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LETTER FROM E. KOPKE,
II "r" - frfr- Fg t,u j ii ...wgpM
Honolulu, December, lS9i.
B. F. Dillingham,
General Managev 0. 11. & Co.,
t,.t, Rtd At. vnnv vpnufist, T have carefullv looked
in) the problem of irrigating the lands of the proposed
Oiiu Sugar Company situated in Ewa district, Oahu.
?or this purpose I have made myself acquainted with
tl different points of interest on the lands and have'
biore me a survey, given to me by Mr. C. H. Kluegel.
sbwing the areas under different levels and other im
In my calculation of pumping expenses 1 have taken
fjures from actual experience and have been careful to
flow liberal margins everywhere. In determining the
mount of water required per acre I have taken for my
asis 25 per cent, more than is used on Ewa plantation,
nd have counted on 250 days irrigating per year,
7hereas 200 days is more than on an average irrigation
Till be carried on, especially as these lands have the
jenefit of showers of rain which do not reach the lower
;(a) Springs. There is a stream at the lower part of
these lands which obtains its water from springs, which
was measured by Messrs. Allardt and Schuyler, both
engineers of high standing, and found to flow over 42
cubic feet of water per second; this amount of water
will irrigate 3300 acres of cane land. This amount of
water can undoubtedly be increased, as some of xhe
springs supplying the stream discharge their water
several feet about the bottom of the creek, and by lower
ing their place of discharge the amount of water will
be increased. How much this increase will be can only
be found by trial and cannot enter into this calculation.
(h) Artesian wells. All artesian wells which have
been bored in this district have shown a wonderful
supply of water. There are 12 ten-inch wells, on Ewa
plantation, all in a space of 150 feet by 100 feet, which
deliver constantly through the driest part of the year
fifteen million gallons per day without showing any
diminution in the supply. About one-third of a mile
from this station there is another one with six wells
which delivers seven and a half million gallons with
the same results; all these wells are to the west of the
proposed "Oahu Sugar Company." To the east there
are the wells in Pearl City and the peninsula which give
an abundance of water. I am not able to give the
capacity of either of these wells, but none of them have
been exhausted by pumping.
There is no reason to believe that wells on this-proposed
plantation will not do just as well as the ones
mentioned above. One or two wells dug at the very
place, where a proposed pumping station is to be placed,
would certainly expel all doubt, if there is any, in
regard to the water supply by artesian wells.
There seems to be a good chance of storing storm
water in reservoirs. The water might be led out of the
gulches by ditches "or flumes and stored in reservoirs
situated above the cane fields. As this is a problem for
a civil engineer to solve, I shall not enter into it any
The amount of water and the height it has -to be
lifted, being considerable, it becomes absolutely neces
sary that only very large steam pumps of the most
approved designs and construction be used in order
to obtain a very high degree of economy. "With the
different types of pumps on these islands used for the
purpose of irrigating cane land, different degrees of
efficiency are oMained. Having the data of the more
important of these machines, very valuable points
may be obtained for purchasing and erecting a new
plant of this nature.
COST OF IRRIGATION PER ACRE.
In starting the plantation the lower lands, say under
300 feet elevation, will be planted first, and as more
land will have" to be taken in, the adjacent lands above
will come under cultivation up to 650 feet above sea
level. This elevation takes in an area of over 10,000
acres as shown in map before mentioned.
It is evident that the lower lands will cost less for
irrigation than the upper ones, and therefore irrigation
expenses for the first years will be less than afterwards,
when the higher lands have been taken up. I cannot
at this moment determine how land under different
elevations will come" under cultivation and shall there
fore take the average height of all the lands under 650
feet elevation and base on this the calculation of ex
penses. The average height is obtained by multiplying
the different areas by their respective heights, adding
these products together and dividing the sum of these
products by the total number of acres, which gives an
average height above sea level of 440 feet; deduct from
this the artesian water level, 30 feet, leaves 410 feet.
As it is proposed to plant 2000 acres per year, I have
figured on a pumping plant of this capacity and get the
Coal per acre per year, 6.07 tons at S7.50 S 45 50
Superintendent per year per 2000 acres S 2,00 J 00
Two assistants " " " '. 2,400 00
Two oilers and four firemen per year per 2000 acres 1,800 00
Oil, waste, packing per year per 2000 acres , 3,000 00
Incidentals per year per 2000 acres 1,800 00
Per year per 1 acre S 5 60
Total .... S5100
In the above figures you will see that I have allowed
a liberal amount for wages, those of superintendents
will decrease if stations for more than 2000 acres are
erected, as one superintendent can look after two
The actual horse-power to lift the water for 2000
acres, 410 feet high, is 1470, I have taken 1500, and
allowed three pounds coal per horse-power per hour.
In submitting this report to you, I feel confident that
the actual consumption of coal will be from twenty to
twenty-five per cent, less than given here, if the right
kind of machinery is used.
I am, yours very respectfully,
E. KPKE, M. E.
ANALYSIS OF SOILS:
By Pbof. A. B. LYoas.
Honolulu, H. I., Nov; 12, 1894.
Result of analysis of samples of soils taken from land
in Ewa (locations indicated on the map).
The lands in question lie on the lower slopes of the
"Waianae and Koolau mountains, extending from 100 to
650 feet above sea level. In nearly the whole of the
region, the soil consists of fully decomposed volcanic
rock, containing no stones aud but little gravel or sand.
The soil is generally deep, and although it is distinctly
clayey, it is easily pulverized. Containing much iron,
it has nearly everywhere a deep red color, and consists
mostly of a powder of impalpable fineness. At the
lower levels there are small areas of gray-brown soil,
represented in the accompanying tables in No. 4, the
character of which is quite different from that of the
red soils. It seems to be of more recent origin, probably
formed from material ejected in the later volcanic
eruptions, and so still containing fragments of unde
composed lava, and a notable proportion of unoxidized
The mechanical analysis of the soils shows a great
preponderance of finely divided material, from which
plants ought to be able, easily, to take out the mineral
elements they require, provided these are present. Less
tkan fifteen per cent, of the soil in the samples analysed
consists of particles more than one two-thousandths of
an inch in diameter.
Number one is a distinctly clayey soil, yet even this
one appears to be quite easily tillable. In number two,
however, the proportions of clay and sand: seem more
favorable, not only for easy tillage but for the absorb
tion and retention of water from rain.
The chemical analysis shows that the soils are not
deficient in any of the constituents on which fertility
depends. The proportion of lime is rather small, as it
is in mosb Hawaiian soils, but it is probably sufficient
for every demand that agriculture might make. The
soils are not deficient in potash, an'd contain, a good
proportion of phosphoric acid and of combined nitrogen.
As far as chemical analysis shows, they rank as rich
soils. As in the case of other Hawaiian soils, it is prob
able that a judicious application of phosphate and
nitrated fertilizers will even from the first prove re
munerative, since these supply plant food already
digested, as it were, the constituents of the soil exist-r, ( ,
ing in a condition not so easily assimilated. 4s X
mechanical and chemical analysis of the several sam
ples of the soil investigated.
I snbmit two reports of the chemical analysis, one
calculated on the basis of the air dry soil, as taken
from the field; the other on the same dried at 100
(Signed) A. B. Lyons,
Result of Mechanical Analysis.
A. Percentage proportion of the air dry soil retained by a sieve having
circular apertures 0.5 mm. in diameter.
EmniiT op CirEsricAL Axalysw or BAKexmhfOoa'
(Soib dried at Mta.aj
No.l. No. 2. No. 4. No. G.
"Fine Soil." Passes a J mm. sieve. 09.54 98.21 97.45 99.11
Detained by a J mm. sieve.. 0.46 1.79 2.55 0.89
Total (air dry) 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
B. Percentage of the '-fine" soil (above), after drying at 100 deg. O. of
the grades designated, as separated by silt analysis. (Osborne's Method.)
No.l. No. 2. No. 4. No. 6.
Particles 0.5 to 0.2 mm. diameter 0.86 1.01 0.67
"Sand" 0.2 to 0.05 mm 2.62 10.01 5.39
'Silt" 0.05 to 0.01 mm 7.35 16.39 16.52
Finest silt about 0.008 mm 20.43 27.04. 17.12
Dust, less than 0.008 mm 25.79 24.88 28.33 )
Clay particles not measurable 26.89 5.50 15.97 J'
Organic matter and combined water. 16.06 15.17 15.00 13.55
Total (Dried at 100 deg. C.) 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
The locations of the Boils in the above analysis are indicated on Map
No. 2, thus, No. 1, No. 2, &c.
.Result of Chemical Analysis of Soils fboji Ewa (Aik-Dhied).
Solution made by boiling two hours with Hcl.
Moisture (Dried at 140 deg. C.)
Organic matter and combined water. .
Residue insoluble in Hcl
Silica, etc. -
Ferric Oxide, Fa, 03 .
Alumina, AL, Og
Magnesia, Mg O
Potash, K, O
Soda, Na., O -- r
Manganese Oxide, M N O : r-.-
Phosphoric Acid, P2 Os ' -'ri
Sulphuric Add, S"03 '"
Copper Oxide, Cu 6
Total (actual weight).: -".
.,i - -
Organic matter and combined water..
Insoluble in Hydrochloric acid (boiled
Silica, etc. .i
JFerric Oxide, F&, Os
Alumina, Alg 03 i'J.-.Vif!!f.' -r
Lime Ca O s. 1
Magnesia, Mg O....
Soda, Naj O
Manganese Oxide, U N O
Phosphoric Acid, P2Os
Sulphuric Acid, SO,
Copper Oxide, CuO
Total (actual weight).
Nitrogen (Kjeldahl method).
The silica rendered insnlriMn Tw ?nm
volcamc Boils, carries -with it titanic acid, trm ;? t,i,i, -
i wjiuiues a, i ana o me iroH ia prooably all in the fqoa of Fe- O
In No. 4 a portion of it h probably ferrous, which will account for tfae
excess in the Bum total of the constituenta over 100 per ceat
t The total phosphoric acid dissolved from the soil by nitric acid.
LETTER FEOM SEREtfO E. BISHOP.
Honolulu, December 5th, 1894.
Mr. B. F. Dillingham,
General Manager 0. R & L. Co.
Dear Sir : As to the character of the 10,000, acres of
land which it is proposed to use for the new sugar plan
tation, I can heartily testify that being quite familiar
with the tract, I consider the soil to belong to the beat
class of cane land. As stated in your prospectus, it is
perfectly clear and smooth, ready for the ploughs.
I have often regarded this land as most promising to
become the future home of agriculturists" who should
raise crops from the copious rains of the winter season.
The tract averages probably thirty inches of rain per
annum, leaving two-thirds to be supplied by irrigation
This must be twice the rain enjoyed by Ewa Plantation.
Hence cost of pumping to the same height would be
one-fifth less than at the latter place.
Tour accessible water supply from springs at sea
level alone is ample for 6000 acres. Besides this, as
much more could probably be drawn from artesian
wells flowing thirty or more feet above sea level.
Could this enormous water supply be united to the
splendid lands adjacent, the result would be a magni
ficent development of values. I am not comieten--A
express any judgment as to the feasibility oTTOfrSg"
this water to the upper levels proposed. Actual experi
ence of the cost of pumping at Ewa Plantation appear
very strongly to favor your plans.
I believe that a very large addition of inexpensive
water supply for the higher levels, saving much of the
pumping, may be effected by saving and storing water
in the upper gulches for use during the six rainy
Sereno E. Bishop.
LETTER FROM W. D. ALEXANDER.
Honolulu, December 1st. 1S94.
Mr. B. F. Dillingham,
General Manager 0. i?. & L. Co. ,
i Honolulu. '
Dear Sir: I do not think I can add anything new
to the information which you already possess in regard
to the site of the projected new plantation in the Ewa
The ground is quite familiar to me, as I assisted in
the original survey of Pearl Lochs in 1873, and after
wards surveyed Honouliuli and part of Waikele.
The land in question'slopes gently towards the sea,
being divided into nearly equal portions by the "Waikele
ravine, which widens out above the Government road,
forming a broad level site well adapted for a central
The quality of the soil to all appearance is identical
with that of the Ewa plantation, and this opinion is
confirmed by the chemical analyses of it which have
been made. Between Hoaeae and "Waiawa there is land
enough for a first-class plantation, even below the line
of the 400 ft. level.
In regard to the available water supply, the magnifi
cent Waipahu spring, which has not varied perceptibly
during the last twenty years, would almost render its
owners independent of any other source. According to
the measurements made by your engineers it pours out
water enough to irrigate 3000 acres.
The Ewa artesian water reservoir is evidently distinct
.from that of the Honolulu district, as the water in its
limits stands at a lower elevation than it does in the
Honolulu wells. It is most likely that IToanalna ralier
and its craters form the boundary separating the two
basins. It is certain that the wells in the Hooclmlft
district do not affect the water supply of the Ewa
To conclude, the land and water supply, are ampie
and can be depended upon. The cost of pumpiag m4
the supply of efficient and reliable laborers are ipwt
tions which lie outside of my province, and which yo
are fully able to meet and depose of. 0
I rewaiiHttni r
W. D. A&KAXMHt.