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-apr tpe Wea
Paper pr HBar.
The Washington taer gives an inter
esting account of the wayin which paper
for national currency is manufactured
by the new apparatus lately introduced
into the Treasury Department. The
reporter says: The paper mill has only
been in operation a few months, and the
machinery is run by a handsome hor
zontal steam engine, something more
than fifteen horse power. The stock
used In the manufacture of the paper
here is one-half cancelled bank and
Treasury notes,mutilated currency, etc.,
and one-half scrap paper, accumulated
in the Treasury Department and its
bureaus. This stock is first put in a
steam chest (containing strong alkali,on
the floor below the basement. The
notes and currency are put in by three
commlssioners,each of whom has a sepa
rate lock, so that all three must be pre
sent when this valuable stock is placed
in its wronght-iron receptacle to under
go the process of reconstruction. The
steam-chest is a horizontal cylinder,
about sixteen feet in diameter. Steam
is then let on until the stock is reduced
to pulp. The three commissioners open
it when they think the process is com
plete, and if, after examination, any
fragments of note is found, even the
smallest, the process is repeated. When
complete, the pulp is dropped into vats
below the cylinder, and is at this pro
cess a thick, fibrous mass, very dark in
color, because of the ink, from which it
has not yet been freed.
It next undergoes a washing process,
to cleanse it from ink and impurities as
discolor it, or would destroy the even
nessof the paper,and is carried by dumb
waiters to the upper floor, where in the
lime-bleach vats it is steamed in a so
lution of lime for some hours, until it is
free from stains and yellowness: after
this process the pulp is in fibrous masses
of pare white. It next undergoes
another washing and beating process,in
large tubs, in which a cylinder armed
with knives constantly revolves, and in
which the water is:contiaualy renewed.
Every particle passes under the knives,
and through the running water. This
removes the last impurities, and makes
the embryo paper a fine pulpy mass, of
equal consistence throughout. It is then
let off into a great vat on the floor be
low, twelve feet in diameter, and nine
feet high. In this vat, called the stuff
chest, it is mixed with more pure water,
and kept constantly agitated to insure an
equal distribution of the paper material
in the liquid mass. The coloring mat
ter is now put in, if yellow envelope
paper is being made. From the stuff
sheet it is pumped up into a resevoir, di
luted with a considerable addition of
water, and fed to that wonderful piece of
mechanism, the Fonrdrinier machine,
which receives the milky fluid at one
end and piles up the finished paper at
The machines we have noticed in de
scribing the preparatory processes, were
made in the Treasury. The Fourdrinier
machines, which we propose to give a
brief description of now, was built by J.
L. Severns, WVorchiester, Massachusetts.
The stuff of the consistency of rich milk
is first received into the screen box.
where it spreads itself into a frame set
with horizontal slats, close together.and
finally runs through them upon a fine
wire sieve, through which it also die
appears, the whole machine being kept
in agitation to facilitate the process.
The slats and sieve catch any sand, me
tallic particles. etc., which might remain
in the pulp after the beatings and wash
ings we have ahecady refer-red to. From
the box beneath the sieve the stuff falls
in a sheet or rather shower of the prop
er width upon an endless belt of wire
guaze. over which it is distributed of
the proper thickness for the quality of
paper to be made, by a guage for the
purpose. The wire belt revolves upon
small metal rollers, placed very close to
gether, and continues to revolve in the
same direction, carrying- the paper for
ward as long as the machinery is in mo
tion. It has not only a constant motion
forward, but trom side to side, thus
weaving the fibrous material into a sort
of telt. which makes the paper much
str,)nger than the old cylinder machine,
whiiel had a wire cloth cylinder ri'volv
ing in the pulp, which took up a thin
coat of fibrous mnat.rial on its outilde.the
wat-r draining through into thl' interior
of the' druni.
Having no lateral motion, the lihrce of
tlie ipaper made upon it laid all in one
direction. To return: The stuff is kept
of the right width at first on the wile
belt by strips of woolen. but in passing
along the water is tIrecipated from it in
a smart shower h.neathi the machine,
and it soon gets firmnner. T'hirt drying
preess is lhastelied by the three suction
bioxes, which are of metal, about six
incites wide, and perforated with small
holes on top. The air being exhausted
fromn these by a steam pump, the newly
t;irii.,td punsr in Pa sing over them has
the water forced fr',lnm it into the L)oxet
,yv the pressure of the atmosphere. Be
t\een thile first and second suction boxes
shlowly revov-es. a hollow cvlinder, call
ed the "dandy roll." covered with inter
secting lines forming rhmlu.ids,in each
of wh.ichl is a capital T. 'iThe "dan(idy
roll" prints this ( ýr whatever other pat
teern it bears) on the semi-fluid paper,for
rning what is called the water mark.
Any sort ofwa:ter mark may Ih, put in,
and it is hereafter tler.igned to niake this
paper for fractional currency with differ
ent designs, making it a!most imnlosible
to counterfeit or alter it. Fiom the wire
giaze, the new paIlr. now very firm,
but not yet self-sustaiinng, leasses on to
a second i ndlh-ss b,-lt.or thick felt,which
celnveys it between two large cylinders.
called press-rollers, and thus through
two mor-e sets. by which time the mois
utre is quite forced out. and it is able to
pass forward to the he.ating rollers with
out any supIprt.
There are six Qeriies of these drying
r.llers, through which the paper passes
up and down and in and out,losing some
of its moisture, and gairing strength at
ever% step in the journey,until it passes
through one set ot calenders to smooth
it at this point, it may be considered
finished for some purposes, and there is
a roller here on which it may be wound
if necetsarv. In making the finer quali
ties of Fapsr., however, more remains to
tbe done. The sheet is now very wide,
and it may be necessary to cut it length
wire. For this purpose it piases over
a round Irom bar. oe or more reuolviag
halnves slittiag It to the required width.
Fromt this bar the paper travels through
a th of dsisag made of gelatine, and
them th rom other rollers which press
it smooth, but not qte dry again, and
then it meets a roing cylinder with
a sharp horlsontal blade, which cuts it
offinto sheets of the required length.
The sheets fall into a lay-boy, a most
ingenious machine which earries them
to a table and lays them in a pile very
esatly. From thence the sheets are
taken to the drying room-a hall on the
same floor-and hung on racks. After
being left a day or two to dry, the are
taken to the calender machine, and pas
sed through a sett of heated and
polished rollers, from which they
emerge hot, shining and smooth. From
the point where the Fourdrinler receives
the pulp, to the roller where the band
of paper is cut into sheets, it travels
800 feet, and the machine makes ninety
to one hundred pounds of paper per day.
In view of the probability of the ap
proach of this scourge to our coasts du
ring the preent season, the following
statistics and recommendations for clean
liness in the various localities of the
Territory should not be disregarded. We
quote from the B a :ctin:
"The cholera visited the principal
dcities of the Atlantle States last summer
and while the ravages were in some in.
stances fearful, the sanitary resistance
was more successful than ever before,
compared with the ravages made in ear
lier times, the visitation seems to have
been a light one; and yet where filth
was tolerated the epidemic seems to have
shown all its old virulence.
The following; table, computed from
offielal and other reliable sources, pre
sents a full exhibit :
L..slit. Populysio. DeatkA.
New York and viciity......... I27,551 1.212
Brooklyn and vicinity............ 399,997 816
Phid phis........................ 565,500 34
Richmmad......................... 37,000 164
Norfolk.......................... 14.600 107
Savanash ........................... 22,200 231
Vicksburg........................ 4,500 210
Memphis .............................. 22.600 899
Lolville ............................. 67, 700 159
Cipclnati ............................. 161,000 1,848
St. Leis .............................. 160,700 3,532
Chicago .. .......... ............... 109200 778
Nashville.............................. 16,900 782
Other cities ad towns............ 1,439.549 665
Total.............................. 3,081,988 12,230
A mortality in the aggregate of nearly
three and one-tenth per 1,000 of popu
The cholera is not asleep by any
means. It is in the country, ready for a
new campaign of desolation. It has re
cently been very destructive among the
allied forces under the lead of Brazil
against Paraguay, decimating the armies
more rapidly than the hardest fought
battles. We know what work the chol
era has done upon the Plains and in Cal
ifornia heretofore. And now that the
probabilities are very strong that this
scourge will reach this coast during the
present summer, it is at least wise to pre
pare to make an effective sanitary resis
tance. It will not do to rely upon our
trade winds and dry sand hills. If chol
era aplpears in the hot valleys of the in
terior it will be likely to show itself in
this city. It will strike the filthy local
ities with the swiftest and most deadly
blows. Swineville is still good cholera
breeding ground. The undrained local
ities, and especially some of the streets
contiguous to the shipping, where there
are accumulations of offal and veg -table
matter, will conetitute a field of death
unless a good sanitary work is done.
Looking at the movements of this
scourge, it is safe to presume that this
coast is within the line of its present
travels. It is better in a quiet way to
secure a good sanitary condition in sea
son than to rush blindly about when the
scourge has come, thereby increasing
the panic and rendering the cleansing
process far lees efficacious. In view of
this cholera contingency, every filthy!.
district in the city ought to be over
hauled, and if there should be no chol
era, other diseases might be kept down
or mitigated. so that in any event the
city would be the gainer by this splcial
The Dead Letter Obee.
A corre.pl,.indent of a Boston l'paper
" The dead letter oftice is one of the
curiosities of \Vashington to the stranger;
but tb those engaged in it. it is terrible
drudgery. The opening, examining and
sorting of fourteen thousand five hun
dred letters every six hours is a hard
task; but it must he done, for there are
four and a half millions of dead letters
cone to the office every year. All that
are signed are returned to the writers;
but sr, many are written by " Your affec
tionate Annie," or " Your loving Susvy,
that each clerk has a two bushel basket
beside him into which all letters unsign
ed by the full name are dropped. From
that receptacle they pass to the chop
ping mill, where they are cut into .small
pieces so that they may never be read.
and from the chopping knife they go to
the paper mill. The great majority of
these letters are lost through the care
lessness of the writers; and it surprises
my power of imagination to know how
people can be so careless, especially when
they send large sums of rdoney. Nearly
58,(000 letters came to this office last
year, enclosing bills of checks or bonds.
And how much do you suppose those let
ters contained ? Over three million and
a half of dollars! One letter contained
two one thousand dollar bills; it was
returned to the owner. Another had
$230 in it, but nothing to show Shle name
of the writer. Fortunately, the postmark
though partly obliterated could still be
read. The letter came front Chicago,
was remalled there and advertised, and
the owner came forward, saying that
when be sent the money he was in so
much of a hurry he forgot to add his
name! The most valuable letter, or
rather package, that .turned up " dead "
was one containing bonds worth over
All u6rts of curious articles come here.
I was standing by the other day, when
the first letter contained $25; soon after
two packages of medicine came along.
Sometimes duns,daguerreoty pes, potage
stamps. bead-bags, even snakes, bottles,
et.:., came through this general reposi
tory. It Is an omnium gaterwrm of small
WeIw.rtk & Barte.
3 i ---
GKAL EASTER OFFICK:
254 Broadway, New York.
G e WESTERw OFFICE:
St. Joseph, - -- Missouri.
WILL )ORWARD FREIGHT TO THI TER
TT A I I,
From their Warehouses at the terminus uf the
Union Pacific Railroad
U. P. RAIL ROAD, E. D.
U. P. RAIL ROAD, E. D.
For rates, shipping directions, etc.. apply at the
General Ofoes of the Company, or to
Eight & Parker, Agents, No. 10ti Washington
George B. McCulloh, Agent. No. 4" outh
8idne Rice Agent, No. I Burnet liouse Cin.
Joseh Molntire, Agent, No. 72 Commercial
8trelte St. Louis.
Henry Hargie, Agent, No. 53 Clark t. Chic go
Daniels & Brown, Agents, Denver, Colorado.
George T. Clark, Agent. Central City. Col.
Fisher & Cass, Agents, Golden City, C, olodo.
Godbe & Mitchell A ts, Salt Lake City.
PFOUTS & RUL S.LL, Agents, Virginia
Daniel Corbin, Agent, Helena, Montaua.
Bmith & Graeter, Agents, Bannack and Mon
O. E. Blake, Agent, Santa Fe, New Mexico.
Oscar Nicholson, Agent, Junction City, Kan
sis. (present terminus U.P. R.R. E.D.)
G. C. BARTON Contracting Agent, North
Platte Station, Nebraska, (present terminus
IU. P. R. R., or to
F. E. SHORT.
1:17 General Traveling Agent.
W !olI.E Af.3 A nD RJ;I'All.
BUTCHER & PURVEYOR
W41,T 4'T F" 17IRI;IV.1 ('I7'Y.
Metropolitan Meat Market.
N this Market will b. uund at a]l eaw P oit t.h.,
'year. drested in the most
I U. 7JTITC STYYL E.
.n.;i .f oIr t .t F t qltsitty ,b'aina ',! " for mQsny.
'Ganie, Larkg and Small,
uEver Article, and
Every Article in their Line.
The large stock necessitate'l
by their extensive business enables
purchasers to make a selection ex
asetly suiting their taste.
SC%'ustomers waited upon and
their orders promptly executed.
Young persons sent to this estab
lishment will be especially attended
White Fime LmInbei Yard.
GwwIAg l. 1hgimi. Craq, N. T
ubLm & 3IOTUU ...... Llpdtr.
AI L of u I rlil· lobarr eowryM
1 w~ralk. I. X. RZNGHAW,
BANNACK C/TY, M. T.
Slways hbave -o bad and RFw ie a
TEA, COFFEE, SUGARS,
SALT, SPICES, FLOUR,
BACON, RAMS, SOAP,
Ca sned Frsuita!
H R . D Lt ) TV AR E!C !
BOOTS, SHOES, CLOTHING,
Dry Goods. Ele*.
Able, a large anid well-aur. J rt stocLk of Drugs aad
Ali ,t tbhew artielH. wi!l be soldM tthe Itw t
I- ` CH rrr l t ý·iCice f> Z.>ý
%% e have a worn.odion.
Storage of Goods
Liberal Adsances B Ill be lMade on
D)R. LEAW ITT,
Physician and Surgeon, Baunack
("Ity, MJ. T. lt'-7 m
J. B. PATTON, YM. D.,
Phla' clan and Surgeon, Bananack
(City, M. T. 13
E. F. PIHELPS,
Attorney at Law, )Bannack, YI. IT.,
V ILL pra'tice in all tlhercurt. of tlh, T.'rritorv.
ar.i .pay lp.',:ial att.itio.n to the c..lila'ti.,n ft
claimh . 1:1
.. N. WILLIAMS.
Billiard Saloon, Bannack, M,. T.
S'INE s.twk of Liluor. Ciarr. &e.. may al
lt ways be found at ziy rTooms. 1-P1
Established inl 18 4 !
M AN U F A C T (RtX!
Clark & Mitchell.
(4 doors above the Post O(fice.
' TOUTLD respectfully inform the citia.-n- of
Montana Territory, that they hnvg nos
on hand the largest and most complete stock of
Office and Ilousehold
Furniture in the country. Having the n-ces
sary machinery for manufacturing, w' feo
assured that we can sell
Cheaper than any other House
in the Territory. Our Stock consi-t of,
Bedsteads, Sofa,, Chairs, Bureaus,
Wardrobes, Washstands, Center Tables, Dining
and Breakfast Tables, Office Desks, Etc., Etc.
In fact, we can manufacture
Anything You o 'amt '!
in our line of Iusiness. We are prepared to
Sash, Doors, and Blinds
Twenty-five per cent. cheaper than they can
be bought elsewhere. i' A large stock
constantly on hand."1.
Coffins mnade on short Noticv.
Billiard Balls Nicely Turned
Give us a Call.
CLARK & MITCHELI,
I 11-166 Wallace Street, Virginia City.
DR. H TFELaAY'D'A
C E3LE E3IBR LA.
SWISS STOMACH BITTERS
SThe best Purifier of the Blood !
A pleasant Tonic
I A ivery agreeable Drink !
SUnsurpassed for anting surely but
gently on the secretions of the kid
TRY ys, bowels, stomach and liver!
I T Fo I r ale at all whbolesale sad retail li
quor, drg and grocery storea.
m0U0 SIOULD E WITHOUT IT
J. O. maucu, Prepriter.
TAYLOR & BENDEL, Sole A gnts,
w147-198 413 Csly 1,, imr lmseo.
HO I FOR AMERICA!
The Tellowstac lackiaw Fleet!
ON OR ABOUr
14EPTEMII BER tSk, 1eT7,
Kenney and Rhoten's
FI.EET OF THIRTY FIRST CLASS
Will loeve the Maw Mill on the Yellow.eonu for
O(kmnah.a d ltersnediate Poi·rtce
Fare from the \1ellowtonhm
) nly sue. i (
OjOVERED MACKINAW.l for the socommoda
.L tion of women and chikldrwn. Passengern will
he allowed on. hundred pounds of bargage FREE.
KENNEY & RHOTEN.
Virpgink City, June WM. 18$7. 148-155
B. A. ELTON & JOHN B. TAYLOR
- ANI --
Fort Menton, Montana Territory.
SEINEJ exclusively in the Storage and Commis
sion busineis, we will give our individual
attention to receivinia, storing and forwarding all
goods consigned to tus. We respectfully solicit the
patronage of the business men of Montana Terri
tory. We refer, by permission, to
Mes.rs. Pfonts & Russell. Virgiuia City, M. T. :
' J.J. Roe &Co..
(" .rhamn & Patton.
Mr. John S. Rockfellow.
" John H. Ming,
Messrs. King & Gillett. Helena City,
" Gaston. Simpson & Co., Helena City. M. T
Mr. J. It. I'pso;,
Capt. W. H. Parkinsn & Co..
Msers. M. Branham & Co.. Blackfoot Cit),
Mr. A. Beattie. Banker, ?t. Joseph. Mo.;
Mos-rs. Strode. Rlubey & Co., St. Louis, Mu.;
Dal.er..:, Brother' &. Co.,
Mr. E. M. Samuel, St. L'.,:. Mo..
Mr. Wil'iamn North. .91g!
Cosaenaisxios a Pler(lEEfl,
Fort Benton, - - - - M.T.
W %7 Lace tiro Largo t . trel.·,,ttlt s. capable (. f·
W storing 4(NP t.-n4 ",f uorchatdi*e: also. a
large at,,-k it 4 ..k1s. suiitalul. fur } reiget. -s. Au.-
tione'rs,. Minors anti retailers.
%%# - wlttit a .'"arc- of pblic .'Lttrnaire. .t):,ti
dent that we ran make the pri.CO an alv antoae t.i
tlh Itirihtu;. ".'.r any point in this "'- rit.ry.
wi :iit f
J. H. MING,
Corner of Jackwon and Wallace St.
Wiholesale and Retail Grocuip,
'ýl:ý t i I- II.~ N E - IIk 1 ! i ' .'ll )N .Kl
Suj ar ficIr 1 thlieh-t Frv.e l w%
T. ~~T·i:r ·1:e citiclrs .,f the *·1ir l~··~i~na
FOR DISBURSING OFFICERS.
EZRA MILLARD, I'r.;.,,c
J. H. MILLARD, c.',.',r
Omaha National Bank,
O A.IHA. NEBRASKA.
Capital 5100,000. Authorized Capital $500,000.
frljiI I ..AN K d-eals in Ftoreign antd I)o,xmstie Ex
S Ihange. to.,vrnil. ent lkonds. (tld C'oin, and
mnak..s tlhe pllrcelahe of
Gold Bust and Bullion a Speciality!
J. I r. 'MiLard form,nrly of Allen & 1Mil!ard. Bank
ers at \'irg:.ia s:uni Hel.na 4'iit ,. Montana. is i.ow
( Cashier of 1!h Iftank. aind ". il1 " j1.1 #4t. to s.e
hit Montana t'riend.. 147 t*;e
i3 l I .t d 1I) s _% J4 o o N,
%'~o.'urn7l buiuldinq. ;.fniart nrset.
Virginia City, ............... Montana.
J. J. HU L, S ro., Pr(';rl(i'rs.
F1~R.ST CLA.~.4 /R!f.L JAR!) I'ARPK.'. Prime
Liij'rs. and No;. I igars. *btaiidui' at t.iis
a"hioonbiue place of p'iubic re.a.irt. 1
LEA. F. MARSTO\,
WATCHMAKER AND JEWELER
Cor. of JackA4n 4' a'llacr. ~S~.. airginia 'ity, 1. T.
O()NSTANTLY keaiis ..n tuind. and makes to, r
cJder, from NaStive (l~ id, all th.' latent tv*% ire.)f
17*i artii'iz:,r att),ition jipai. to r..piiiring \Vat"he,,.
ST.iR RESTA 'RAT,
f ý. Scott. Qro-L-r iotor
RED MOUNTAIN CITY. HIGHLAND CULCH.
OARD by the day or week. The table alway;
,soapplied with the d-licaies \,f thi season.
H. H.Gilbert, Christian Richert.
. W E HAVE CONSTANTLY ON HANDI A
LARGE nupply of
BEER KEGS, ETC
All orders in our lia* of business will be promptly
atteanded to. 121
FOBR ST. LOUIST
Will Leave Ft. Benten
TUESDAY, SEP. 10th
At 19 o'clock N1.
Draws only 11 inch.e, anti will g, thr,,rt
- FOR -
-" 1-- S .R -
TI'TT & I)ONNELL,
Helena, M. T.
- R *,i T( -
J. 4. BAKER,
FI. Bcntosn. h. T.
w 1 .52-l. ,
J. .7P. K.VI(J lIT ,
U.41 C'EN..H '. I
I) A I I . H.llEI' II A C()..
i i , i N l i. T1 . E1 P iY ' ( /lF l( - ,, T
FI TI A. t'_lTY., - - M. T.
I HOLESALE AND RETAIL
(I1ROCE . NTORA.(E
Farming and Mliinng pre.nementS E.
XX E ha\·-a ar&C.a!rI Y.r~r., «i:,"
I' i1re-JrvEJJ' Jf i,'rcIIQ"t'
Pronduzie. I' -
.t °N t rrj "irN " t,« lr "
DR.. J. HZ. 11.111 i:_
AS I..crtteI in Virginiv Ci:} V
pared to performn ill Epe: r
Ilentoktrv" in thr most a;~l,roved ali ýI
wouldc do Wel to give him a Call. "K'rl rn .
son street. in the 1IbutortIb }
CARROLL d %TFIl"·
Forwarding Storage and I)ctaltff i11 (rf m
BENTON CITY, MONTANA TiI