that many eminent
Catholic dignitaries believed in the
American public school system. He
commended Bishop Watterson for the
stand he had taken on the liquor
question, and hoped that Protestants
wouiu lonow ms example. In conclusion
he expressed the hope that
Christians of all denominations would
exercise larger charity in dealing with
tho3e who differed from them.
The Catholics will mass themselves
in opposition to this party,
if it continues to grow, and they
may, in the end, get a balance of
political power, which will make
OLD AQE PENSIONS.
Mr. Joseph Chamberlain, the brilliant
English statesman, and leader
of the Liberal Unionist Federation,
has shocked British conservatism,
by the proposition to bestow old
age pensions upon workingmen,
and provide each one of this class
with a house on easy terms of purchase.
The German government
is now carrying out Bismarck's old
age insurance fund, but Mr. Chamberlain's
plan goes far beyond it.
It is possible that this plan, or
one like it, will be the solution of
one of the most complicated prob
lems of modern life, in which so
many men abandon agricultural
for industrial or the artisan's life.
Of course the promoters of this
plan will meet with the
that men "lie down" when
ever anyone undertakes to provide
for them, and the bad side of the
plan is, that it may encourage idleness.
At the same time, there is a
vast amount of physical and mental
suffering arising from sickness,
and other causes, for which the
workmen is not directly responsible.
The proposal made by Mr. Chamberlain
is another instance of the
queer freaks of British politics, the
swinging of the political pendulum
from conservatism to radicalism.
Disraelli showed it when he out-
Heroded Herod, in out-reforming
Underneath all this i3 the
fact that there is an evolution
for the better, whatever the
conditions of politics may be, and
it enlarges the plan of life insurance
so that it wili'reach all classes
AMERICAN NAVAL STATIONS.
The rapid destruction of war
ships, during the recent battle between
the Chinese and Japanese
vessels, creates considerable excitement
among navy men in
Washington. As these vessels contain
many steam and electric engines,
used in the navigation of
the vessels, and the movement of
the guns, this machinery is liable
to great destruction. Besides
this, the use of large guns carrying
shot and shell of enormous weight,
makes the injury far greater than
that done by the light, old-fashioned
guns. There is, therefore,
need of many and efficient dock
yards, to which injured vessels may
resort at once for repairs.
The importance of the Pearl
Harbor station for the use of the
American navy becomes more imperative
since the late sea fights.
The distance between the Asiatic
and Chinese coast is 60 great, that
a middle station is absolutely necessary
for quick operations.
"The unexpected always happens."
Naval men believed that
the exhaustive and final tests of
the efficiency of modern war ships,
in actual combat would take place
between the European powers. Instead
of this being the case, the
first and most important test takes
place, with modern ships, between
those nations who have had the
least experience in naval warfare,
and between nations whose attitude
toward the United States, is
of much greater importance to
them, thau the attitude of the European
OPINIONS ABOUT AMERICA.
Ka Leo (Royalist journal) impressively
gives reasons "why the
Hawaiians cannot join the Government
of the United States."
That "government, named a republic
of starving millions, is
acknowledged by its leading men
to be as corrupt a condition as a
government possibly can be," and,
"it is not a desirable government
for any one to become a citizen of,
unless he has ample means, and is
unscrupulous and ready to take
every advantage of his neighbor ;
he must be unprincipled and without
honor," and "the people of Hawaii
would be fools to agree to annexation
What, now, have the people of
the United States to say ? Are they
deserving of the acute pain they,
and each of them must feel, at this
crushing comment on their character
by the purest and most
learned journal of Hawaii ? Even
if the people of the States have not
made such great strides in education.,
commerce, and all material
prosperity as the natives have, Mr.
BuBh should'nt twit them about
their shortcomings. Far better, if
he, and Mr. Nawahi would travel
through the States, as apostles
of Hawaiian purity and nobility of
character, exhibiting themselves as
the consummate flowers of native
civilization, teaching the backward
and besotted youth of America the
glory and sweetness of their own
lives. And they could do nothing
lesB than found a great institution
in the States, within which the ambitious
young men of that vast con
tinent may learn to love " poi and
gin," those two precious substances,
which the other royalist journal,
the Holomua, says are the glory or
shame of Hawaii, it doesn't know
There is something pathetic in
the spectacle of a compact, vigorous,
enlightened race, though few
in numbers, with an interpid
Moses, like Mr. Bush, as its leader,
casting the people of the United
States into the outer darkness. It
reminds us of the editorial in a
newspaper published by the boys
consigned to the Elmira Reforma
tory, for sneak-thieving : " Let us
not associate with evil-minded persons."
Mr. Bush, spare, oh spare,
the American people.
For a pain in the side or chest
there is nothing so good as a piece
of flannel dampened with Chamber-ain's
Pain Balm and bonnd on over
the seat of pain. It affords prompt
and permanent relief and if nsed in
time will often prevent a cold from
resulting in pneumonia. This same
treatment is a snre cure for lame
back. For sale by all Dealers.
I Bessox, Sihth & Co., Agents for H.I.
THIS ONE TOOK THE PRIZE,
Model Platform of the Republicans
DECLARES ITSELF IN FEW WORDS.
Sentiment) Thnt Mutt Appeal to Intelligence
roiltlre and I'atrlotlc Covers
Every Current le Even Hawaii
Coraeii In fur a ISrlef Mention.
O TTk" THE State of
there are some
of the leading
of the day. In
which owns Bunker Hill has developed
rational reforms. Many of
their cranks have become oracles.
In every campaign Massachusetts
produces refreshing men and
measures and dotuments. Now
the Republicans of that State have
put forth a platform that is a per
fect model of form and expression.
It has been published from one end
of the country to the other. This is
all of it :
The principles of the Republicans
of Massachusetts are as well known as
the Commonwealth itself; well known
as the Republic; well known as liberty;
well known as justice. Chief
among them are:
An equal share in government for
Best possible wages for every workman.
The American market for American
Every dollar paid by the Government,
both the gold and silver dollars
of the constitution and their paper
representatives, honest and unchanging
in value and equal to every other.
Better immigration laws.
. Better naturalization laws.
No tramp, anarchist, criminal or
pauper to be let in, so that citizenship
shall not be stained or polluted.
Sympathy with liberty and republican
government at home and
The flag never lowered or dishonored.
No surrender in Samoa.
No barbarous queen beheading men
No punishment without trial.
Faith kept with the pensioner.
No deservingold soldierin the poor-
The suspension of dram drinking
and dram selling.
A. school at the public charge open
to all the children, and free from partisan
or sectarian control.
No distinction of birth or religious
creed in the rights of American citizenship.
Devotion paramount and supreme
to the country and to the flag.
Reform of old abuses.
Leadership along loftiest paths.
Minds ever open to the sunlight and
the moraine: ever onen to new truth
and new duty, as the new years bring
What a speech Ben Butler would
have made with that platform as a
REPUBLIC OF HAWAII.
DEDICATED TO MRS. S. B. DOLE.
Republic of Hawaii,
Thy praise I sing.
Thou embrace all races
In harmony's ring.
United we stand, divided we fall.
Aloha and peace may reign overall.
Republic of Hawaii,
My home, dear home.
From Waikikl's beach
To Maunaloa's dome,
This beautiful land of love and of
Is paradise here for age and for
Republic of Hawaii,
Thou land of dreams.
With mountains so high
And valleys with streams,
Where Maile round Koa lovingly
And moon ever pure and silvery
Republic of Hawaii
ke hand and heart.
From thee my country I never will
Should clouds ever rise, bo all true
Till Hawaiian palms wave over our
Aloha Hawaii !
H. W. Schmidt.
Maluhia, July, 1894.
-England's Policy a Failure.
The London Post has the following
editorially on the cabin nnr?
Neckar island :
"England's policy in the Pacific
never has been a success. Now we
have to humble ourselves to the Sandwich
islands. Whether the Colonies
knew Neckar island was Hawaiian
territory or not when they sent their
messages to the Colonial Secretary in
London, they committed a
in making them public. It is
largely due to the unusual course of
the Colonies that we are placed in this
" -' fTT f -
October 26, i8g4.
If the United States government
should place no obstacles
in the way of the cable scheme
from Vancouver to the Colonies
via Honolulu, Hawaii nei
will, within the next two years
take on a new lease of life.
Instead of a couple of third-rate
steamers on the Canadian
line, there will be five of the
first-class. Emigrants will
learn more about our country
and the lands will be settled by
the small farmer. Houchins'
Water Filters at a dollar
apiece will be in demand by
thousands instead of hundreds
as it is today. The islands will
be joined by a local cable line
and the country in general will
be in the swim instead of the
soup. The advent of a cable
will bring to our shores men
with progressive ideas, men
who by their acts will better
themselves, at the same time
improve the condition of the
country. Hawaii is all right; it
has the finest climate in the
world and the people would
wax rich on it if climate was
a commercial commodity the
trouble is with the people.
Compared with the United
States, we areliving in the era, of
pantalettes instead of bloomers.
that will make
us shake off the lethargy
that the people have lived
in since the time ofwhaleships.
Give us a cable and we will
have new blood. The newspapers,
instead of publishing
boiler plate will give the news
of the world for breakfast
You will learn, probably, that
the metallic refrigerator we
are selling is the greatest ice
saver of the age and that it is
economy, money in your purse
to buy one. We put thirty
pounds of ice in one of the
boxes on Friday evening and
it was not all melted until
Monday afternoon, keeping
the lower portion of the box
at a temprature of 58 all the
time. If you can get a wooden
refrigerator or ice box that
will do better than that you
ought to buy one. We've
never seen them.
Incidentally we have mentioned
Houchins' Tap Water
Filter; now we will tell you
what it is. An arrangement
that fits on to the faucet and
filters the muddy water as
clear as crystal. Talk ahmif
microbes; they're not to be
found in filtered water, and
where can you find anything
to equal the Houchin filter for
a dollar. We have them for
the regular hose pipe, the
size generally used here and
we expect a big demand for
The very unique Electric
table bells so much used in the
United States have a place
wiui us. xou can have one
for two and a half.
Rain guages that will tell
you to a drop how much rain
falls in your locality during the
night or all day for that matter,
reached us by the
together with a complete
assortment of pocket knives
from Wostenholms factory.
The celebrated "Fred
Archer" racing glass, used almost
exclusively at the Derby
by London's swagger set may
be obtained from us.
The Hawaiian Hardware Co. Ml
Opposite Sprockets' Block,
8 BORT STRKBX.