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LETTE FRQjf" C. KLUEGEL.
SfH. 11 F. DlLLDfGHAK,
Gwral Manager 0. R. A' L. Co.,
Dear Sie The location, of the proposed Oabu Sugar
Elantaiaon in the Ewa district, on the Island of Oahu,
is shown by the accompanying -map No. 1. Ine
sfcnancra is favorable in regard to climate, and the near
ness to Honolulu gives superior facilities of transpor
The topographical features of the lands to be in
cluded, the boundaries of the several properties, and the
tipper and lower limits, are shown by map ISO. 2.
The contour lines, obtained by survey, show the eleva
iaons as well as the form of the surface.
Msp o. 3 shows the site of the mill and. pumping
stations on "Waikele creek. . '
The land can be readily put under cultivation. There
is little hrush to be cleared, and the land is generally
fro6 iEirod roots
The area of sugar land from the Government road up
to an elevation of 650 feet, and within the limits shown
on the map, is 10,000 acres, exclusive of all gulches and
places too rocky for cultivation. .
The water from the "Waipahu springs on Waikele
creek, the proposed source of supply, is of excellent
oHalitv. The amount of vater flowing into the sea
from this vicinity through Waikele creek in dry seasons
is over 40 cable feetper second. The snrfapeindications
at this proposed source of- supply are very fav.orable.for
an abundant flow from artesian wells.
The location is central, requiring comparatively short
conduits for the delivery and distribution of the water
for irrigation. , , . .
While the larger portion of the water for irrigation
will be pumped from this source, a valuable auxiliary
supply may be obtained from the occasional flow from
the higher mountain region.
Korecord of the rainfallhas been kept on any part of
these lands, but from general observations it appears
that the rainfall is considerably more than on the Ewa
Sugar Plantation, thus requiring less water to be
pumped for irrigation.
Tie central location of the mill requires a com
pwttfvtfy short haul. for tlie cane. Theimili apd
Maps -will he accessible by a bra-neh from the.Qahu
Q. 3& 'EiUgGlIL,
Chief Engineer oML.'Co.
'EXST'RAGT PROR 'REPQfjJiT
iui . wrm fit mitt v n mMftlffiffiil
JAMES D. SCUPPER and G. F. ALLARDT.
SUPPLY FROM SPRINGS.
Our attention was first called to the springs that
burst out from the foot of the low blufEs along the
margin of the semi-swamp lands of Pearl Harbor, and
yea cannot here refrain from expressing our surprise
and astonishment at their phenomenal volume and
extent They furnish a supply for irrigating some 2,000
acres of rice fields and a large area cultivated to
liananas and taro, and in addition such large quantities
.go to waste, or at most are only used to furnish water
power to various rice mills, that strong streams navi
gable for small boats, pour continually into the bay.
It is owing to this great supply of fresh water that
Pearl Harbor doubtless owes its existence, and the coral
insect has been kept from closing its entrance.
The largest and strongest streams come from the
bluff at a height of 20 to .25 feet above the tiHe level,
and from this height all the way down. to sea. level the
.slopes for miles are like a great spongefull of water,
oozing out in a myriad of little streams. Even in the
hay beyond the shore, springs break out so strongly
that it is said cattle and horses have been seen to wade
out to them, plunge their nose under the salt water
and drink from the fresh fountains "bubbling up from
Our measurements were confined to the streams
vhich now flow to waste unused for irrigation. The
first was at Ealauao, near the mouth of Waimalu gulch,
at Ahln's rice mill, where a portion of the . stream is
used to turn an overshot wheel. The total flow in, the
"boat channel helow the mill was found to be 27.8 cubic
feet per second. The aggregate of the flow at Aid's
rice mill was found to be 10 cubic feet per .second.
The Puikani springs, about one-fourth mile west of
Atrs rice mill, have a flow of 13.4 cubic feet per second.
. In the vicinity of the present terminal station of the
.Oahu Eailroad are springs having an aggregate flow of
cubic if eet per second.
' The unused water from springs near the mouth of
Wai&wa gulch is about 5 cubic feet per second in
large springs lying near and southwest of Waiawa
CfeKcLaxe field .up to the.highest level of their flqw, to
sMmbpower to turn. Alice mill. The Tfre, jdischarge
fr:ttas aggragates.ahout S cubicrf eet pergecona.
largest gronp.oftsprings .was found at,and above
the xm& of aikele.ulch the total unused flow
j&m.; :uch wasound to be 42.5 cubic feet per
We recapitulate" the measureTflpw of unused water
as follows :
Flow in e. ft.
Ah In's rice-mill springs. . . . 27.80
Aki'b rice-mill springs J.u.do
Mausoleum springs .
Waiawa gulch" springs
Viaiawa rice-mill springs ."
Waikele creek springs.'
These springs all lie within a range of three miles
and as before explained, the volume here given repre
sents onl7 the larger streams that were gathered in
such channels as admitted of measurement, and such
as were not already appropriated and used for irrigation
of the extensive rice fields that fringe the bay below
them. Tt represents, too, the natural flow forced out
against all impediments, and that after eighteen months
of exceptional drouth.
We do not hesitate to say that a systematic develop
ment of these springs would result in a large increase
of the flow. Small drains in all direction through the
extended areas of oozing ground, now so wet as to
inake unsafe footing, would so facilitate the drainage
as to cut off the water that finds its way to the sea
without entering the channels where the flow was
measured. In Southern California, where similar
springs ov cienegas are of frequent occurrence, develop?
ment by drain ditches, tiles and borings has not un
commonly resulted in double, andsqnietimes quadruple
the natural' flow. A definite plan for such work can
only be laid out after special survey and study of each
locality is made. The present measured flow, as given
on the "preceding pagfr is i sufficient to irrigate 7000 acres
of sugar cane, and )vehaye no doubt that the supply
can, be increased sufficiently to provide for lOjOOO to
If $00' acres" if' necessary. It would 'not be a.difficult
matter to cbHect all the -Water inW6neentfal pumpmg
stationjf it was considered 48sirable;fo So' so. it -would
prpbably be 'preferable, however, bo establish' "two or
1orepumpnf plants, rad' deliver the -water from each
to thepiantfiioSa nearest tpthe supply.
THE ARTESIAN WKLp SUPPLY.
The discovery of the possibility of obtaining a supply
'ofcflowihg water by 'deep aftiesiari borings ;arQURrthe
margin of this island 'has been of inlbtevalue to
all property interests, and hascprapenatd iji a incis
ure ,for-:.f he, loss .occasioned by the;petpetukl. robbery of
-thewaters that fall so copiously iipoh the mounfcajuj,
by the porous and thirsty garth, and for jfcjje. watersjplt
during torrential storms by rapid drainage; into ;tfeefsga.
On no other island of the .group has nature provided
for sich compensation, and even here the geological
formataorfis so different from that of any other region
the world over where artesian water obtained by
boring, that no scientific man woiild have risked his
reputation in predicting the possibility of securing
flowing wells by boring m tie volcanic and coral for
mations of this country before success had' demonstrated
Mr. James Campbell the present owner of Honouli
uli and Kahuku, is credited with the distinction of
having , been, bold enough to try the experiment which
resulted in the first flowing well in the Kingdom. This
well was bored ten years ago on the lower slopes of
Honouliuli rancho, and a good flow obtained at a depth
of 273 feet. It has been followed by so many successful
attempts in the same direction that the flowing wells
on the island now number over 100, some of which
.equal, if they do not exceed, the flow of the largest
and most famous wells in California. One of a group
of -four wells bored by Judge McCully on Xing and
Beretania streets, Honolulu was carefully measured a
few days since by Messrs. Allardt and Kluegel, and the
flow was ascertained to be 3.98 cubic feet per second,
or 2,580,000 gallons in 24 hours. The combined flow of
the four wells was ascertained to be 10.68 cubic feet
per second, which :is equivalent to about half the pres
ent water supply of San Francisco, a city of more than
300,000 inhabitants. Two of the smallest of them,
flowing 4.1 cubic feet per second, are now made to
irrigate 100 acres of rice.
A marked peculiarity of this artesian belt is that it
is confined to a marginal rim around the island from
sea level back to an elevation of 21 to 24 feet above.
In and around the city of Honolulu, or the Kona dis
trict, waterwill flow at the maximum height of 42 feet.
In;this djstrict'also the largest and strongest wells are
obtained. In tfreTSwa district, whfqh includes all the
margins of Pearl Harbor and Honouliuli, the limit of
rise is 32 feet ; in the Waialua district it is 21 feet, and
in the Koolau district on .the north side of the island,
embracing the Kahuku rancho, the limit is 26 feet.
This data is obtained from the last edition of Thrum's
Almanac, in which is given a list of all the wells and
their depths. From this list it appears that the deepest
"flowing well is that of Hon. C. It. Bishop in this city,
1,000 feet in depth. The one of least depth is at Wai
alua, on Dickson & Paty's ranch, 200 feet in depth. '
Five hundred feet is thought to .be about the. average
depjbh. A.record of one of Judge McCully's wells shows
ythe following strata passed through :
Gravel (with .water that rose a .little .way in the
- ElPe.) '. '.. -
Volcanic ashes and pumice., v - -1
Rock. ' -1 ,
Water-worn boulders. -
Ashes. r- ' , '"
Volcanic rock. ' ' ,
Experience thus far indicates that flowing , water, is
almost certain to be obtained anywhere aroundathe
margin of the island where the surface is, lower, than
the limits above mentioned. The foot of Diamond
Head-seems to. be am exception to this rule,, Mr., Camp
bell's well, recently bored in thatrocality TTO teet.m
depth , .having, failed tojield a flow. -
uiuuwbu uuw.miWfUi. ocners in ineir vicinity, xuire
seems to be a moW'or lesiidirect"coiinec6iori hetwn
the wdls and the streamsfrom the monntainsj andye
have been told of at least one well that flows muay
water some hours after a heavy storm.
'the springs that appear at and above sea level W
have one and the same sonifft of jsriHftlv nA
-from the same mtenor basin that overflows at or nar
-sea level. This supply is maintained bv direct ahsrn-
tion of the rainfall by the porous lava fbqk and'Wn
filtration front the mountain streams. The 'fact tat
water will rise in the well-pipes a few feeKigHer. tan
the level at wjiich the springs appear, indicates fat
the open well-pipe affords a freer outlet than isv affora
by the seams and crevices through which the watenf.
the springs is forced, permitting the water to nse;6
nearly its full static head. The probabilities are tit
the island is surrounded by deep, thick strata of h
pervious clay or sedimentary formation, "built upy
slow deposit from the wash of ages oy the streamslf
the; islands; that these strata lap onto the land tot
about the height, the water rises in the wells, bfougfc
uj wp nstj ui uue isiana a.Dov.e sea lev
uv. vuuu iudcd ouitlbtb. JiJICVCIlb bUG CaUHrJUe U 6118 YtBLV
into the sea beneath them.
The following diagram, showing an imaginary cros
dtvuiuu yjL me isuuuij jvm soi vts tu-iiiuscraie tne uneo:
1 V X F.
Pacific Guai)() aM Mwtifim
Q. N.-WILCOX.... President.
J. F. HOKFLD..... Vice-President. E. 8UIIR. . . .'Secrefary anl Treasorer.
P. O. BOX. 484. MUTUAL ' KTu. 467.
OUR NBW VOfiKB AT KALIBI being completed, we are now ready
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' ALSO pONSTANCI.V ON HAND
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Special attention given to analysis of soils by our Agricultural Chemist.
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iSHTFoT fujrthef particulars apply to
PA0IiPrl aU.U'O AND FERTILIZER COMPANY -
DRi W. AVERDAM, JIanaaer.
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