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THE MONTANA POST.
D. W. TIVTO, & CO., ditors & Proprietors. " " Coaty , O atry h t way ro tight, Stt y Cotrn , it or Wren." TR 4 r Tr a
VOL.1. VIRGINIA CITY, MONTANA TERRITORY, SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 6, 18641. NO. 11.
D..W. Tilton, A Co.,
D. W. TtLos. Bu. R. R Dmas.
rc~SL1atSr AND Pl ers. aam L
Ottlee at the City Booeek Stre, Corer
of Wallace 3t4 JiaeketL Streete.
One copy, one year, - $7.50
ie copy, six mouths, - 4.00
'One copy, thbree months, - - - 2.50
ates ot *4vearn eSJr.E
basein e9% "wn ue or 1tee o1 e Tear .t2
" " " " si maths, 10 00
" " " " Uthr,.eh.at 10 04
'ne square one ear, tea bme or lesi) 441 G
One square six.sosths y'1 " " " 25 00
One square. three si'the " " " lb 00
Quarter coluii, on, year, 0 (00
" si months 45 }O
" " three '" 3 00
Half column, bne year, Ogg
S si moantbas, 00 00
« r. three months 4 00
One teluma, one year, 150 00
" ix months' 100 00
* " three months, 75 00
egus!ar advertisers will be allowed to change
j4arzerly without additional charge.
All bassinoe communiucations should be addreeed
to I. W. TILTON A Co., Virgtnia City, M. T.
Job Printing of every descrintion executed in a
penrior manner and at reasonale rates.
1oTUSUU, SIDNEY ED iERTONB&anack CIy
dc~rur. H. P. FORSEY;
l'ariu JtsnTcg, H. L. IIOSME13,.
4Asocitra Jcdxlcz, AMT GIDDINQG1.
L. B. WILLThTO`t.
.An T. GBNWOIL, E. B. NEALY, Virginia City I
MtvsUjA.. C. J. BIU CK.
FtaLxron GtrcJtLL., M. BOYD.
A r UOrTa, JOHN S. LOTT.
Tasa&taan. JOHiN J. IWT.L.
Nr'urr.Y PvILIC, JOII c. ATC11ISON.
county Officer. of Madison County.
County Coimiaaiuonor, Jtwaa Famosn,
"AI~t.L W. STRsaY,
FR,"R. K. ROOT.
'Probate Je.Ie, Taos. C. JonIe.
serifl~, RNY~e. rS. owiL.
*Eerovtvor, R M. IAU;.t~AH.
tnnicipal Officers of Virginia City.
;'olice Judge adl Ez4)Gdo Mayor, 0. 0. Biaaau..
wbenrao f Council, F. L V o oVsrV,
« . arso.
M a s o n i c.lT o tu rn a ic ati onu o f V irg in ia C it y
lIodGe, 1. D).. A. F. £ A. M., are bhld on the 2I
mla 4th Satwrdyau is each month.
P. S. PFOtTS, W. M.
Arzx. DtVIa, S'et's.
Ptrea oinZever, S.tbbsth by Rev. A. IA. Toitgr.
at II A. IA. at the Court Uiou-c+. Salbbth School
Pt T. . MI. All a:s invited to ettond.
W. T- McMinrn.] W. Y. Loval..]
Mm.a. THi & IOVELL,
Atterneyl at Ieaw. Virginia City. M. T., will promrp
try attend to all professional bumines entrusted to
their cire. 1-am
W. J. McCoRn.:K. [IIaRRT BacRs
MIcECORMICK & BBURNS,
Attorneys at Law, Virginia City, Montana Territo
ry. O1fce at Dance A Stuart'.. 1-6m
W. M. STArroau. R. B. PARnorr. L. W. Bon.to.
Cal. Iowa. Col.
STAFFORD, PARROTT & BORTON,
Attorneys at Law, Ofm e on Idaho street, pnosite
-th court house, ..rginia City, Montana Teraitory.
iResturant, Virginia City, Hontaea Territory.
Meala served at all bourl. Asothtbewtof liquos.
3 . JUDtGE,
Boat A Shoa maker, Virginia City, Montana Tar
rtory. 'The bet of custom work always on band.
tlive me a trial. 1-6m
Prodth Baker, Nevada City, Montana Territory,
would say to his numerous customers that he is al
waea on hand to stuff the mouths of the hungry.
ire kiua nell. 1-6m
R. II. N. LtEPIN,.
Physician and Surgeon, formerly amietatit in the
Hloslital du midi in Paris, and attached to the New
York Hospital. New York-recently from Dubuque,
Iowa. Office in Virginia City, opposite the hay
scales, main street. 1-6mn
1. t BITLLE;,
Practical Watchmake? and Jeweler. Particular
attention paid to repairing all classes of watches.
Any %art of any watch can be nmde new at this as
tablisihment, and warranted to give satisfaction.
"t'.l and examine specimens of Jewelry made from
the native gold. 1-ly
Nera-da City, Montana Territory.
LtOlUS BEL.NGEt, - - - - - PR.oraitoa.
This bot.! is itastaed on Main street, and in the
best part of ~he City. The table supplied with the
brat the markpt affords and the saloon furnished
with the best liquors.
Rooms and beds can be had at re.ueable prices.
C(harge for board moderate. 2
C ERTIFICATE OF TEN SHARES OF THE
consolidr.ted Silvertar Corlany. The owner
by proevinizg property and payig for this advertise
nent san bare the same at the City Itook Store,
Virginin City. 4-ttf
M ECHII ANICAL BAKERY,
Creer street Virginia City, M. T: Pultitian A
Kandall, proprietors. Keep on hand all kinds of
bread, cakes and pies, which arc gdipg off 118 "hot
akes." at cheap rates. 14th
ONTAA WrI iii)R IIIAL,
V'irilnia (9ty, Mtentas Tesr iport POW*) A
Shielli. Propria.e, . t1-6
. J. MO k CO.,
Wallace teet, Virginia City, Who lae sad
Retail dmeali il Groeries, Dry Goods, Clothing,
Hardware, Stoes, ec. St. Louis winter wheat,
flour, tal eoft idaet for ale by the Ihndred, or is
qtantitie to suit. 1-4
IDAUO IOTE L,
Wallace street, VirintRClity, M. T. J. M. Casar
proprietor. The proprietor elonaces to his old
friedsu and the public geraaly, that he is now
prepared to cceomasnata bardearsbythemabl,
or week at lo rates, His tabli fhrnlise with the
hb4 the market affontr. 1-1
T EWIS & HALE,
Manfaetnerw of Jewelry, Jsekson atwt, Vir
giani City. M. T. 6rict attention giveh to re
p.iring a' clies of watech, and wrmatltd to
give atisfacti . Keep cIntanatly on hand lar ge
usortmwnt of Jew elry Eve-" thing in ourllne
made to order at low rra 1-Sm
coL ORlD '
HAIR DRESSING AR'OU f*
Hair Dyeing and Cutting Done i
TOM. WIITT, Proplietor.
W. F. Sanders. Jerry Cook.
SANDERS & COOK.
A 'TIORNEYS at Law, Virgiaia City, Montana
OPFFIC IN POST OFFICE BUILDIGO. PA
tients visited *t their isideae when desired.
. . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . .
- -- ------- ---- I1
ROATH & CO.,
, MERICAN WATCHES JUST REC1EIVED D
reet from the manufaetories.
Every dmmeription of Jewelry mnmaoectmwed from
the Native Gold. Cll, Faamine Specimes, I
aand then jadge..
Sign of the EANMOTH WATCH.
NEVADA CITY, Montana Territory.
Virginia City, Sept. 10, 1864.
Real Estate and Mining Ageecy.
All business promptly attended to. Ofice in
Pos Office Building
J. T. HENDERSON,
PAINTER AND SIGN WRITER.
eftlee on Cover srees, Vlr" 'ai Clisy.
S--ran _ a
Also Flue Building, rad all kinds of brick work ,
(doue to order. 5--3m
A TTORNEY AT LAW, VIRGINIA CITY. MON
tana Territory. Ofice. corner of Wallace and
Jackson streets, at J. A. Mling'a Store.
Shaving and Hair Dressing Saloon.
MUSTACHE AND HAIR COLORING.
South Side of Wallace Street, Va. Clty
LYONS A WHITE, Proprietors.
Corner of Idaho and Jackson Sta., Vir
ginia City, Montana Territory.
WM. & JOHN A. SHOOT
.'ormerly of the Plantevr' Hose, Hranibal Mo.)
illEABOVE NAMED HOUSR, FORMERLY
1 cndncted by Wm. Sloan, q., having been
anlargd and re-fitted is now opes with every facil
ity for the accommodation of tineets and Boarders.
C~onfortal.le roond and bed. are provided, aad the
cable it earefully furrished with the bet the mar
ket n;.u . eeons afford.
P .,engers for the early Stage Coaches can obtain
good lodging" here and be wakened at the proper
Dour. The petrensge of the public is reepeetfully
solicited. Ws. & Jeo. A. SHCOT,
4--tf Paorat xroa.
JOHN S. ATCHISON,
REVENUE STAMPS AND BLANKS
'FOR SALE AT
ALLEN & MILLAbRD' BANK.
VIRt.INIA CITY, MONTANA TLE:RITORY.
Wallace St.. Next Door to Weary'.
MEATS, VWETABLES, GAME.
&c., Ac., sc.
STEWART A RIAL.
Idn'ho otuprt. Virinis City, X. T. Jam@@ #0,·
itall. prolorietor. Xpoclw rinrtantly on hask all1
kiudu of * *eOt lumber, which will be sold at low
Drs. BROOKE & GLICK,
Jaeehom Sw.tt below Wf(llue Vlr
flu a City Wouanda *Tfrildry'O
NIe~ai MCit7. ?.lT~1: Ya~BdiLR b1'ilt dr -~
Al l,.t ons Wi.4hig .pod bread are. rtegu#d to
toll P.be lot: Abbisii b mr fli " tu thOw
~t of arHAN1; if** u 46 WOb is 6 a& what;
k~s of f~o, se a aM w..bin to W811 is
*NMr* a ir es1 r i sbee.**"l b
Pr'oleobr eaomia, r We way l
and generally sotateee.e.mk the .$a-q
Power (pages 54 and 55) s$yr:
'**ir the atduh e ttes, no less than Ave
millions of humasa beipgf are now said to
exist in a con4ition iiptle removed a1Ias
age life, eking out a wretehed as teaec
by hunting, by fbhii, by hiri. t8¶easelvWs
out .r occasional jbs, and by plunder.
Comlbning the restlessness ad contempt
for rogular industry peculiar to the savage,
with the vices .of the proletatr of civilise
communities, these people make up a class
at ease degraded aaddageronu; and con.
stantly re-nforced, as they are, by all that
is idle, worthless and lawless among the
population of the neighboring States, form
an inexhaustible preserve of rnlanism,
ready at hand for all the worst purposes of
Southern ambition. * * Such are
the " mean whites " or "white trash " of
the Southern States. * * a This class
comprises, as I have said, five millions of
huzman beings-about seven-tenths of the
whole white population."
This opinion of Professor Cairmes is no
.-oub; held by fully nineteen-tweatieths of
the people of the Northern States and of
En, 'labd. Having read of, or seen, and
wreteo.'le specimens of humanity who loiter
about t. ra'lway stations, or hover around
the large ~.lab tations on the great Southern
thoroughfareC. .he have jumped to the
conclusion tlia. . ey represent "seven
tenths of the who, ' ,hite population" of
the South! The ver. ic 'a is preposterous,
for if it were so, one-half ,f the Southern
people would be paupers, anit no commu
nity could exist which has tV SUl.ort that
proportion of non-producers. JBut 'tis nt
so. The great mass of "poor wh'tes "are
superior (ans I say this with duo deibe'.
tion, Sand after saxteen years' acquaintsac!e
with them) to every other class of uncult!
vated men, save our Northern farmers, on
the globe. They all were born in this
country, and have imbibed from our insti
tutiogs-.-distorted and pervert.e as they
are sit the South-a sturdy inupn!deuce,
and an honest regard for each other's rights
which make them, though of Scotch,. co' 'h
Irish, or English deseent, better solIgera,
better citizens, and better man tbhan ae
over.worked, ignorant, half-starved, turbu
let,. and deCgraded pedautry whom Eng,
land vomaits upon the North to create riots,
rule itn our elections, and support such poI
ticians as Fernando Wood.
There is at the South such a class as Mr.
Cairnes speaks of. They are appropriately
called "mean trash," and "eke out a
.wretched subsistence by hunting, by fish
ing, by hiring themselves out for occasional
jobs, and by plunder," but they are a com
paratively small class. The census shows
that they cmanot numbse above half a mil
.Tene people do combine "the restless
nose and contempt for regular industry pe
culinr to the savage, with the rices of the
proletcire of civilized commuDitiCs," are
" at oace degraded and dangerous," and
form n "preserve of rufflanimn, ready at
hand for all the worst purposes of Southern
Iambitiun." lI fact, I WAS about to add
that aid the ruffianism of the South is con
fined to them and the "chivalry," but I will
not s.ay it, for it would be strictly true.
To give the reader an idea of what these
" mean whites " are, I will glance for a mo
ment at their habits and ways of living.
Often their houses are the rude pole wig
wams of the Indian--shaped like a sugar
loaf-with merely a hole at the top to let
the smoke out, and-the rain in; but, gen
erallv, they live in small huts of rough logs,
through the crevices of which the wind, in
winter, whistles a most melancholy tune.
These huts are floored with nothing but
the ground-hardened with mauls, and hol
lowed at the centre, as if to hold the rain
that comns in at the roof-and their one
apartment is furnished with a few rickety
chairs, a pine log-hewn smooth on the up
per side, and made to serve as a sofa-a
cracked skillet, a dirty fryingipan, an old
fashioned rifle, two or three sleepy dogs,
and abaker's dozen of half-clad children,
with skins and hair colored like a tallow
candle dipped in tobacco-juice. In one
corner may be a mud oven, half crumbled
back to its original earth, and in the others
two or three low beds, with corn-shuck mat
tresses with tattered furnishings; but the
whole aspect of the place reminds one of a
tolerably-kept swine-sty, or dog-kennel.
The character of the inmates of these hov
els is suited to their surroundings. They
are indolent, shiftless, and thieving; given
to whisky-drinking, snuff-dipping, clay
eating, and all manner of social vices.
Brothers intermarry with sisters, fathers
cohabit with daughters, and husbands sell,
or barter away, their wives, as freely as
they would their hounds, or as the planter
would his slaves. 1 have myself met a
number of these white women who had been
sold into prostitution by their natural pro
tectors, for a few dollars or a good rifle.
Their indolence is almost past belief.
They are literally "too lazy to come in
when it rains." A traveller tells of asking
shelter at one of these shanties in a storm.
The rain was pouring in at the roof, and
the family were huddled about the only dry
spot on the floor.
"Why don't Tou mend your roof?" the
" Stranger," replied the host, " we can't
do it-it rains."
"But it doesn't always rain-why not
mend it in dry weather?'"
" Why, wh-whot's the use o' mendin' it
when it doan't leak. " was the very sensi
Stilli.ey ha-e a mortal antipathy to
water. Thevy 'rer take it outwardly, an.
less the roof lekit, or they are asigiht but
in a rai-starma and aeerr inwardl, unless
it is i.txed with ap le-Jaek or w~sky1-
Whisk+ Is theft StAitft everage. By k
changi'n deer r r Othr mne (their oMtl
curreny) at sanie ?ers rtad g~ Kythey
bblin plentiful upplies of a vii fluJ,
which is .co pouaed oL Jlo-Wod, strych
S, alc , and
Rio! uou r er an' tcuuL,
" freultes " among them under the ap
oproiae names of " Tsagle-foot," "Blue
tuin,, "ued-erye". "Buitithead," htad
' Knook*'em-stift" If the vedder of this
vile staf did not dilute it freely with water
*-o freely that it rarely fails itself to "get
tight" is.pold weather-the race of "mean
southers, whites wbuid soon be swept
from the earth. As it is,they seem to thrive
and fatten upon it; old men, dosing away
in the chimney-corner, and little children
tottling about the Soor, drink it as it it was
A Northern man was once forced to dine
at one of these hovels. Missing the cus
tomary - whisky-kag " from the table he
said to the housewife:
" Can't You give me a mug of Knock
enm-atiff ? Y
"I can't, Stranger," was her reply: "I
hain't nary drap to speer!"
"None to spare! Why,I see a barrel of
it there in the corner !
" A barr'l uv it !" exclaimed the woman,
"why whot's thet fer a lone widder an'
sevin chillen? We shall be nation dry
'fore winter's over."
Not one in a thousand of these people
can read, and not one in ten thousand can
write. I have known many who never saw
a book or a newspaper, and some who never
heard of a Bible or spelling-book. As a
consequence of such ignorance, they have
very crude notions of God and religious
duty. In fact, though they often spend
weeks at camp-meettngs, shouting " Glory"
aud groaning " Old Hundred," thpy have
no religion. I once heard one of their
preachers deliver a sermon which well il
instrated their haowledge of spiritfal!
It was at a little church in the shadow of
Bald mountain, one of the immense range'
dividing North Carolina from Tennessee.
The building was a simple structure of
Jogs, with a puncheon floor, and a single
ol.ening for a door. but without a window
or a chthney. On a bare spot in its centre
a huge light-wood fre was blazing, a&d
_-huian,,aad forciug thick volumed ef smoke.
into tn; peop:! s eyes till thy wept as if
threy Wree so o"*v watck'g pots. The con
gregation was seate parouu4 this ire on
benches of rough logs, ana th pL acher
occupied a small platform, raiea , few
. sp5 from the floor, and furanihed with a
*;ng.e block of wood which officiated as a
h.air. The women had bare heads and
feet, and their ot!y garment, (it was the
month of November) seemed to be a coarse
cottonade gown, falling straight from the
neck to just below the knees. The men
had long matted hair and shaggy beards,
and wore slouched hats, (they kept them
on during the services,) and linsey trows
era, and hdnting shirts, so begrimed with
dirt, and so torn and patched in a thousand
pti.es".*t seareely a vestige of the origi
nal material was left visible to the naked
eye. Mary of them-owing, no doubt, to
their custom of intermarrying-were de
formed and apparently idiotic, and they all
had st'unted, ague-distorted bodies, untan
ned-le:ather skins, small heads, round as a
bullet, and coarse, wiry hair, which looked
like shreds of oakum gathered into mops,
and dyed with lamp-black.
h 'Irh lrP1hor tbrt whineh h}+ wrliaf;+ *n
The preachers' text, which he eredited to
the Apostle l)Avw, was "Try the sperrets,"
and he showed, to the satisfaction of his
auditory, that while Scripture enjoins the
taking of " a little wine" which, he said,
was the ancient name for whisky-" for the
stomach's sake," it as expressly requires
that we should "try the sperrets," or, in
other words, that we shall drink none but
the very best whisky we can get. He reck
oned " that such ruin as came from 'Iio,
-could be got ter Jim Decker's-over e
mountain ter Jonesboro-fur a coon-ski a
gallon, was purty tollable sort o' ruin, and
might do fur a white folk, but seeh as Dan
Ferguson 'stilled, down that ter the mill,
warn't ne way fit far a hoss ter drink." He
belabored bad whisky, for a time, with ve
hemence, and then opened his batteries
upon tobacco. Whisky was, as the Bible
aflirms, good for the stomach, and he
reckoned the "clar stuff wouldn't hurt no
part uv a humnin bein," but tobacco was a
vile thing that would kill any living crea
ture but woman; and how she could chaw
it, and smoke it, and snuff it, and dip it, as
she did, he couldn't see, no how. Its use
warn't noway sanctioned by Scriptur,' and
nary one uv the Apostles, Prophets, or good
men ur the olden time aver used it; and
while the Bible often spoke of wine and
" sperrets, it nurer onet mentioned the
name of terbaccer, and thet proved it
couldn't be good ter take."
When he had "adjourned the meeting"
for a fortnight-PaorVID.1cs wullin' an'
thar being no freshet on the mounting-i
ventured to suggest to him that it was pos
sible he had misunderstood his text, and I
then learned that he could not read, and
that a neighboring planter-one of the
chivalrv-had given him the text, outlined
his subject, told him that the text refers to
ardent spirits, and that he must be sure to
" pitch powerful strong inter Ferguson's
[The men who can thus sport with the
best feelings of their fellows, are, as we
know, capable of worse things.]
Nowhere but in the Slave States is there a
class of whites so ignorant and degraded as
are these people. In every other country
the peasantry labor, are the principal pro
ducers, the really indispensable part of the
cozmmunity; but the "mesa white" of
the South does n. kapow how to labor; he
produces nothing; he is a fsagosn growth
apon the body of society, absorbing the
stregtboed lif, of its other parts, and he
*ould not exist if ke 8outhern syweuswere
in a hselthy ,ster And he is the natural
product of Slavery, for Slavery, which
makes the sdire the plaatttrb blmeksaith,
auawkee.frigl, and euaspeter, sad *tisi
msa of all rwok, skeatiMpon the mess white
roan evert 5eUte of honest toil, and drivoe
him t alef barnre sand-hills to starve sad
lAt steals the deer f..s. te p)anter's for
ests, the r bad h die smoke-houses, mand
the chidehe from his ben-roosts. and1)e
vends coruption and bad whisky ameng
the negres ; bdt the planter toletra" him
for his tote. I have sen a plaster ames
twenty of these wretehed eariestare ef hu
manity up to the polls, and when they had
voted at his bidding, have had him tutr to
me and say, with a sneer on his 1pe :
SThis is yrur boosted dtmoeracy; dthi
trash governN this country Jeffetson pgv
them the right of aufrae, and they sup
pose they re .oting for Jefferson now.
-" But," I aid to him, "why do you not
let them think ? why not give them sKheol
and work ? "
" Be se,"' he replied, " if we did, they
mipht not vote for Jeferson."
To these "mean whites" Mr. Cairne m
description appropriately applies, and it
applies oaiy to them. The greatmass of
poor whites, as I have said, ae a very dif
feent people. The poor white man labors,
the mean white man does not labor, and
labor marks the distinction between them.
Labor makes one hardy, industrious, and
enterprising, a law-abiding and useful cit
izen; idleness makes the other thieving,
vicious, law-breaking, and of " no sort of
account" to himself or society.
The laboring whites comprise two thirds
of the free population of the South, and
they have dose more for its material pro
gress than all its "chivalry" and all its
slaves. They have done more, because they
have worked under the stimulus of free
dom, and because they vastly outnumber
the other clasaes. The census shows that
on the Is: of June, 1860, there were in the
fourteen Slave States, exclusive of Dela
ware, one million and three hundred and
fifty-nine thousand six hundred and fifty
five white males engaged in agriculture and
other out-door employments. Of this num
ber, nine hundred and one thoesand one
hundred and two are classed as"farmers"
men who sill their own soil; two hundred and
thirty-one thousand and forty-six are class
ed as "farm laborers "--men who till the
land of othes--and two hundred and twen
ty-eight thousand four hundred and seven
as " labarer " men engaged in out-doer
work othe'r than the tillage of land. The
" farmers" atm not to be classed with kthe
planters-mes. who work large tracts of
land and large: bodies of slaves, but do not
work themnselves-for the census takes strict
account "f the latter. They number only
eigii-five tL'e sand five hundred and fifty.
eight, but--.:ch has been the working of
the peculiar instituapn--t..Y own nearly
three-fourths of the neg, ses annl landed
property of the South. Theseone jillion,
three hundred and odd thousand of labor
ing white men represent a population of
about six mill:ons; and if we add to them
the four hundred thousand represented by
the planters, and one million represented by
men in trade, manufactures, and the pro
feasions, then can hardly remain in a total
population of less than eight millions,"five
millions of human beings who eke out a c
wretched subtaistence by hunting, by fish
ing, by hiring themselves out for occasional
jobs, and by plunder." Half a million-
the number . before stated-is vastly
nearer the truth.
Little is known at the North of this large
working population, for the reason that
they are remote from the great travelled
routes, and have been seldom seen by tra
vellers. They are scattered over all the
South, but are most numerous in the Bor
der States and in Texas. The most of them
own small fanrms, and till the soil with their
own hands. Some of them havc one or two
slaves, and in rare instances the more in
dustrious have acquired ten or fifteen--but
they work with the blacks in the fields, and
treat them v srv much as our Northern
farmers treat their hired workmen. Before
the war the traveller in the interior of
North Carolina would have heard the axe
of mastes and man falling, with alternat;
strokes, in the depths of the evergreen for
ests, or he would have seen the two "camp
ing out'" together in the same tent or pine
pole cabin, drinking from the same gourd
-the darkey always after his master-eat
tng from the same rude table, and sharing
the same bed-the cabin floor-in common.
So, too, in Kentucky, Tennessee, Missouri,
Western Virginia, and middle and upper
Georgia, Alab)ama, and Mlssissippi, he
would have seen the white and black
ploughing side by side, or, bared to the
waist, swinging the 'old-fashionedqcythe
in good-natured rivalry as to which could
cut the breadeit swath of yellow wheat or
waving timothy, or tote the biggest bandle
of corn to the evening husking-bee. And
when the evening had come, he would have
found them gathered in the old log barn,
husking, and singing, and shouting, and
dancing to the tune of " Ole Virginnv," or
" Rose, Rose, de coal brack Rose," played
by "old Uncle Ned," " who had no wool
on de top of his head," but whose skinny,
fingers, with handy blows, could rap the
music out of " de old banjoes."
The more wealthy of this clas some
times give their children what might be
called a fair common-school education, but
fully one-half of them never learn to read
or write. The reason of this is, there are
no schools for the common people at the
South. In a village, ten or twenty miles
distant, there may be a pretentious " Fe
male College," or " Institute of Learaing
for Yount Men," where a little Latin and
less Greek" are dispensed to the young
idea at the rate of fouarr fito hundred dol
lars per annum, but theee prieey place their
" stores of knowledge " far above the reach
of the herd-toileg farmes Only in Teas
essee, fAr as I know, are there say free
sohooly iapd the scanty State allowance,
whleh formerly supported them, was dealt
oat *ith a most parslmoeios hand by the
rrlisg aristoeraey, how meek light tee
institutions gate the people, may be gaess
ed atfrom 1e, faet that say one wae guli
i es to iastnet in them .who on" * read
waite, ead do samw i. " ikicý"
r a .,s these yeople being bnable (*
. , it may be iaferred they do not tgene
(tally "ttake the papers." They do not.
Aut why sboq.i theyr' Would "t be wie
om In the Southbei farmer, when his wife
apd e#1qdre were barefoot, and the wolt-
hangwer- oi-w el t &ldoor, to wast
one-tenth of his Wis. . q ottos on a
wretched heb4oe I, lt li See1
sion, slaver, cad a el -' dM anements,
whose taupi editwial he w ld be a fort
Right in apeMg out ?
As he does not reed, he hu to derive his
kagrJdgeo of eurrent events and politacl
tafirs from his wealthier neighror, who
is sure to be a slave-owr, and one of the
self-baptized "chivalry." At a political
barbecee, or a court-day gatheag, the
farmer ay hear, once or twice in the year,
the two sides of every national question
but the, to him, all-important one of sla
very. If that subject is at all toauhed upon
on such an ocosion, it is shown to be of
Jivine origin-dating back to the time
wh,.n Ham first oast a black shadow across
his looking-glass, and only to end when the
skins of his descendants no longer wear
mourniog Ior their forefather's *in.
The Italian Goveament has just publish.
ed the result of the first census taken sines
the annexation of the formerly, Indepen.
dent Italian States to Sardinia and the es.
tablishment of the Kingdom of Italy.
Accordin* to this census, the Kingdom of
Italy contains a population of 21,777,334
souls. It is, consequently, the fifth power
of Europe, as regards the number of In
habitants, being only excelled by Russi.,
Franoe, England and Austria. It is supe.
rior in that respect to Spain, of whckh the
territory is twice as extensive, and to Pus
sis, of which the area is likewise greater.
In density of population it exceede Frames
and Prps.is, but remains behind Belgium,
the most densely populatcd country of
Europe, next to England and Holland.
Lombardy and Sicil are the provinces in
which the populatien has increased most
rapidly of late y.ars. Sardinia and the
Neapolitan provinces come nuxt, while in
Pidmont the increase has been much less.
But Italy is not merely one of the first
powers of Europe in paoit of population.
Under the admainstration of wise states
men it is rapidly developing its vast re
sources. It has re-organised the army and
it is building up a powerful navy, which
will rival the glorious times of the repob
lies of Venice and Genoa. Being already
possessed of all the strength of a great
power, it has by common consent been re
cognized by the five governments, which
hitherto have been regarded as the great
powers of Europe, as their equal.
!snoeially noteworthy is the progress
which popular education has made through
out the whole Peninsula since the estab
lishment of the kingdom of Italy. The
instruction given to the people is gratuitous;
the popular schools being at the expense of
the municipality. The Government affords
help, in cases of necessity, when the muni
cipality is too poor to pay. The schools
are inspected through superintendents ap
pointed by Government. In order to form
some notion of the progress which has been
made, it will be sulicient to state that the
Neapolitan provinces (divided into 1865
communi, or municipalities) possessed, in
1861, only 1054 schools Watended by 23,567
boys, and 778 female schools, attended by
in November, 1863, scarcely a year later,
the number of schools had already increaa
ed to 1,605, with 60,050 boys in attendance,
and the female schools, which had risen to
the number of t92, bad an increased at
tendance of 30,567 girls. To the above
may be added a large number of evening
schools for the instruction of adults and
all such persons as cannot find time for the
acquirement of instruction during the day.
They are frequently opened through popu
lar subscription, and sometimes sided by
the gratuitcus help of gentlemen and stu
dents who give their time and attention to
the instruction of thaworking classes.
The consolidation of the kingdom of
Italy is one of the most important results
wh;h. has thus far attended the aspiratione
of the dismembered nationalities of Europe
for freedom and unity. A few years ago,
a united Italy was only a dream; a dream
for which the noblest patriots had lhag
striven and suffered in vaip, but which nev
ertheless did not seem to approach nearer a
realization. Then a pairiotie King was
found who placed himself at the head of
the national movement and gave to it a
centre; a great statesman (Cavour) with
eminent ability, guided the enthusiasm of
the nation to a glorious success, while an
illustrious hero (Garrabaldi) assisted him in
breaking down the opposition of the great
est of Italian despots, the King of Naples.
All the prominence that Italy has now ac
quired, she owes to the consolidation of her
dismembered parts into one nationality.
Before the establishment of the Kingdom
of Italy, none of the Italian States were of
importance; now the united country is the
fifth power of Europe, Her recent history
has thus become for all Nations, an in.
structive example of the importance of
preserving National unity. It is especially
so for us. If the peotle of the United
States preserve their Nationality, no one
doubts that they will be, for all time to
come, one of the Srst nations of the world.
If, on the other hand, sovereignty shall ex
it, as intended by the constitution of the
Rebel Confederacy, onL in the separate
States, nothing can save them from the ima
potence of the Italian States before tklhe
Unionl-K. Y. Tribmns
Tax spire of Stresbourg Cathedrtl had
hitherto secured to rance the dist.hction of
possesg the loftiest strieture among
church elfres known in roe tt
rud pinnaele is deP*.i'.ed to '-c f"rtoppO4
y the tower i* process of rijoe at St.
Stephn's J1ir .ter in Vieoua., Hitherto
t.e AusBtlan spir- tb nly reacbed a altsi
S'uae of 439 fet, wh'le the Alsatian *leele
measure4 441 is .rhtS A a udditio of 15
feet to its rival oi the panube pu4t an ea
to the boast 4aglory of the Bbi'-tb
state of the poll being new, trastkarg.40
Vienn 4%4, Piajrity for ,Views (*et
with a (wtn lrhe. " Frae, howeer, ho.
mot Maqt Bl0au'.