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VOL. XXXVII, No. 1! IIONOU'I.l'. It T, 1TKHDAY, .1UKK.I7. 11102 WKKKM. VUK'U: N. MM
HALEMAUMAU SHOWS SIGNS OF GREAT ACTIVITY AND
THE FILLING UP OF THE IMMENSE PIT PROGRESSES
Lava Outburst From the Side of the
Well Falls in
(Special to The Advertiser.)
HOUSI2. June 13. -The
voloanir conditions In Hawaii
hae not ( hnnired radically from'rni inTiki .- n- I
those existing In February last.
Whether there has been any action at
the summit crater Is uncertain.
Wnldron of the Volcano House
. lutes that he has seen neither fire
nor smoke from that quarter; but a
number of ot1 , Including H. IX
the el l jlnccr, state that they
iw Kiuoke (staling from the top ot
.Maum Loa ai late as yesterday. There
nuy be Borne slight activity thele, but
as yet the evidence la Insufficient to
assert it positively.
At Kilauea the ouler crater is
except thnt the hql eruck3
'in the side toward the Volcano House
and extending north and south some
-00 feet, are hotter than they were on
Vehruary 14, when I last observed
them. The rocks are a rosy led to
within six inches ot the surface, and
ii stick Inserted Into a. crack bursts Into
flame In u few seconds. The Indications
are strong, Judging from past experience,
that a lake will form at this
The process of formation of n lava
lake is a simple one. The molten inetul
beneath gradually melts the rock with
which It conies In contact, eating Its
way upward and outward as the subterranean
pressure pushes the lower
column upward, When the lava column
nenrs the surface, the gases escaping
through the surface cracks carry
with them small "spatters" ot lava,
whleh fall and congeal around the
opening, forming a "spatter cone,"
from six to thirty feet high. Eventually
the eating away of the bank from
beneath and the Increased weight of
the cone through constant accretions
of spatter lava from above, overcome
the resisting power of the crust over
the ton of the lava column, and the
i list, cone nnd all, falls into the molten I
fiuldron nnd a lake Is formed, with
of from ten to fifty feet. The j"
piotoss still continues, molten lava be- '
In it thrown upon and, congealing, ,
weighting down the banks which mean- T
while are being melted nway from beneath,
causing a succession of "cave
inf," which eventunlly widen the lake
to a quarter, a half, and even a
f a mile.
The chief scene of present activity Is
! the main central pit of
which was formed by the subsidence
of a great lava lake In 1891.
This Is still between 800 and 1000 feet
deep, nnd approximately i quarter of
si mile long, but gives evidence of a
great commotion within Its walls since
February last. The flat floor of
formed black lava then visible
t the extreme bottom has disappeared.
The debris slopes from the perpendicular
walls to the center of the pit have
radically changed their shape, and look
ah though they had been violently
churned up. There are frequent slides
and falls of rock from the walls and
slopes of the pit, which echo up
through the smoke with a sharp metal-lie
sound, producing a weird, uncanny
found which makes one unconsciously
nioTp back from the edge of the pit.
There Is an immense volume of
.smoke and sulphur vapor pouring out
of the extreme bottom of the pit and
from two spots about a third of the
May from the bottom. This smoke
was plainly visible from off the
Hamakua coast, 70 miles away, and
cnuM be seen as easily a hundred miles.
There Is molten lava visible In the pit,
but H Is fluctuating in quantity, about
of the way to the bottom,
1y reason of the great quantity of
Mke, visible only Intermittently.
When It first appeared It ran down to
tha hottom of the pit In a magnificent
casaade some 200 feet high, forming a
lalta. This has entirely disappeared
under the falling, walls arid debris
and only the molten lava on
the side of the pit was visible.
The normal condition of ..,..,..
m is tne fining of a pit. the building beach at Heed's bay. A gentlemun
of a cone over It, the formation of one who has a house there makes the state-or
more lakes about the base of the ment thaton going to his bathing pool
, ... u, uvcr mr space previously 00-- one nay ne round the sand
br the pit. followed Inovltnbly ably warm, but the following day It
by a collapse of the whole structure, was ngnln cool. On the third day he
Ti rntlng n new pit. Since 1888 thli has I visited the' place In company with a
happened four times. The last friend and found the sand verv inrm.
lapi occurred In 1894. The filling upiln support of his opinions that the'
press, delayed longer than usual, has change was caused by tho changes at'
new begun, and the normal
tlea of lakes, blowholes, flowa and
falls from tho pit walls may be ex-'
peeted until the pit Is once more full
and averflowlng. j
Meanwhile the sight, while not a
llmlarly exciting one to a person wholugo. Hveryone as far as seen by there'er3 t0 aro those caused by tho sun
has aeen the stupendous lava Herald reporter expresses the opinion I nnd the moon.
tala. of Mauna Loa. or the greater that the
trip Is worth' taking, for' Professor Lyons outlined to nn
of Kilauea In former days. Is, though the lake may not be what It vertjscr reporter yesterday his theories
"": "-""i '" "" u,,c ""
" "" " "" ""i unit
oUnnocs nik, ns well as to the
'"' Mnr the wonderful i.nrt
The Hllo Herald i,nys: Conilltlons at
present c.lsllng nt the crater are so
very different from anything In the
hlxturj of that wonder that Kclentlfli;
men are nt a loss tit explain them,
though they admit that Hawaii's
may he affected hy the recent disturbance
at .Martinique. Old residents
are free In Miying that the present1
heated term indicates the near approach
of a lava How fiotn one
of the weak spots In Manna Lou. and
that Kllnuea muy be active for a few
weeks before the How Ktarts.
Manager Wnldion Is Hntlsflcd that
the present eruption will continue for
some time and will grow In extent
Parties who weie down to the crater
Sunday night could see no hivn, but -when
a mile away, ns they were re-
m" .'' Vfci Ms
frPtlPfyv ff tP Ti'iMiBHrVr
FROM VOLCANO HOUSE
three visits to the crater In as many
,,uy sa's " l"ke uppears to him to
be B,ow,y AWnST up, nnd If It were not
fr the dense smoke ho believes the
bottom ot the crater would prove to
be molten lava.
a G- " Gra' of Honolulu made the
trlp Ia8t Saturduy !ind ent down Into
1 Ule craler several times. He says that
toon Saturduy night the glare from the
fires was exceedingly bright and that
tncre was a "swash" like water dash-
ll,K ulo"K tlle bcach' T"e sound ot fall-
, Ing stones and rock could be frequently
heard and he believes it to be the sides
of the crater caving away under the
enormous pressuro of the lava surging
behind it. All around Halemaumnu
. '" "'sn a 01 nre; tno cracks glow
brightly at night nnd the work of
Huwh,.nnJ'0f'i,!i,n ft!?? defl n?1 Cw"
Hume more than thirty seconds. He
believes there will be a grand eruption
111 iiniemaumau in a short time.
Volcanic activity In the craters of Kilauea
and .Mauna Loa may be expected
on or about July 4th and 5th, accord-1
ling to Professor Lyons, the
mtnt meteorologist. The Influences
which he believes uctcd upon tho craters
of the West Indies nre likely to
manifest themselves on the Island of
Hawaii, hut as neither of the volcanoes
there nre explosive, us are those of the
West Indies, the most that can bo expected
from them is a How of lava
as' In former times. Tho Influences he
as to the present volcanic activity In
various parts of the globe. He does
W ) iJyilllllllllllB
turning to the Volcano H'ouse. they no-
tlcel a distinct glow In the smoke.
In the day time it is Impossible to StC molten or solid. Home people accept
nre in me mice. It as a fact that It Is solid but he canine
not yet legnrd It as such. There were,
Alec Lancaster, the well-known guide four theories advanced bv him
at the crater, has made a trail to
ledgo of pahoehoe a distance of "00
feet rrom tne h.,! brink, and takes down ".
that point those visitors who desire
to make a closer inspection than can
be made at the edge ' So far not mnnv
. . ,
nae snown a willingness to accept
Alec's Invitation. There Is still a large
quantity of steam escaping through the!
cracks in the vicinity of the Volcano
House nnd many new fissures have
opened. On the Kau Bide of the crater
more steam Is seen than has been visible
there for many years. In Puna
there Is still considerable steam Issuing
from the cracks and the heat In
that district Is intense. Chnnges In tho
conditions at the volcano are taking
place every day; where heat is greatest
one day the earth becomes cool the
next, only to be warm again within the
next twenty-four hours. This peculiar-
1 1 V la 01 Irl in hntin nwtnn.ln.1 . 1.
" 1.V 1IUVU L'Alt'llUfU III me:
the crater he says that particular part
of the beach is always In the shade.
Crowds continue to visit Kilauea; on
Sunday there were more guests In the
dining hall than at any time since the
outbreak on Maunn i.nn thru r.
"fen in years gone uy 11 is a won-
uriiui hikiii, une geniiemun wno mnae
niKUtv"7.iii c. 5 i iiM r '. '.wtv aaaaaaaaaaaaaaawT" w
LOOK'NG INTO THE CRATER.
Photos by Davey, t
not believe that It Is hettled yet as to
the Interior of tho earth Is
Ing this phase of the question leading
up to the cause for volcanic disturb-
nnceu. One Is thnt this is n molten
globe with a oruitf; another thnt the
interior 1b solid nnd that tho pressure
Is so great that the heat is greater still;
another theory Is thnt there Is between
the crust and solid part a layer of
molten matter; still another Is that
there Is a reservoir of molten matter
In the region of n volcano. 1
"What we neem to bo concerned
about now." iuii.1 Pr,,r.n T,,n -i.
iiuiiul nun iuiiu 1 iiiii'HHiir iiViuiH
...,. ..,.,.0 i . .'. t
comes up, Poes this molten
matter slmnlv became ,,f liH n.
cumulation, do gases force It up, or Is
some other pressure exerted? Is It a
or a mechanical
r, pressure Wl M llll.l,(MHIIVIll pressure?
If so, In cither (fuery, what determines
It to come nt any particular time? I
might pay that It Is reasoned that the
molten matter rises up In ducts or
tubes connecting the volcano with the
Interior of the earth. It has been generally
regarded as a fact that when
Hip mountains become full of molten
matter the volcanoes break out.
"There seems to be some reason w hy
a number of volcanoes break out at the
same time. There Is one very curious
fileAlllnulnnfiA I.. .a n.. lll. Ttl......
III I'lUll'IH line (
nnd Mokuawr oweo, which Is that lava ,
. .., ,.. .. . , .
comes 1, not in tho crater, but upon1
the land nut nldn ine crnier. inis I.n.
occurred both at Kilauea and
VrlOIW.il II ;iml lltrlli,. nr, ,, ...,o.. .....I.l )in 11 II J n,. nl..nlln,i nt rx itn n e kl.
in ilmi wnv ..,.n.i.. , ,. ... - .,.....
". with vuuiiuii just iiuiv, ic in nut iiKeijr
"Then. Ih nn,. , iimr .i,rKi. .1,1 .,.. ...... J. . . ... .
. . n...,.u.. h.iiii,. una AlClVCIlZie Will DC HnCriH Wlin
The onlv Htm miwii ,w.ho.i .,i..... i...k .
,B0 ncxt 'W P'"1
was no flow here was in 1812. In that da,B;tYtto
..... . ouinciiiiiiK i"i innyiyear tneie were terrific outbursts ln
shed light on tho subject. You bond the West Indies and South America all
.1 ., ,,un. ,.,. .urn. repenieuiy unu .
,.,....., oiui uvu 1. nine u piece 01 cuuecano broke out then, I believe. Since
nMhu. mm uinin n in mu UI1TK I1IH1 yOU
will Be a flash of light. The force
used In doing It Is changed into heat
In one case and electricity In another.
Now It is known that the cruBt of the
earth Is moro or less plastic, and It
would be likely In that case to feel tho
force of attraction of the hum and
moon. This force of altiactlon vniles
ns the earth turns on Its nxls and thus
l'JuceHU stress upon the .nnte.lal of
the enrtir crust. Well, now, een If,
the earth wns solid tills stress woulil
produce heat, nnd of course, with the
sun und moon together the effect Is
gi eater, and we would naturally ex
pect to Und more liability of earthquakes
and vulcanic action at such
"In the eruption of when
!!'" IL,VU,V.'iM "uy".,!K f'0,,,.M"""a '-?a
umiuiii illiu, III1U iiuiil run tu inu
flow was many miles from the soutce
upon Manna Loa. It wus noticed Hint
the Htrcniii would scnnetlmes come to
an cnuro Hianiistiii and then bicak out
with renewed vigor nt Intervals. These
wore Internals of about a month. Well,
(Iju:,l!.c;t"1 r";;,1 t,,py n, ",,,n:! ,,,",i,,t
tho time ot thu new moon, and People
iXI n ,n '" .lh,,"k ".':'. m'.(" ,U
fu Z .T?'"" "J,?0
with It. and .'onsldered It mposslble.
fowever, I wrote up to Hllo, saying
i n, Z "''T n ,,.!'''rt
with relation to the moon. Well, thu
!!:'"' r,:"T. ".!:!',ll,t;l.v.,!."M',,.,imi v
. i, .7 ., "" ""'" 'y
I-, i-un nun tir iuu loc.iiiiuiicu oi me
',',r!!!.l:Cr. "Il,t."' ""'u"' ". clyt
Hawaiian rites, that htoped further
lluws, I have not yet determined.
"That was what set me to thinking
about the effect ot this grnltnllon. I
nm Inclined to attilbute the
lion of volcanic actio,, very largely to
hftnt ... ilnvnltmrtil ..,. r.tl.rlt. 1... Ui.MI,.f,...
ujiiu ih'k mu nuiiiuviiL n
jnake lava, as well as, to change solids
Into gases and calls., explosions.
"Kilauea and .Manna Loa are not ex-
ploslva vo.can.es; lhat.s, in their ma.,,
' lon't tl.lnic thu sea
"?'" jf"" and
tulnly such outflows an come from
Mauna Loa cannot be produced by
"Tho volcanoes In tho West Indies,
nn" ,Hlocmiiy the one on Martinique,
"Kht be connected with nn Ir.hux of
ca water through a broken Htrntum.
l Ullnk ulh" "'' there an- periods when
tu' eiirt" ' ,nor'' ousccptlblu to
cunlc ""Hon. There Is Home reason
wny lu feat flows fromi Mount Etna
aml fro,n Mauna Loa have been more
"' leBH syncluonus. I don't say that
tneHe two volcanes are connected, but
tlla ame Influences which cnuse out-
breakH ln one Pan ot the t,art ur" "-
"""- ,u ouiureoaa in anoiner. in
1878. Willie vlaltlnir Kilauea. I went
over the Intervals of the great )uva
formations on Hawaii, and It struck
me that eleven or twelve year periods
would coincide more or Icbs; that Is,
counting the flown of the G0a as one-
t,. ,. ., w"H,nolJror mttny
' '" " ' "
., ",' ""V...... . these and "".' tho sun
spot periods. When I found a table
of suit spot periods, I was surprised to
find there was such a correspondence.
I make tho distinction between mere
crater activity of the volcano and nn
actual flow of Java. We who have
lived on lluwnll are best able to Judge
nl.oiii ihn r,.i.i.. !,,... ,.....
tlons. nnd no. thrwn i,,,.ui..,i.. i.,i.
un n inlRppHnn,.,na Hot f.... n,
at the same time. St. Vincent's
then I have found thnt scientists else-!
ssKiu'ssi . .rtria Xe
time of tho new and full moon. It Is
worth noticing that the piesciit period
(Continued on Pago 1)
Prof. Kellogg Sees
New Fires in
I'mfeiHior V. L. Kellogg nnd
11 li Allardlce or Stnnford
Tturned Inst Saturday evening
on the Klnnu from u visit to the
Professor Kellogg neoured novel
nl exeellent views, one of which takes
In the lava lake bed of the old How, In
the foreground, nhows the volcunic
cllffit of COO feet In height, und In the
background exhibits the uctlve crater
from which n heavy, thick cloud Is neon
escaping This cloud overhangs the
whole scene nnd nsceiids Into the air
fot hundteds of feet. Professor Kellojcg
has tnkirn a full series of pictures, beginning
witli the one above mentioned,
focussed from a distance of three und
one-half miles, und by gradual ntages
has reached tho active rrutcr Itself
The pictures' nhow the cracks und fl-mires
In the old lake nml'brlnj; out
very clearly the t'onfonnatlon of th
In nil Interview l'rofejisor Kellogg
xlntetl that the lava bed, which must
be traversed befoni arriving at the
Miioklug crater, is very hot and at no
gi eater depth below the urface than
thtee feet, lire Is present. From the
outer edge of the old lawi lake to h
fool of the crater (about three and one-
,mlf )n,.H) tm.r Is a gradual rise
"",U""K to bout 300 feet, and thin
ai en Ih crossed and intersected by
Icch formed by tho Irregular coollmr
of the lava.
An Wing at the very (idge rf the
burning mountain's mouth, I'rofesior
Kellogg and utliera of tin; party were
enabled to gel a good view Inlo the
. . . , ....
Vl,li;',"' '' " favorable winds blew
"way the stiong, sulphuious dfciim Is-
suing forth, the Internal action was
rival ly visible. 1'iofessor Kellogg stales
wltli the iiHsurunce of an eyo witness
tltnl fl., i..,.o ,li.ll.ln rt.V... 1 t a. . .
,f ' t w; ac,;mpa. z
,, ,,, ii ,,, , '.
lh" " "C Vhu ea dashing agans
,,el"'- rUcri' """ ' "ttle doubt
lhllt Klluuea Is on the evo of a
,ell ouHluPllt, nniI proeHMir KelhKK
fur",,,r UM"V l""t "" hole Uvu
,, VUMl H(,a ()f ,ri,
'" ii t KiiUea mk....
Into consideration, the consensus of
flllllllllll UllltlllU .. I... l..i l.n ..... ... .1
..utbirnk will l,e the greatest " r V-
ord. While Professor Kellogg would
(iffer no definite piedlellou, he said he
would like to be lieio for the next two
or thiue weeks. He nays that the re
ports brought by the vurlous ships' of-
he' can wfll.nBi; nnZ""1"
-- X tizzy's:
" '""""tt I
nilitfi rtttv U U IJI i ..
ho pun,, ...riecu n Z ' tom,,i. for or
uio volcano in action. Tim Ik iir.
nniii,i,' ,1.1m. I -l.. i . ..
u,n,." aZrved iZJ"
occurrences and he stated that ii h,,,.
t 1,1... tMll, tin. ,.r,,,..
h ...... 1.1 ...,, ii.. ...,.., .'
"t."Z T . "1 "'."." ,tt.,e.w
...."'.", .u imwauijr, in
his estimation, exceed In vlolvncu thoso
of the past
He say that by thrusting a stick In-
to the outer crater's bed the part In-
t erred Is consumed by fire, showing
clenrlv thnt not far below the surface
un Intdise heat Is' present. It. Is
tremely probable that the whole, undtt
surface of this lnko la like one Ini-
mense fiery -furnace Plie wus seen
from the edge of the crater and though
no flowing lava won viewed, from the
rushing, swashing sound heard It, would
'nd to Indicate that mighty Jloodo t
mouen matter are Internally Uowtar.
Tne rumor that Geo. H. McKaaal
haH gone to Honolulu to procura Ik
appointment as sheriff of Hawaii t.
succeed L. A AndrewH Is nut W.n
,nuch Importance by peraona well
qualuted with McKcnzie. He has
stuted that he was tired
Politics and came to Hawaii to art
away from the annoyances Incldemtal
to a, political career. In view of tin-
f( i, .u -. . ..
7 "7,- "' '
not urKlug him for tho place, and. as
Sheriff Andrews has not been asked to
resign bv unv one In authorltr. and) u
Big Crop at Keulia.
KKALIA, Kauai, June 13. Maker
Stlgur t'omnany finished irrlnillmr thn
crop for the season .of lo: at S:30 a. m.
ju" ' -
""nounce" " "P a lltUc over U.-
20 tonH' uel,"' 100 tonB ovsr tno ""
mute, nnd the largest crop the company
ever harvested by 1:50 tona.