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*;w*' flIIUWNF7N IZEPOIRT.
S : cur:;t, Suummary.)
. .. :' \1l. PrE:l[ ltl .
- :t r: x t'.' u. -t strikinr Leo
':: i- th. zre.at r.ng* of the
,,.,1- .xt di :v"i0 13111 from
- 1i- iort ll". l'uiut ri . ai.tl in
T o !. .; -,w th it:.
r- 1 '1- ,, .- . : i .
i Irr t Ir. The
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- , . lii titriLter
"" ,, .'" . ;l I eatltt io
I t rtt of
t th" fI O rmi ,-:
' ,' l,"' rIl. - l~ l .'t~ tug is l
to- Ut l ill
- .. . - a - . I l ti 'a ier
S . . Iir . . t'It T.ir-
. - it' - : '. "- i , iht ttl.tr
1- It , t -l i . tI i a1- 101. it F
i .1(,u 1 t iln th''rlls
i t ifan h -m ott:it
* 1 . . i--I t t'' I te m ~Il .a t ri.t
S - . 1 :t- . '' -i t. 'Ir & ta r
Sio ,-, with none tof
S ' " .t ;,r f, n t l faitht r f ,,uth
'..,: I ,," 1,, t :tiL t.ul' - .'lPah.r .ir
't!ttlt-'I '-I V In,; t ae th aie
r , : ! ::. , -r r ,,I ]i it'' b eo i rl o -
I-- .11 I :F t: n , 1 t 'he D M .;llh holtli,
- 1 . -, t r u" l l ,: " . . 1" " t o, u l . i I ' l l t i , "'
. ,ili,.ri:u ih this re,.- , et from
\ i.-. \v!." l~ldwlc r :;uiei t- almost
u:tli in thl, - toot-hill .. In the
:t .i tiih" 1 ,rrtry the mountain
. r . :, lr, -i .,.'",, ,,nly -uthicienltly
: r -r..c. 1 , c h . Thohi"-tilhry
.t. r ,; :t, ,t a th , ro :4 gh ox p lo r
. ,-ril.iil'ht weCut i::4 of the min
N ý I' iit~l :-I ".t. AI Lix.
j... ti'n- li riii.. l by a tbi'ruia1
I.' t::,'I: lv" r lorlil v ith 'chit,' ant
ii -· W 2. It nrrII- x iitahIP 1 id
1I'.. h*L~t thi dihnt.ni r-"
tI r " t',t IldilM t"... :
.. .t I 11 -i I t Il I Is: 1·: ' t ·
... t Inun I
tt ' t.r:1t ir' of \r2ac'it
. ' '1*.i~letl It e l i 2 e't ai1Uie 2ti."
" 1 :s1 1 ,iP*- l-I-' hI " 1' lb -,' it
21 .'tn ' I I:. In 'iv tv t I U 1 r.r -
jiv * !I' 2 ri iil -Irali . a :rt mol I
r1121r a.- il-c it IIN
til' t l it rt
11,.t-u - no treurttt. 1,C
1' -k"' th t' i- lu-t : i
..., N i"ý.I nt i.:.týi\a ,1:it;
t ."r' ' : : r ul': 1ic n
i- :1n, I r i"." c'iin-. of IlloUti
I . u : urrit. a-P;; uliiriv uL-1 Ui1lPr-Prl ,
jI.. t "" ole ai.,oth' r, I_ iUtn :l
Idi r.uic,. The~ rarity uf
- ' t;u-lt on the altitude.`
SI Ii, tth 1he ]e- dro.n;Iy re
0 i L t.. ..trnr llOheTrC s i-deo-"
tr: t: _"" tt;r ttti inaturaI re ection to
11:" L.-t 1' p.c"uliar in manyfl
V. ,I , ."-not app "re.~lt it:i
I 1i...l . lit .011t, therr, the colot
ii * rke r, till the tn I't die
r ;t· .-tntir ly bIlack. In thie upper
1 rt ' !o~t upri;; S the
* * . i. -o: ': oiutol: and there is
of ,0~l1 jitL-Li;ge the year
i U' iii itere-tiflg fact cota
ti-t 1 I? lcality is worthy of note.
,, (Iof thiis valey inito Bº H1ole,
t.. t.liof1liii oe criek, a branch of
1.ri t'ircuu;1 the
-at... In f:act, it ch imlily a1
* * . lle intto m 0,11 , I- . At
ri :t li tttr " ror;1t, l~t fio the hi':ii of
. cif i I t 'il i t i;
I:- , ' K . \l:T/ IbI.STRi(T-T- r FIRST
i..:. l:, t ,u:oltz veins worket in th: iTerri
i. ," " in laanuack. tirimshopler creek
l.t..i :it the loot of a large smooth moun
t ,n:, hl;ica abouunds in veins containing goll,
il\ r a:., .'tp,'r. The creek then runs east
w~rIly through a basin. where its Iranches
c "n"c.. tratti., pass out through a limestone
canvyn. At thelihead of this canyon are
,Luartz ve :l containing free gold. These
weint iue the source from which the placer
rinu , n: thu creak were supplied. No gold
: t,,u:,I a: ov-e thl .,'is. the crorpings
1-ein" i'pr',Li;.'int antid -1lpicuous, were soon
,i-cN.", i. ti.'i 1lU.t: claims located. In
thi' wintter of 162-6;:. two men, named Allen
.iti Ai.ohld, put up the first quartz itill. It
\ .I- ea:t :lV a homue mInnuf.cture : the irons
iw'r,, o lt:,nnied fromn old wagons and fash
i1tn, 1i in : bl.ck-unith's s-op ; all the lumber
u-d. ,except pine, fir and cottonwood, came
I r,,tn tLe tami .- turce. T'he mill had tix
ta;ll - f lO p1oun.ls 'nach. and was driven by
water. The men who built it runi it. in a
tiuanici:al point of view it was a success. The
ores n· re Iromhl the docovery claim of the I)a
k,,ta. atid No. 6 of the same lode. A numbcr
, Iz wllane Ii this vicii.y" were iold to parties
in ti:. LEastern States, who have expended
,:! rable sums of money and erected Sev
tc:;i i.Lr;e n;l costly mi!L'. In the fall of
I. thie firt stamp tu:lla commenced work
i .'t Itnutiack. ihey were only moderately
-ucu,"-:tul in extracting the gold. The men
S, had charge were p:; actically unacquainted
Sth. busines-. and generally, as coon as
:.:.v !;hal learned to manage with more skill,
ti.-y wre suuperceded by others without ex
Srint. :i:.it the .,me lprccess r'lepeated. OIne
,u:tC" H.::- erected which only ran a short
tine. It is now being rebuilt. The probs.
t i.itv i- it will continue in operation as long
- ti'. or are us-ceptible of reduction more
ch..:,l lv by :melting than by roasUtng and
ta .,trait ig. lhe mines of Itannack have
1"rotductd a large amount of ore. With propel
:i.;at.:zgelent they will continue to pay well
A cal tan, ignorant of his busines; with a
c:,-n of landsnmen, can manage a ship as well
,- a tuperittendeLt, unaoquinted with mi.
Iing, can manage a mine or maill or men un
accu.-tomed to either. So.phuret ores bave
eien reached in some of the mines, which the
mills will not be able to reduce with ad
ditiunal uud proper machinery. Th" Dakota
was the first lode discovered and has bee
worked most extenirely, probably mor
than all the other veins in the district. It ii
a large, irregular vein distinctly traced oa the
-urliace for over a mile in length, and opened
at six different points to a depth of 100 feet
and in one place to a depth of 320 feet.'
There is no doubt of its depth and perma
nroncv. IP varies In thickness from three to
eight feet : dips to the northeast ; strike,
northwo.t and southeast : the general dip and
strike of the veins in this locality. It carries
th. oxidtzed ores to a great depth; contain
ing free gold, easy of extraction. The DIc
kot.l was located under the old law. which
only allowed 100 feet to a claim. Nearly
vrv cainm was held separately, which ma
t,:i.ll Interfered with the propar opening
o1 l wlking of the mines one tunnel has
.: ,.,von in S00 f,",t in a thorough :nd
. ..::lik' manner. Some of the shafLt
iI cootructe.l but much of the work
I }u :y dune and1 on a bad .-'steom, rendered
. .-.. -y in part iy the .n::11 -ize of the
cl i.. Etch compianyv honlI own at len.t
1, dIJ fi' t, which would ju-tity opening in a
I'rol''"r :.:,nUr. The country rock enclozing
Itl: 1, : i= lirn estr.. ot a late geographical
S .. : r-t- u.c.,rf,,rrmably ulon -ycnite5.
.'N ,vi:s .v. ;.nen found in the eyeoite.-,
::.1 r,, ,. lyv if t':eyv a-- from the limestone
itot t,- .ven:'es tivy will be found.l to be i:'
A I:,.FNTA ~11i i . 'T- A M3I.'Til.It'ITY OF VEINS.
A ^I.tt 11 . in; ,li-trict liha north floin
1;.in:ck. on ths north h.nk of the iRatt.e
-. : .-. T'hi diitr:ct, although not
"'. co*ntain"l a .rat number of veins. il
n p,:'rt of Mourtana y,"t explored have -..
harl;hVdi vi- he- u luund in so swall a comp:;i--.
l:o ti." :o, k a i. ,v- i all spots have I,b.r
Sork .: for pllac r goli. The quartz vein
:ar' I itl.tor.e, and goenerally r.einmhle th:ui,.
:t :,: ac: . o.ly t .- c,,.t' n more lead and
'file ,iuartz veins in this district were to:)
undou:,ted source of the goldl in Alder gulch!
oi.-ral of lthere were di: c.vere"l and luhintpl
-n a.ttr th location of the placer minio in
te .ulch below. The first mill here, like th.l
fir-t it at anlnack, was of Montana lanulai:
ure. A wa:on supplh.d the iron; the choice
:t. ' ..r : r',l t , :,tura'l l,,ducts of the dis
trict. ii ii e tiie labor of the builders ,urni-hedl
all elhe. It was a financial success, but as the
,re was carefully selected, the yield was
Llilgt-r tha:n has been since. The mill was
prol.llel by water: its capacity was three
andl one-half tons per week. SiRce then many
veins have be-n sold in the Eastern State,
:mwl a number of stamp mill., erected, a few
of which have been mo lerately succeesful.
T' ny e:aiploy battery amalgamation, :awl
1a-s' the pull, over copper plates, which will
:',t -a::. -:::ch gol.l a- wh-l Iron pans or
ar;:.-.rt- ur, u l1. One mill has a great col
lt'l a, ,,. i ", lv :imechauical curio.i:iO
mi1y inovl tand solnt' ob-olete. After a year's
exlrie:icy thCe loperators still indulu e ini the
an:lti.il:,ti. .f .ratifying results. The mrnth
od mnll lcil inl these mills will not extract
thei gold from .-ulphuret ore. The minvs
conttain i: large amount of oxilized ore, which
wvil oevtually I exhausted andn the sulpu
rr r' ,r i r i! I b.n remain. nulphuret . can
:-[tut' toe main reliance fooat the future : *il
itei woilki.g of any mill that cannot extract
ti·. 4,-!,1 fr ,'n them will not be permanently
p1r, tit l. . ih miluls in oiperation in this dis
trict cru-h about a tou to the stamp in 21
hours. T' cn .-t ,(f working in two mills
w~.:-~ . t per un. re-pectively. w'ui '
in i n t" .-r, it wai s estim tet at $t'.25 p'lr t)u:
ti .. ;s ere .tamp mi llP. In another th
c.,-t w.I , 'l.-r toni. 'le cot of the -tamp,
mnill- i.:- ,rrn 2i1.(000 to $311.oo0l eacih ac
cordl - i to thoir canciity, which variedi lroni
t, . t :. ton- per d .y. 'he c.".-t f , one .il1
i i .120.,, with at Cp ialtly 3 about !2
t :.1 ier day. \Voo .l vieis from $ 5 to +i;,:)
a r-i -:r f" ro:nm 6to 9. per d.ay.
1t t:w"nty mi;ne= havle been located :auI
:,r.I, to soi(m ext.nt i. the:umnwitdist:rct.
A t, : , th mana c ",;ral.rte ! :,re the Kear --rge
.)I , IU , ..
1.i iin upo' :inh ,iines and builin; mal!- in
tl.is ditrict. 'ihe mills cot from -30,0tU(1 to
200,.000, ,(at:amat-i iby men who hav~e had
go. d ,! t t ie o obtainii. correct in
orlnatin. 'l.e etl:L:;ates maIy he too I;iýil,
but it is certr:ln the e Padliditlreos have been
e.travagant, conp,.tar l with the capacity
of the i. ili-. There are three mills in the
o,=tract, t.. of whizih i are runia :ing, the othaer
i- iairlyn ctnti-tel. The large't of thesebhas
forty stamps, twenty of which ,re running.
Its capacity is twenty tone per day. The ca
1 1 ,cty of tle others is less. The mill com
l" ", ill Io:rny inst:ances, do not wi<lh their
r-ar in:u:i u'lic. as it might effect the
price oi stock. In so;::e cace.-, owing to the
:liort tin:e duaiaog which they have been run
ning, t.o occurate estimatts of the yield can
: 'a. . " ' i'tin a year ,,r two greater expa
rie..ce in working will reault ill somethinm like
a gen'Ir'al a:erage Ut profit at each mill.
In tialt C),e mliill ore %wi\s worked fromt
eg:1te' n dit.rtnt vwcin)i. in Lanlutlts
a'c V agi.g frtan tIm ree to fifty toles.
'l'l. :rare violI tronl all the vaeina,
w t: ~:) tii0 ,llrs per ton. It is claiituet
tIl-t .he Ifor.sv inine pays 1t$) petr ton,
Iandl lihas been ,)lpented to a depth of! O)(!)
t . .•"' , , ,re .tki:Is - opl,:e: l .a4)
<. i I - t, :h, north., t :
w, rks fro: fortyv to lifty. dollars per ton.
'Tie country' roc:; is granite. Bivin's
gulch, (iranite creek .and Willams.
creek etmIpty into Alder gulch front the
.so.tihwest. and have somiie gold and sil
verr .lyarini quartz vein:. They pros
dec't wi'll Being now worked, their
value will soon be known. There are
mnar, gulches near Virginia, as the
Norwegian: which is on the east side oat
the range antd ewWpties into the aindlison,
like Meadow creek and Flat Springs
cree.k tlhe California, Brandon, Ham's
hiorus gulches and Mill creck: all con
St:ains veins tthat prospects well in gold
at the surface, and many of them in sil
t ver and copper. When opened no
o;donbt some of them will become va!.
- unb!e mining localities.
The Helena mines were discovered in Sep
tember, 1864, at Dry Gulch. Soon after gold
was found in Last Chance gulch, and as the
latter gulch contained water and prospected
rich, it became the centre of mining opera
tions. After Alder Gulch, this is the richest
that has b-en worked in the Territory, and is
yielding largely this season. The depth of
these diggings ranges generally from ten to
twenty feet. In some claims it is over forty
feet from the surface to the bed-rock. Work
has been almost exclusively confined to the
bed of the gulch. On the western aide of the
Prickly Pear valley, at and below the mouth
of Dry creek, and on both sides of Lest Chance
gulch, there are hundreds of acres of shallow
placers that will pay when water is introduced.
Owiug to a scarcity of water, Dry gulch has
n:t been ,cry extensively worked. A supply
has just been brought in by means of ditches
from Ten mile creek, and the prospect is now
amore encouraging. Last Chance gulch is
formed by the junction of Grizzly and Or
Fino gulches, about half a mile above the
town of Hlelena. Grissly comes is from the
r south and Oro Fiant from the north. Both
iI have been worked extensively and proltably.
The counte rock near Helena is limestone ad
metamorphic slate; further up in the moan
tains granite prevafi. A largemsbe of gold
bearaun quartz veins ate found in it, from
which it is evident the gulches below received
their gold. Neson's gulch, which heads in
these granite me.tains and rues inaoe Tm
mile ceeek, has been mearly as rich as Or, Fi..
or Grisalv galches. 8oab from thee hsek
are a number of gulches wu ain into Priekly
i Pear, which have pid wll. Th ~ o*.
i sacle that the maesm sesester the want
1 of fall in athe bs of fh g;a .They are
too fat; bat the rat medhed of laming
with steam machinery for removing the tail
ings from the flume, recommended for Alder
gulch, will be equally as eacacious here. The
minee around Helena are supplied with water
by a number of ditches, the actual cost of
none exceeding $100,000. Small ditches usu
ally are profitable; large ones seldom pay the
cost of construction.
wHtTLATCH L'.os MINIE.
The Whitlatch Union vein has been more
fully opened than any other in Montana. Its
strike is east-southeast and west-northwest;
dip 40 de-. to the northward; thickness of
vein from a -eam to fifteen feet: average four
feet; opened to the depth of 250 feet, and in a
number of points inclines have been sunk to
depths from 100 to 200 feet. It has been
trace.! ror a long distance on the surface, and
several different companies are at work on it.
The ore is worked with the greatest facility.
It- average yield has: been about $40 dollars to
th - to.:. (Inc lt of 1.000 tons yielded $60,
(10. or 06o) per tn. The gross yield, so far,
ias I,-en $2.1l1, H0 as near as is known by the
working of the different mills.
At lutte resides Henry Comstock, famous
:: the dicouver.r of the Comstock lode, of Ne
v::l:a, th"e dl-covrery of which inaugurated the
era of silver mining in the United States.
Althnugh a man of the strictest temperance,
n-in-; no .tim;lant stronger than tea or coffee,
:and not even tobacco, years and the hdrdships
tald excitement incident to a frontier life are
tellin.g painfully on his faculties. In a con
ver-ation with him he referred to his past ca
reer-e-pecially his connection with the lead
that ,.uers his name. His Intellect appears to
wander, although his hand still retains its
cunning. Hle is a skillful prospector, but his
fl lin~ recollections carry cloudy images to
his da:kenedl unders-tanding. He imagines he
owns the whole Comstock lode, and the cities
of Gold ll ill and Virginia; but as he has no
immediate use for them, he allows others to
live in his houses: the people are poor, and it
would be hard to turn them out, especially in
the winter. This feeling of benevolence in
the old man is really genuine, and one that he
habitually practices. He has a small claim
that pays little more than wages. If a poor
miner comes along without means, he gives
him an opportunity to work in the claim un
til the suttering stranger has the means to go
on his journey. tecently an emigrans came
along who was sick and could work but little.
C,mrne ock and he worked together in the claim,
the old man '"oing the most laborious part
until the emigrant concluded to leave. Conm
stock then divided what was taken out, and
-eeing that it was too small for a man to
travel on, said: 'Now, we will divide my half
amain, you will need it." lie says that at
titm. he thinks it the government of the
United States knew how he is situated, it would
not li-t him suffer.
hotE I 'L 111111 huUer.
Alder gulch rises in a spur of the Rocky
mountains, and runs north. It is from tifteen
to srv. nteen miles in length, and empties into
the Stinking Water, a branch of the Jefferson
fork of t!:e Missouri river. It has many
-itle gulches or tri.utaries, but none of them
except Spring and towers gulches, which are
near it- head, have any gold, or at least not
,utiici- t to l,.jy. The hills on each side are
iouude, l uhl aind covered with soil, p,;es.nting
the i'tt outline of an agricultural country.
The l,'tnuling effect of time has doubtless
b In uof long continuance. A careful exam
ina.iou of the gulch hill convince any one
that the guld in it camne rous near the heal,
at its junction with Bald mountain. The
gold at that poi:dt is course and rough, with
portions of qu.,r!z adhering to it; further
down the stream it becomes finer and brighter,
aLowiitg unmist:kable sitns of having been
worn by the action ot water. Near the
mouth it is excessively fine, and cannot b.
collected l in a satisfactory manner except by
,:e uae of quicksilver. The gravel is very
coar-e and heavy high up the gulch, contain
ing many boulders of a large size ; further
down it becomes worn away to small parti
cl,', .rd aºt th., mouth only sand and very
fire gravel :arm fuild. The country rock at
or near the heaid is gnei-s, and the same rock
!holds Ior a con-idrable distance; below it is
rellacedl by t'iicaceoutL slate. Near the head
the rock- rise on each side in a very precipit
ous manner, forcing the gulch into a narrow
cut or ti-sure, but below, at the distance of
three or four miles, it widens out. Thie lMy
ing portions corresponds in width to the bed
of the stream, and are richest where the bed is
narrowest. This ,ulch il a vast natural quartz
mill and mine. I rost and atmospheric action
loosen the quartz containing the gold, and
throw it down, when the attraction caused
by the current of water pulverizes and washes
the gangiue, leaving the gold behind. this
aiction. though very slow, extending back
through countl-ss ages, produces stupendous
The nurnier of quartz veins found at the
hatld of Alel'r gulch, known to contain gold
in suffcie:nt imouuuts to add materially to its
products, is not mare than twenty, of which
rŽe v width is about two feet, and the
averame a-siy value about $10 per ton, esti
mating all the vein stuff between the walls.
Alder .;uich has produced more gold than all
the other~. and probably more within the last
tirre v:: n than ever was taken in the same
time tr 'n: any gulch of the same extent. It
is the :pinion of those best qualified to
judge, tla:rt within three years from the com
mencemnent of mining operations on this
guich, $30,000,000 were taken from it. This
estimate may be exaggerated, but the amount
taken out was certainly beyond precedent in
Montana. The mines were discovered in the
spring of 1863, and in eighteen months a popu
lation of 10,000 had gathered on the bank of the
stream, building up four considerable cities, to
wit: Nevada, Central, Virginia and Summit
City. Virginia was built first, and, occupying a
central positioL, always maintained its iu
premac7. It is pleasantly located on the
bank of Alder gulch,. and contains a number
of tine stone buildiugs, consisting of bauks,
stores, markets, dwellings., etc. It supports
two newspapers, and is one of the chief min
ing and commercial centres in Montana.
Helena is its only rival. Although the first
excitement incident to .he discovery of a
new and rich mining district has passed
away, and the mines most easily worked have
already been worked over once, still the an
nual production is large. By proper wo-king,
as will be explained hereafter, the future
production may be made equal to the past.
It is the opinion of the best judges, as already
stated, that $30,000,000 have been taken out of
the gulch by the miners. This cannot be con
sidered more than one-fourth of the amount
that has come from the veins at the head of
the gulch. Probably one-tenth would be
nearer the amount, especially when we con
sider the extremely divisable nature of that
metal and the facility with which minute par
ticles are transported by water, a large por
tion of them being so small that it is impos
sible to collect them by any gold-eaving pro
cess yet devised. Rating the amount at
re.dy extracted at one-tfourth, is would
give $120,000,000 as the actual mineral value
of the gulch. At$10 per ton this would re
quire 1i,000,000 tons of quarts to be reduced,
provided all the gold in the rook is extracted.
At thirteen feet to the ton a result of 16;,
"00,00 cubicb teet of quarts must be reduced
to produce that amouns of gold; equal to the
product of twenty veins two feet thick, each
a mile loag and nearl 1,*00 feet deep. The
general appesrance of the comtry warranta
the beliet that the deodation is fully equal
o 2,0* fust. BaM memtaia, which stp
asthehead t te tblgt, sim to kthe I gt
of between 2,000 and 3,000 fee above t
quarts vir at the had of mi perations.
A great length of time str i elapu.
ame this denuding operation commeseaei,
and t is ssil i s actio and will coutnme
ebere man srestalip sature In
gM.w rom the wvlas, or i.ae pestCI
NuN n she face of the comry
she feematioe of a . .aw st of
The .Aft-y rock contelas a Mles o b~o b
mi A. Aftera shower the wbehs w odf
"ýý~ " .W t
earth is colored a fne beoase. The flat min
iag distriet found on the gulch was Fair
weather, called after one of the discoverers.
Above this were Highland, Pine Grove, and
Summit, and below, Nevada and Junction,
their locations extending from Fairweather
district in the order in which they are named.
Each had a code of laws almost identical
with that of Fairweather. These laws have
been subject to trifling changes, and generally
have been very satisfactory in their opera
tions. In the lower districts claims only
come to the centre of the gulch, thnu giving
double the number that were held above: the
same on the banks. Not far from 1.000 claims
are located in this manner, and it is remark
able that nearly every claim paid for working
when wages were from $10 to $14 per day in
gold. From many of the best claims $150,
000, and from came as much as $200,000, have
been taken out. The usual method of work
ing was to sink a shaft fourteen or fifteen
feet to the bed-rock and extract the rich gra
vel, which was from one to three feet thick,
by drifting. In this way a considerable
amnount of ground was left as pillars to sup
port the ground above. The bedrock can
not be worked with the care neccessary to
extract all the gold. When gold is very
abundant the miners become carele-s and do
not word closely. This gulch was worked to
a great extent by hired men, who are not as
careful as the owners of the mine. In some
of the deepest claims water ret-rded the wor
ing or prevented it almost entirely. Ow
ing to th~;e causes it is probable only about
half the gold has been take out that can be
obtained by careful and thorough working.
The object of each miner was to get as much
rold as ptsible in the shortest time and depart
for his hone, expending only sufficient to de
fray his expenses. The water in the gulch
nearly suficed the wants of the early miners.
up to this time only two small and inexpen
sive ditches have been constructed. It is pro
posed to bring water from the Madison or the
S'tinking Water rivers. From the Madison
a large amount could be brought in at the
head of :he gulch, but the cost would be great.
From the Sticking Water the cost would be
less, but the water could not reach the head
of the ;ulch by two or three miles. and the
supply vould be insufficient. Near the upper
part of be gulch small flumes are in course of
construttion. They are disconnected and
too short to be efficient. To work in the
most 'conomical and thorough manner
possible will require a large flume from the
mouthof the gulch up to the head, with
a largt amount of water. The greatest
obstace to placer mining in Montana is
the want of full or descent. and this is
partictlarly the case in Alder gulch. To
overcoue this difficulty and keep the
worksin running order, it will be nee
essary to have the flume double at cer
tain p)ints, with a reservoir in each, so
that vwhen one reservoir is filled with
sand rnd gravel, the water can be turn
ed in:o the other ilunme while the first
reservlir is emptied This can be done
by a tea-tu paddy or other machinery.
Bly having places for the sand to settle
and r-moved, at two or three places
along the flume, it can be kept in run
ning order. By such a flume system
and tie us,; of hydraulics tlho gulch can
be thoroughly worked, and its future
prod(actions made at least equal to the
past. T'lhis inethod of mining requires
catpitl. The miners generally are em
ployed by an individual or company and
the p:ofits divided amongst a few. The
last vorhing usually occupies about
twic: tihe length ot tide occuluied by the
Sarren Street. Hlelecna, iMontana.
l4i,O000 Feet of assorted sea
solltti lumiber on hand, and FORI
V.Y. SIMON'r'ON, P.rolrieto,•
TU ULI) attnnounce to the citizens of Montana,
that he is teie'red to furnish frst-elass
Lumber of all Kinds,
at tie most reasonable r:ates and
at tiort notice.
Ltg experience, both '.ere and i. the States.
has gven me a thorough knowledge of evert thing
a.d partictlarly the building of Business and
ALL VWORK WVARRANTED!
Conracts solicited, and orders promptly attended
LATH AND SHINCLES
Oathe best quality, always on hand.
jy15 dly WV. Y. SIMONTON.
Ela 0 . ECT
S-TNDER TIlE PROPRIETORSHIP OF
F. J. Wassweiler,
This eatabisdhment lha been elegantly fitted up
&zd renovated with direct reference to the ..conm
nodation of both
Ladies and Gentlemen,
and ii lartlicular, to the convenience of
whrbo now have at entie sand edigqat suit of large
Batling and Dreaing Boome,
for their .sp.e.l aeoom.uelati a.
The propýlt*t bag leave to asur the public be
aeaewd mi psramsl epewrsuiou of aefair and
al eau d t L hf S t tye s eo to da the stab
aghjmest th It W5 hese., it asheald, the
avorite Rertn dOUr OitisOmn
who 44ve a hesl end piSaert tthing plan..
Hot Springs Baths
Wn s -S rtSe m s mma.sedlki th a the ttlau
TIm s .1 Our irsrs
iae hb t. e..o . al O . ~ .. .
Ktly r W.V. .1. W uemt-weA- e.
PHELPS, DODGE & PALMER,
anufaeturer and Jobbers of
French, Calf, Kip. Grain andl
Also, a large assortment ,,f l.adli,.'. M1ikses', and
Children's Fine (;oods, at lowest ea.l pricew.
0O, Lake Street, Cllicago.
HART, ASTEN & CO.,
AND GRAIN BAGS.
Bags for Grocers and Millers printed to or
der. Seamless Grain, Wool, Burlap and Gun
183 So. WVater St. Chicago.
BOWEN, WHITMAN & WINSLOW
15 & 17 RandolpAh Street,
We make prices regular and cheap on every
article sold, enabling customers to meet euc
cessfully the strongest competition.
Gold Miners' Drifting Picks,
Gold Miners' Poll picks,
Sanderson's Drill Steel,
Rail Road Picks,
Sanderson's TOOL Steel,
Miners' Supplies Generally.
HALL, KIMBARK & CO.
Agents for the North West.
Whten you are in want of goods, send to or
TAYLORl , WRIGHT+
Their Stocl of
GROCERIES & LIQUORS
Is equal to any in tlhe country, and they have the
ability at.,i ldeermination t, brild:,a, a large trade
in Montana Territory. They deal largt ly in .iq
nors, Fancy Groceries. (Cordage, odexalen Ware.
Brushes, Bacon, etc., eto.
6 & 8 River St., Chicago.
HAYDEN & KAY,
Manufacturers of and Dealers in
Hubs, Spokes, Felloes, Springs and Axles,
45 & 47 LAKE STREET,
E.W.BLATCHFORD & Co
Sheet Lead,Bar & Pig Lead
and Oil Cake.
Cor. Clinton & Fulton Sts.
WEST SIDE, CHICAGO.
C. W. SANFORD,
And Wholesale Dealer in
38 Randolph Street, Chicago.
MIl ! BTIIITHIS & IP,
Importers and Jobbers
HARDW AR E
American File Company.
55 atte, t., V'I 'a o.
I eer maudgi city. MI. 1'.
.& sOTT, Proprietor.
1TRVELEr wiJn and thls the best botel i.n
Westms O.ee f.t.er bied sad wetly for
hsi earpetIed nmews S**sI St rly
an1 .n..n eseos.eb.. .p at sa this bm
E. SCHNEIDER & CO.,
(LATE OF ST. OUIAI,)
1'1[a n uthetturer.- of
Star, Solar Sperm, Tallow CalldIes
Oflce--20 La Salle St. Chicago.
Railroad barrw,.. Axes, l'ick- .om- . spades.
Road Scrapers, G ridistoue.,
F(irm ieinfJ Tools, Etc.
W E also keep a lar-o and wcell a-ar; el stock
of 1Vagournakere" Wood snck , 'T'himbi,.
Tiltsn, Libby & Hitchcock,
1 i7 South Water Street, t'icag,,.
GILBERT, HUBBARD & CO.,
'AN'UFACTIRERE of and Dealers in Tel
1 Wagon covers, Tarpaulins and Flags,
Twines and Cordage,
Cotton and Flax l)uck,
Cotton and Flax Twines,
Of every description, on hand and made to or.
205 & 207 S. Water St., cor. Wel -
Best Stock ill Helena.
No. 82, Gor. Edward & Main Street,:.
Billy Wilson, Prolpiet~c I
(Successor to Deuclahn~co. & Wilson :
Nearly opposi'e Taylr, Thoa.:i.. ; n . ('
I ,VOULD) respettfully' inlorm: t I a,,:l: the
always keep on hauln
Io. 1 3ac1cddlo I I .Ior-e
&c., &c., kc.
\Vhich w ill l'e fur:.;-h.i1k1 a 1: . i ,. t ti .
an illot . reasonaOle t( ribs.
And particular attention paid t `1wd cari :
sient and boarding ho,.e, also :o
Selling Horses at Private Sale.
NO COMMISSION CHARGED
Plenty of flay and (rain always on hand.
jyl3-ly BILLY WILSON
IBLACKFOOT (.IT, . . .... .MONTANA.
Peacock & Co., Prop'rs.
We conduct a general Livery. Feed and
Stock busines, and are prepared to accomn ,
date the pubi' with anything in our line
In First Class Style.
We keep on hand an abundance of Grain and
Hay,. and take particular pride in the care of stock
under our charge. Tie best saddle horses in the.
the oountry can be obtained at our stable
Call and See our iltock.
Horses and Carriages always ono hand. It vyi
Buy, Sell, Trade or Hi're,
we can suit you every time. jyl.;-l
PEACOC' & CO.
4 FURNITURE STORE
Warren Street, Helena, 1M9ontana,
W. HERMAN, Proprietor.
HIOUSEHOLI) and Kitchen Furniture. oni hana
11 and made to order of au}" desired style or
tluality. Make a speciality of
Sofas, Center Tables
and Parlor Furniture.
Also gives particular at e tilt t the manuil: tuiltre
The workmanshi1, of this IHouse
cannot be excelled in Montana as none blt s ilp .
rioi Cabinet workmen are emplo'yed. Call allt
Exaijri-dly i . t -IE.;A'
jyl:-dly W. IIil IAN
TItOTT & LEE takes pleasulre i1 a.nt.u'ing to,
the inhabitants of IHlena. that tltoy hae prr
-pred to execute with ease and dispaltch all th.
fonsorial Manipulations couunecte. with their busi
ne aned mtmst reapectfully solicit a share of Pubh!i.
ITa connecti,,u with their
Hair Dressing Saloon,
They hbave refitted a s ,lendid suit ,
Whebte idi* ad Gentimaea cam 1,. acccoct,
dated with either
lHot or Cold Inatl t.
Ladtes: sltr dressing, Carting and Wig making
dome with slepith.
ly14-d3m TROTf & LEE.