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BLOOD and Rocky Monntain bunch grass
will tell. The fact that Montana raised run
ning horses proves to he leaders on the turf
is an assurance that our trotting bred horses
raised here will he prize winners also.
While we claim to have the best natllral ad
vantages in Armrica for raising hardy.
tough, healthy horses, we believe the best
country for trainining our youngster+s is the
Therel are upon oilr nloulnHtill~ all neHar
the summit of our rtange- a great Iumber of
highland dells that would inake excellent
goat ranches. ''The prairie ridges running
down from tlhe main ranges are always
blown bare of snow itn winter, anl goats
would winter well without datlger of lo-s.
lany of these locations are capable of sus
taining front 3(00 to 1,000 goats and are still
unclaimed. The goad prices obtained for
mohair by our piineer goat mnen, Messrs.
Elwell & Bates and Geo. G;rayson. last year.
should be an incentive to those of limited
means to engage in the industry, and the lo
cations spoken of could be utilized to a good
advantage. We are confident this will be
done when the choice locations on the fron
tier are taken, if not before.
LOOK AFTER THE COLTS.
There has been such mild weather the
past month that many stocknmen have come
to the conclusion that the winter will
amount to nothing, and have doubtless neg
lected giving due attention to young stock.
Colts that have been allowed to run out on
the range should at once be gathered up
and examined. As a rule ranchmen do not
give enough attention in this direction. If
colts are in good health and have plenty of
feed and open water they will thrive, but
should they have become disordered, it may
be easily discovered by haltering and hand
ling the animals for a short time, and then
the proper remedies should be applied for
restoring health. Frequent handling will
do them good. Our best horse raisers feed
some chopped grain, and some of them find
it advantageous to give oil cake. Colts
thrive better when they can run loose in the
field or pasture, than when kept tied up in
a stall. Wheb colts are kept in good growing
condition they develop earlier and make
MONTAN A HORSES.
The assertion that the Montana horme is
destined, at no distant day to imake him ell
known, is no idle hbast. Ills superiority to
horses grown elsewhere is already an estab
lished fact here in our Territory, and true
merit cannot tall to make itself felt. When
our Territory produces enough horses tot
them to make a showing on the thorough
fares and pleasure drives of eastern cities,
their superior endurance, splendlid hoot,
good muscles anmd long life will soon assert
themselves and create a demand. Montana
bunch grass seems to be peculiarly adapted
to the making of good solid horse flesh,
strong bone and tough sinew, and our alti
tude and pure air, gives good wind, while
our open country so educates their vision as
to give them superior eye sight over animals
grown in most other countries. Our grav
elly hills and roads makes the hoof hard and
flinty, and hence lass longer and is less giv
en to disease than that of the low land
horse. Such are our pastures, our soil, our
products, our climate and the general sur
roundings that our horses are as near what
the world wants as has yet been produced.
This being the case, fortune certainly lies
within the reach of our horse growers.
It is a well known fact to all who have ta
ken the trouble to bear the matter in mind,
that the several branches of agriculture are
continually fluctuating. First one is on the
top and then another throughout the whole
list. A few years ago sheep husbandry was
on top, ;but every one knew it would not
likely remain so. The history of the busi
ness was conclusive evidence that it could
not. It is now down to the bot tom and we
are assured hy the same authority that it is
bound soon to rise again. In view o0 this
fact operators in sheep should never think
of selli,I now. The time to sell is when
sheep are up and everybody wants to buy.
Now is a good lute, however, to buy; yet,
just now it does not seemn like so good an in
vestment as it was. The prices obtained fir
wool this year were only moderate, and on
ly such owners as were out of debt made
money. But to make money at sheep hus
bandry it is necessary to go into the busi
ness for a period of ten years and to figure
on the outcome, it is necessary to take the
average price for the same term of years.
The business is now probably seeing its
darkest hours. Spring will bring an 1im
proved demand for wool and place the bus
iness upon a good looting once more.
ENDURAICE Or MONTANA HORSEg.
Recently we had a social chat with Mr.
Buford Farris, a Missouri breeder, who is
one of the best posted men on matters per
taining to the breeding and raising of live
stock in this Territory. During the course
of our conversation-which run largely on
Short-horns-we asked his opinion about
our climate for the breeding and raising of
horses, relative to their staying qualities.
He replied: "Montana's climate is the best
in the world for raising horses. I have been
convinced of this for a number of years and
h ave bee-n ialking it to tie fairI1rnr'r-. The
lperformllances ot lonltanlla raised horses fully
demonstrate this." Then he referred to the
teats of Gilt, Hickory Jim and Top Sawyer,
runners, that are winning races throughout
the States. He laid much stress upon the
p;erformances of Top Sawyer and Hickory
Jim. better known to the Montana turfmen
as "Sorrel Mike." Hickory Jim has made
winnings in every State and Territory he
has started inl, and now at the advanlced age
of 16 year., is running in long races with
good success, hits latest feats being at Brigh
Beach. where hle as shown himself capable
of contestiing first place in the society of the
best hror-es on Iti tulrf. Top S.nwyer. now
but 3 }cars old, is also leading the van on
the Texas turf. Blture hitdlini u- adieu,
Mr. Farri .signified his intention to stock
and '(quip a first- lass horse ranch(t in this
neighborhood for the pIurpose of breeding
andl( raising rIunlllllers trim the best sires and
dams to lie had in Kentucky. lie already
has a nice band of this stock on his farml
near Murryville, Missouri, which is to tbe
trannsferred to his Montana breeding estab
POLLED-ANGUS VS. SHORT-HORNS.
Some time ago the HUSBANDMAN publish
ed an article, in which was recited thie re
suilt of experiences with Polled-Angus cat
tle in this Territory. The article stated
facts complimentary to this stock for this
climate, and was extensively copied
throughout the East and Uanadas. Seeing
it so often quoted led some of the Short
horn raisers to conclude that we are preju
diced in favor of the Polled-Angus. This
is a mistake. T'lhe HUSBANDMAN is in no
ways prejudiced for any particular breed.
The best information to be had on subjects
pertaining to live stock, we glean from con
versations with intelligent persons engaged
in the business of stock raising; and they
are given to the public for what they are
worth. Recently we had a conversation
with Mr. Wm. Gordon, of the Musselshell,
a cattle owner of 16 years' experiruce, from
whom much was gleaned relative to cattle
raising. Touching the subject of Polled
ed-Angus he expressed himself Ireely, coin
ciding fully with our article, which credited
these cattle with being the best rustlers on
the range in winter, and many other points
of excellence. "But," said he, "1 prefer to
raise our grade Short-horns. They are not
a stronger breed than the Polled-Angus and
there is little or no difference in the size of
them. But I have noticed that;the Anugs
run too much, and do not take on fat as
quick and well as our native cattle. Polled
Angus steers that are pure bloods, raised
upon our range the same age anId sizeotf our
gradle steers, are deficient from 100 to 150
pounds when they reach the market scales.
Tihe cattle, I believe, are of a gentle disposi
tion, but when turned out upon our ranges
they becomre quite wild, and fromi some
cause or other do not take on fat like the
Short-horns. What we Montana growers
want is cattle that will make the most beet,
and I am satisfied that our native stock beat
anly yet introduced." Mr. Gordon being
very lair in his criticism, admited in tile
course of his talk that the Polled-Angus
were destined to become very popular with
growers in this country. Enough had not
been seen of the cattle here to determine
the quality of the offspring from our natives
bred to Polled bulls, and he thought that
this cross might yet prove to be a superior
kind for range cattle. As to Herefords he
had no experience, and therefore had noth
ing to say.
HOW LONG CAN RANGE HUSBANDRY.
The question is one that has suggested it
sell many times to our large cattle owners.
That it is doomed some time to become cir
cumscribed by agriculture, and come gradu
ally down to the domestic system of stock
raising, all are willing to admit; yet, just
how long it will be before such a state of af
lairs is brought about, is hard to guess. The
pioneers of the Missippi valley remember
when cattle roamed over the bills, threaded
the thickets and cane breaks and subsisted
upon rushes the year round through half
the length of the Missouri and Mississippi.
But the increase of population soon chang
ed this state of things. In Texas we see
elvllizatliot driving the cattle herds before it
back upon the steppes of the western border.
and reason teaches us that this is only a
qutstiun of time whenl the great Amnerlcai
pllaims will become the Ihomne of the Iarmnr,
anltd whieln by the fin~inig of tile valley and
wate. courses tile vast ranges of this region
will become limited and suited only to sumi:
umer grazing. But how long it will take for
such all era to colle about, we cannot quite
estimate, When there is stock enough up
on the comulmotns to graze off the grass in
summer any one can readily see that there
will he no show for an aaLinal to live in
winter, and with the rapid increase of our
herds we can readily see that each year is
bringing us nearer such an epoch. if our
ranges, or rather;oumr herds could be con
trolled as if by one man, it would be very
easy to perpetuate the system of husbandry
for many years. since the herds would be
decreased to correspond with the range.
But the wild rush of cattle to our own Ter
ritory from the States tell but too plainly
our ranges must soon become overdone,
and as this comes about profits will grow
less as losses will be greater. It is possible
for a few leading owners to perpetuate their
business for a long time by buying up the
lands along the creeks of illy watered rang
es, and we know of no other method, tor if
lelt to the natural turn of events, twenty
and perhaps ten more years will find their
ccupationl robbed ,,f its 'rofits, ii not gone.
out the mall who will go to a new range
and possess all he can of it may make his
business permuanent. He may not be able
to possess enough to sustain as much stock
as hIe might wish, but he can have enough
to retain a lucrative business. The old the
ory that the cattleman needed only a cabin,
and that lie could move on when pressed by
the plow-share, meant a sure and speedy
end to his business. His only hope is to
build a home, and by the purchase of the
areable lands, the posse-sion of water
rights, etc., (lely the enllroachmenlt of set
tlers. Our cattlemen laughedll when we
pointed oJut to them. six or eight years ago,
that ttis was tllepolicy of the wool grosser,
and that it was their only show to hold their
own agaillst these and the general farmer.
But the mljority of thelll are ready to Oill
cidel withl tit, nIow. They see, as we do, that
it is the only plan to adopt, that otherwise
range husbanldry mrust give way. as it has in
all other countries. to the tiller of the soil.
The wise will fortify themselves now while
THE BAD LANDS.
This is a region of country from which
our cattle herds will be slow to retreat. It
is claimed, and probably correctly so, that
they are fine wheat lands; but, as a rule
they are so broken that it is not at all likely
that they will be molested by the plowshare
for many years to come. As a home for
the shepherd they are a failure. The adobe
nature of the soil gives sheep the footrot
during the rainy season of the spring, and
flock-masters who have tried such locations,
are heartily sick of them. Sheep will not
molest the cattle herds on these ranges to
any extent and neither will our horse herds.
It is necessary for horse growers to keep
well within the limits of the settlements to
prevent their stock from being all run off by
thieves. It is therefore very plain that the
bad lands will be occupied exclusively by
cattle. Thley afford excellent range, though
there are so many alkali bogs that it keeps
the cowboys on the go in the spring to keep
the cattle out of the mire. They afford a
most excellent winter range, and taken al
together cattle men succeed fully as well
on these lands as elsewhere.
. . .- - .f - i
TOP SAWYER IN TEXAS.
From the reports that come up from the
Texas circuit this youtng, Montana-raised
horse, is opening the eyes of the sporting
people in the Lone Star State. He is only
three and one-halt years old, but it appears
that he is not afraid to start in the free for
all ages. At Waco, November 21, in a race
or a mile and one-eighth, for a purse ot $300
he carried 115 pounds, and won in 2:00.
At San Antonio, the second day of the
races-November 26, he was again victori
ous. A correspondent ,of the Spirit of the
Ties, speaks of the race in the lollowiiig
style: "" Probably lew better races are seen
anywhere. at least none that have been more
hotly contesied, than the mile heat race, for
all ages, that followed the pace. There were
five etarters, Belle B., Virgie Hearne, Top
Sawyer. John Sullivan, and Etfic H. Every
owner backed his horse, and up to the end
ing it was 'anybody's race.' Sullivan sold
for $40; Top Sawyer, $22; Virgie Hearne,
$8; Bell B., $6, and Etffe H., $8. The bet
ting was up into thousands, and 'the tips'
were out on every horse. Bell B. and Efile
H. ran together to the half, then the former
led away from Eflie H., who had been acci
dentally 'cut down' by Sullivan in attempt
ing to pass, and a hot pace was being run
between Sullivan and Bell B They suo
ceeded In pumping each other out by the
time they reached the middle of the stretch,
and Top .Sawyer came through the bunch
like a rocket, passed both, and won the heat
amid the wildest excitement, in 1:45, Sulli
van second, Bell B. third. Pools sold after
the heat: Sullivan, $20; field, $24, both
ends being taken as fast as Herdic could sell.
All came to the post looking like race horses,
and long odds were offered that Sawyer
would not take the next heat. What a
scrabble it was I First one would gain a
halt head, then fall back again. They were
all well bunched to the head of the stretch,
when a fighting finish commenced between
Sawyer, Bell B., and Sullivan. Bell B.
dropped back at the eighth pole, and then
Campbell, on 'the slugger's' namesake, and
O'Hara on Sawyer, did some of the tallest
kind of exercising. Both appeared to be
made up of nothing but arms and legs. co
energetically were they applying both whip
and spur. At no time in six months have I
seen Sawyer so completely -at himself' as
in this race. It wasn't in Sullivan to beat
him, though lie ran as gamely as an out
classed horse;couid, and Sawyer came under
the wire nearly two-thirds of a'length ahead,
making the best record of any mile heat
raceu through the circuit. Sullivan second,
Bell B. third. Time, 1:4·."
On December 3 lie won a race of two
heats. ''imel:49 and 1:59).
Probably his greatest teat of the season
was on tile last day of the fair in which he
ran in a mile and a half heat race against
Miss Goodrich and Sullivan, winning by a
full hal' length, in 2:441; Sullivan second.
Top Sawyer is by Tom Sawyer, first dam
by Gilroy. sou of Lexington, dam by Glen
coe. Tom Sawyer is by Imp. Harrington,
dam, Ella Jackson by Lightning, son of
The owner of Top Sawyer le Bulord Far
ris, an extensive breeder who, for the past
thirteen years, has made annual visits to
r Montana, and has at length settled upon the
plan of establishing a breeding farm here ot
which 'rop Sawyer is to be the Chief.
RU88IA'S WOOL PRODUCTION.
Consul Van Riper, at Moscow, in a late
report, discusses the wool production of
Russia, which, he intimates, is of interest,
in that it is one of the principal exports
from Russia to the United States. The well
known Russia carpet wool is "a product of
the southeastern Governments," and "not
to be found equal in length in any other
part of the world." The next best in quali
ty are the "Donskni fleeces," to be found in
the steppes on both sides of the river D)on.
Savolga fleeces are becoming rare, as the
Government has gradually driven its culti
vators off from the good grazing lands along
the Volga to a more sterile territory. Mos
cow is the Russia wool market. *'Owing to
the direct and growing relations between
America and Russia, the time has arrived"
when it would be more advantageous to
Atmerican merchants and mnanufacturers to
purchase their necessary quantities "direct"
as importing firms in New York, Philadel
phia and Boston have already done. Ger
many and England are active competitors
for this trade. Wool is generally very
loosely packed, but the attention of ship
pers has been called to the importance of
packing more carefully, as the Atlantic
steamers charge by measurement and not
by weight; and another advantage is, that
proper packing protects the wool against
P. O. Address-Fort
Range - Box Elder,
and Armells creeks.
Ear-marks-Crop and unde.bit from right ear.
Vent-F upside down over bar
Horses branded F on right shoulder.
MONTANA CATTLE CO
county, Moh.tnoa, and
Also, owners of cattle bearing the following
brands, and owners of the brands :
on left side or ribs. on left side or ribs
" on left side or ribs
A on left hip and on left side.
P. O. Address-New
Wallet on each Jaw
of main herd ; also
owner of cattle brand
ed W on right side; also cattle marked underbit in
left and crop in right ear, branded 6 on right hip;
also cattlh marked rmderbit in left and crop off of
right ear, branded .1lI (combined) on hip and side;
and others branded F on left hip and shoulder:
\ [LIAAMS & CALLAWAY,
BREEDER AND DEALERS OF
Pare Short-Horn and Grade Cattle
Breeding to milk strains a specialty. A flne
lot of Grade and Thoroughbred bulls for
valley, between the can
P. O.--Virginia City
and Puller's Springs
Mark--Over-bit in each
ear, and pendant me
talic tag in either ear.
Brand-Circle thus Q on loft side, over ribs,
instead of triangle C on hip.
Horses For Sale.
Buggy and Carriage teams well mated, Draft
horses single or in pairs; well broke Sad
dle horses, all good American stock.
Also a choice lot of mares colts,
yearlings, sand a good stall
ion, at a argain.
22-tf MRS. J. G. S 1RTER.
Fort Logan. M. T.
DAIRY AND SHEEP RANCH FOR BALEJ
One hundred and sixty acres of fine mead
ow land, all under a substantial tence well
improved, convenient to the finest range on
Smith river and can never be fenced out
from range privileges; also fine spring af
fording all water neessary to run a large
dairy. The above will be sold at a bargain.
Apply to or address
Fort Logan. Mont.
THE DIAMOND SPRIHGS RANCH COMPANY.
Situated ten Miles from Helena.)
t . I . . ottingStoeek, Aort- Roa .rnnd Jersey Cattle, and Registered
The following Stallions for Service during the season of 1884-5:
i`+.i ' 1998) Public Record, 9:80; Private ecotrd one
amobrnio jl a oami, ie, 9:4X Half mile, 1:08". by Mambrlo
Patchen (hfll brother to Lady Thorne, 2:18.) Dam Black Girl, by Cassius M. Clay.
No wth5)ard, VVolutesr-t'r, .by Volunteer, by Ryadyk's H bletouln o
Dam, Lady Duroc, by i'ilot Duomoo, son of ilnot Jr., slire of dam no
Maud 8. and Jay-Eye-See.
Alao' for sale, finely bred brood mares stinted to the above named stallions. For further partioU
arys apply to
Helena, Montana. J. S. (IROS8T d CO
HUNTLEY & CLARKE,
,I VEl} SIDE
JIEF' FERNOSN ('OUJN'FY, M. T.
BR tI2ED ER~ OF
Trotting Horses and Roadsters of High
Merit. with Fashionable Pedigrees.
Also breeders of
Grade Stock and Draft horses.
We keep constantly on hand for sale, at rea
sonable prices, young stallions, fillies and brood
mares ofthe most a pproved trotting and thor
oughbred crosses i also driving teams and work
horses. Inquiries promptly answered.
"i-Send for Catalogue.
GADDIS & BRYAN,
Thorcnghbrod and Grade Herefords.
YOING STOCk FOR SALE.
Brand-Quarter circle T on left side. Same for
horses, on left thigh.
Ranch, five miles south of White Sulphur
P. 0. Addreli-Fuor Logan or White Sulphur
T. J. FLEMING.
.oPea- 'aOm(h *ivo
valley, from Camp Ba
ker to Iim Rock moun
P. O.-Diamond City
800 Head of a m s For Sale
Thoroughbred Cotswohl and Merinos,
Cross-bloods of pure Merino and
Cotswolds; also Rams I Meri
no. I Cotswold. and Rams
C.otswold, - Merino.
These sheep a:. ":ro' the best flocks in Wis
consin, Vermon. and Canada.
COOK & HUSSEY.
7P. O. Address.-Unity and White Sulphur
PARIS IlBSONI & SON,
FORT BENTON, M. T,
Montana, States-Grown and Im
Pure Blooded Merinos and
Shropshire Downs a