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' NASHVILLE TENNESSEE, THUHSD AY' : NOVEMBER ' 20, 1802.' ' ' ' "
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9abibson " ounlt. ginttonj.
CITY GOVERNMENT.' '
, JOHN IltMH fM ITU, Ufa, i I ' :
. " WIU.laM HUNK, lUaardar. ,i
JOHS CHUMBIJiY, AfareaaJ. ,, J
Uarthalt-i-TT. II. Wllktntoa, A. c'Ttieker,
4 James A. Steele. ' ' r
ClrrUafti UvrVat Joha CTiumhley,eAiMe,ural;
A I. Ryan, second ; tad John Roddiek, third. '
Tarn Amtu William Prlter.
AVvefrM Coll" A. B.rJhaaklaas. ' i
frafjr Ta CuUeeler K. I). Uarrett : ,
! V JrVtefer Tuoniaa Leake.
tosr(aeaMw LVe Worlaouw J. Q. Do4d.
.'Jujiertolendei.f os Water Wort Junes Wyatt.
,CJV of ti4 ' JVpartroe John M. Beabury. .
.Xertv eftha Cowerg T. II. Mcllrtse. ,
'Sir OeericsrJ. t. Stewsrt. ,., ;
City AUnraty John Mcl'h.il Bmlth... , . , ,
CITY COUNCIL. " 1
rtJ vf iUWmrn M. M. Ttrln, I"ridtnt ; J. M.
mu,0. A. J.M.yDfM.n.CficOTel.Wm.M rhoaW
J. C Pmltfi, M. O. I.. Cl!born, ind Jai. Kolib.
.bmmo ttail-W. P. Joo"f,Pri'lrnt; William
I ,b'M,T. J. YrlMuKli, Win. DrlTr, Wm. tr'lwrt,
n u"u i ' " " -
k , 4, J. Colo, Jm. 1mtiii, Andrtw Aaflrn, J. B.
tilri, Hid Job trpa'ljr.
I , trivuiRU ummrMW o tui cirr oosiiil. (
I tuane Knowltn, froTirl nd Onla. .
jit'oW HVtoAu(lrnn, Smith mil Ctnlboriio.
Yarbrnugh, Turner, Siulhgi,t!iTU,Ilrl''n,
riTBi:ld, C.ifitU;ui anil '.'Uibiirnp. . ,
Virw Newman, tcwaft ao'ITurr.
j,HpiotJui.( , Mayfluld and Sloan.
Vlioolt Clieatliain, KajflcliI and KnowW
h Vrrartiunl frrady , Tirlwr and tywmaa.
tt'iat I)rlTir, C'lialham Mid fartt.
n 'wry "inlth, f levrart and Ncwmsa.
'Hariri ,m Unliprla, Ptowarl and larDur
V''Hou((ti, Claiborne and Patii.
Hfnhf Chcallintn, Drlon aJid Anditrioa
V,."i;l,"""Kll ( " viborocj and Ilrlcn.
ll'ui Uiavue Cbe.illi.un, MayRidd and Knowlri.
r!h"i''ft,n'iti mml i:rprmUlvrn-Cif, SVo.el and
Ift'lUa Propriy Rrlcii, Ctinalbntn and Terser.
r-it IfoiL t WayficM, Jonc and Knliorw.
,- Hi') Hoard ol AidiTini-n inlets Iho Tufwdayt
.'it prrci'tling lb frond and fonrtb Ttmrndtya In
If '.i mohlb,'and the Common Council the tofoud
fj. loilrtb Tl.nrKilaya In "h m' nlb.
J NIGHT POLICE
Q. t plain .b'hn linigll.
4v,r( l,ifUlHnl Wm. YarlirougU.
f.'wml LifMrmiii Jola H. luvn.
I'oUenn' Wm. JnckHou, Jobn la.endcr, Kirh I'a
f L.U.el I'bil'lim, Wm. HuUor, John Cottrcll, Willluni
: .jo, Jolin Kils J. W. Wright, John 1'uckiU,
j hart SiU, W. C. V ranciB, TIioiiihr Frnel, Andrew
;' r(C, D.i.ld Vati-H, and Charlca Hulltt! ,
, (4r The Polico Court In opvurd eery morning
: V u'clork.
. : i '
ft COUNTY OFFICEflS.
Ur()' Jaiiiei )l. 1 1 lu toll.
jnie TUonja Hub-
yf and J. K. Unrhanan. '
IryUter Plilncaa Carrett.
" lVa.f W. Jaspnr Taylor. '
"Vfwr-S H, neither. ,
(Vu0r JnhD Corbltt.
Vrmm CoJ(rtor J. G. Brriy.
.Jrod Ton LVHc(or W. II. RoberUon.
ff tr A SamhrilU IMotnch-Joha P. Oower
Vi J. K. Newman.
5u, Hon. Jamea Wliltwortb.1 ' -
lyJIerkP. Undalfy Nlcbol.
T"Tba Jiulga'a Court Inei'ta. the first Monday in
:h month,' and the Quarterly Court, eoinpoaed of
lUaglitrateaortbeConuty, It held the Orit Mod
y Ik January , April, July and October.
Imttf Uon. Nathaniel Baxter. '
ftt7,r4DaTid C. Lore.
B,l-Tlie Ooujt ueete the Int Monday im March
d Seplexober. J ' ! ' '
1 . . , CRIMINAL COURT.
IfiiV Hon. William K.Turaer.
CU-t Charlea E. I)iiom.
j, The Court meeti the Brat Monday la Api'll Alt
ai and December.
'JiaaetihX' Hoa . Hamuel P. Trlerten- , ,
are tm4 HaMari. E. Ulra.ee
f The Quart Meet the Brat Moada in May and
I. 0. 0. T. I
$ I. Tim, Grand Secretary, shonU be addressed
at HkmlU, l'n.
i'amwM Iif, K. 1 Meets erery Tuesday E.en
, at their Kail, on the eorner of Union and Bum-l-
streets. The ofllners fr the present term, are :
8. Ieneur, N 0.; J. H. Milts, T . .;' J. L. WeaWIey,
reUry; h- K.fjinjTreaauier.
rVadue Lon; Ae. 10 Meet st Uie same place
'vy Monday l.ealsg. The officer are: R. A.
Gtapbell, N.G.; IUary Apple, Y.O.; J. L. Park,
u:rotary ; B. 1. Brown, Treasurer.
Wsnbv l' H 0 Meets at their Hall, en Houth
ferry ntreet, e.ery Friday freeing. Tte ofBoere
: O.C. Covert, N O.; Frank lUrman, T.fl James
Salt, Secretary ; W. M. Mallory, Treasurer.
'erire lH' los (rmau) Meets' at lb
,11 corner of Union and Snmmer ttreeU, e.ery
msdsy Ereiilng. The oOleernare ! Cfaarlea Rteh,
U - P. Frledmai, T O.; Bitterllih, fieoretary;
JtiiH Komwpmmt, S 1-Meeisat the abore Hall
J .h. Sr.t aad third Wednesdays of each, month.
,e offlrwre are: J. E. Mllbi, CP.1, T. H. MeRrtde, II P.;
F. Fuller.RW.; Peter Mama, jr., j.w. ; jihid r
jie, pterin B. K.,Culler, Treasurer.
lOhre Drmi KmwpU, So. 4-Mrete tt the
f-.e lla'l on the second and rourlh wedneeday
,!lit of each month. The ofnoere.sre, Jas T Hell,
.' Henry Al'P'e, U P-: I,. Moker, 8W,;B rrie4
u. J.W." Charles Kinder, S.:Tihe; J. N. Ward,
DiviriHOrT CouwTf DihKCTrmT-r Continuity.
, .. -.. .1 .i-u i- I .1.1,.
, fW IHutnuarUH n tllgli etrtet.' fiea .NogMy,
i iMrtna Hidfirleri ,na Summer a,(rt , (Dr.
ford'a rnltlnra,) . W, U. -Ul, Ma). Ulh, C, S- In
fantry, A. A.A.U. ,. ,. ,
. Prmtnl ifrntkitl Hrad inartera at the C'apit"!. A.
C. Gll)em, ('of. let T'M. Infantry. (" , ' .
(!' 'Aulml (tmarlarmattar Headquarte'ra on
Cherry itrcel ; NO. 10', (Judge' Cairon'a rrlei'dtje.)
Cept. J. I). Dlngham. ' !"'
AmMout finartrrmaUfrVo. Cherry atrV-l. Cajt.
R.'f"teTPnMi. i ' ' ' t
Jni'ii HtwraMMit'' TiK4 elret, near Mil.
Polk'a rceldi'nre. Capl. R. N. Limb. '
Auittant QeuartenaMuea N(V 17,- Market airrtt.
Capt. J. M. II lie. ,1 lit (i.i i'i- i": ..i
t"W Ct)rr(( HooVinrler, No ' 10, Vine ft.
Capt. RMacfeely. .,, , , ,
CWauwry (WimVmim Ftrovt street. (pt. ft
Utile. , . , ,.
Aolmg Oman arm of Rultrmt Corrn-r or Broad
and College itrrtti. Limit Charles Allen.
iffJieal IHrfclor ."ummer streol. . (Iir. ford's old
residence ) Surg'-on, E. Swift,
ifriiiral Vmntyor'i Chuicn Hrecl, Maiotile
Duildtng. J. R. I'luris, Surjeou, Dih Kentticky In
faurry, Arling Medical Purreyor. ' '
I 11 OH l i: V T us
'or TOT . 'i .:
1 TOT NsMtmit Union was commenced a f.w werks
since, for tbe purposo of opposiiiir the H'4icl SouUn-rn
Confederacy, and of adrwaling tba remrut;o,n of
Kederil authority, without any abatement, over all
tbo States whirh havo litempted to toeo.1. ' It holl
an friends all who ftupport, auj as foes all whooiip"eo
Ihn I'lilou of tho r-tntes. Ii has no waf.hnor'l hiit
l'nrio txn NiTi(ijAiirr. '
With rebels and Innli. lias no eomprnnilse io
mka. ltcoiiteuds lor tbe federal Cunstitiilion and
the Laws made In puruanco thereof aa tho !-i i ri
l.w nr TK Ltxn, anything In the Conitlt'it.oo und
lAwsofauy of lie rtluiea to tba contrary uotwith
slandlng. It eouteOita For tho Union of the Ktatos, b-raiiie
nil hunt it the prose r.atlon of our liberties anl toell
lutious and the orgmlwtiou of aociety Itself urn
wholly Impoeiible. Thercfo-e, whatever lUn 'i in
'J i way of r.ruBhlnfr out tho rebe'linn aad rustorlnK
e Union mutt pcrmh, no matter by whut uame tt .he
To the wople of Tenueese e.er renowned ftir their
devotion to Liberty and Union, until they Wore be-
IruyeU to lue leoel despotism at Hichmond liy a per-
dious Horeriior and corrupt Legislature, and who
have icit so neji.iiy tho awdil curse of treason aud
anarchy, wa apiieal lor eupiort. 11 the names of
rehol oUlce holdem, Vieitauce Cemmlttces.and llinute
Men, who navo lined our borders with moumluC. he
gibbotttHl boloro the wirll. It those ambltHu aud
Tar iriuuB mull alio havo plotted our ruin Tor their
own ajritraudiroinent ho fastened to tho pill'fT of
hatno. no n utter bow ln h their .Itl'-n In feu ty.
l't it bo pIjii wd bow liia eofatJiad liileiulrrs of
'.iuhern Rights" art- now leading marauding bniult
of freo booti'rf aud moss troojiera over our Slots, kid.
iKMHiiiig Legr h, sti-rilinir Uoreie and cattlo, brenkiug
Into nin uiirninij riroai nruiRes and cars, aut
murdoriiig unarmed cititens In cold hlood., 1a thj
troll), so long exe.lu'lcd by the Aiuthern coneinriit rs,
now circulate freely through every nelghixn-hooil.
aud our (ease will axsuredly triumph. WiU not leyal
men everywhere a d us In the dlsHeminaticn or fuels
ami the advocacy of Kree Oovernmentf ' ''
. ii . -
Terini of Subscription in Tar Fund.
I Hail v Union, atnple oopy, pir annum, , .H 00
1 " ciuds or len.eacn IK)
Trl weekly, tingle copy, t 00
" ciuds oi leu, eacn sun
Weekly, tinirle copy, .............. J to
" clubs or ten, escb 1 60
jTAll comraunicatlona on buainea with the ( fflce,
will be addressed to the PUBLISHERS or the UNION,
aud all communications to tba Editor will be sddmet
loH. C. MfltCKU ' ' i rl
Idlloi s of loyal newspapers will do us a great kind
nevs by re-publlMiig tbe foregoing or Its tubsianoe
The current tnuisactlont In Tennessee ft months to
some will be highly Interesting to all lovers of their
country and her free Institutions, and tbe oohimae of
the Union will farvlsh the earliest aud motl reliable
h Jlorf of these evenia-
UATKS OK AUVKIITISCI.
( tan l use o iMt to ooiBTircTl a sacari. ) '
i ' 'i. '" ' i'
lSaoare, 1 day, 1 00 each addttonal insertion! 0
lweek, uv eacn additional square 110
I ft 0
: s oo
. I month. S 00
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I 13 M
II." M 00
Ja ADVKnTISKltS in DVTVjiXTs
1C t ATM WIIL IS it FOLLOWS :
Qearter Column, 1 Bioutb., ,..
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Half Columa. .. 1 amnth.. '
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Advertisement occupying ani special position ih
tuU, 80 per cent, additional , special petition cuUuie
10 tier cent.
aXsT Advertlaiaents Inserted In the Ijocal Column
Chan ed at the rale of twunly rents per line.
Changes may bs madn eriodinally when kgreed
open; but every such change will Invoive extra ex
txnae. to be paid lur by the advertiser.
tur Aiitarttrt ezeeerfisf tkfct (outrtct'A for irill
M raarge1 for (As soreraa,
Rlavrrlage and Funeral es,
Waea exeeedlng five lines, will bo rharg.d at the
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AntiUBiccruents ef Cundtdatea.
Foa Hrirt OmciRs,
' Cirr "
. .. 4 CO
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Cash retjolred lu advance for all advertisements
aslest by special agreement. "
Ws, the nudersgued, ha.e this day adopted the
above rates, to which we bind ourvelvea strictly to
WM. CAMERON, for the Wa
JOHN WALLACE, for tbe IHipmUk
Nasavutt, Teaa , July li, VHU.
- J--- -4 --.v.i--a .. 4 i... J, in i .. ....
l'ubli$hl ,by on Astodcttion of Printer.
Office a FrltlUra Alley-, btttverri
l'nlert and n.drlca Street. ..,
TJiUESDAY MOUNI.VG, NOV. 20, 1862 ,
'iheScqucitratioa Law State
: t : , Jiighti.' i.i'
I a' tlie Senate of the Confederate Stales,
on the 7th instant, the bill to extend tho
operation of the sequestration act to all
persons, nativej of or resident -within
anj Stale of the Confederate States, who
hare refused to' submit themselves to the
constilutlon'ancl laws of tho Confederate
States, Sec, was considered. .
A substitute proposed by tlio Oommit-
fee'oii the Judiciary was adopted. Thi4
substitute provides thatlhc President ol
the Seceded States shall issue his procla
mation ordering all persons within tho
limits of thobe States who adhere to trie
United States Government to leave the
Southern Confederacy' within forty days
on pain of forfeiture of property. 'An
other ol its provisions la tlic granting ol
immunity o all persons adhering to the
United States Government, who williiii
forlr (lavs, should take tho oath 6f alle
giance to tho Southern Confederacy. " .
We copy from the Jilchmonu papers
the annexed sketch of the debate oh litis
bill, which, we believe, failed to bec6rno a
law at the late session:
Mr. Clark, of Missouri, opposed tho bill,
because it would work a hardship upou
cood citizens of the .South, who had ac
quiesced .in the Yankee rule under duns?,
and were tiU within the lankee lines.
If citizens of the Sotth could be given
a fair chanco to join our causo aud still
adhere to wlic enemy, he would be in favor
of nailing them to iho cross.
Mr. llayncs,of lennessee.toiik thjsanio
Mr. Wisfall, of Texas, thought the bill
entitled to serious consideration. It was
not clear to him that it was entirely con-
titutioual. Citizens and residents of tho
States of- tho Confederacy wjio had af
forded aid and comfort to tho enemy had
been guilty of lreasun-a crime defined
by tho Couatituiiun, ami for which aaid
citizens were reoiisibin to their States
and to the Confederate Slates. ,
Mr. llill, of Goorgia, held that every
citizen had the right to elect with which
GoTernmont, that of Ihp North or the
South, lie , would side: The Southern
Government had the right to say whether
residents or citizens rhu did not, take
sides with us but with the enemy, bhould
leave its limits and go ,over to the terri
tory of the enemy- . J citizen bas once
elected to bo a citizen of ono of the Con
federate, States, that act makes him a
citizen of the Confederacy, and he can
not throw off his allegiance- It belongs
to the Confederate Government to dehno
who are alien enemies. These rules had
prevailed in all revolutions in iDgland
and in the Netherlands. , . .
Mr. WiRftll said the gentleman was aa
much , mistaken as Abraham Lincoln or
William 11. Seward if he thought this
was a revolution that wo were subjects
fighting against an established Govern
ment. If we were we would, bo entitled
to Iho lertn "rebels." : This is, no civil
war- : It. is a war of pome sovereign
vStales against other States. There
was a civil , war in, Kentucky, whera
cilicens . of, the itmn , State , were at
war against one another.; Trior was no
such thing as a citizen of the Confede
rate States. No citizen owqd allegiance
to the Confederate States. , ;
. Mr. Hill held that the eitizeu did owe
allegiance, to the Confederal .States.
Gentlemen might call it "obedience," but
(hit was a sublimated theory, iThc
States have formed a Confederate Gov
ernment, to which is delegated tbe sove
reign powerto declar war, Ate, The cit
ztn'8 first allegiance is due to his Stale,
but through tho Stato he owes ajlcgiance
to the Confederate Government,
lie held, however, that the people had
a right to choose their own Government.
If Ibis weir not o, then the United Stales
had the right to hang. Gen.,L5ucLiur for
proving false to ibe allegiance he once
owed to them. This conclusion was in
evitable. And the Confederate States
would have a right lo bang Andrew John
son fot violating an allegiance to the
Government to which lie never admitted
he owed allegiance.
Gontlemen, he said, may shake their
heads at the proposition as much as they
please, but when they deny it, they deny
a fundamental prineiplo of the Govern
ment, and the people who accept the con
trary rule of action are drifting on a ra
pid current into monarchy. You come
to the old exploded doctrine that a ni.in
who once owes allegiance always nws
allegiance; you deny the principle of
expatriation in toto ; you say a man shall
render allegiance to a Government even
before he ha promised it ; that no man
has a right to choose his Government;
aud, finally, that Government does not
rest upon the consent of the governed.
Tliia i MtiiHitxhy. 1 deny that you can
take a man by the nape of tho neck and
force citizenship down his throat. Cifi-M
Kcnship is made op as well of the consent
of the individual as of the Government. '
Neither party has a right to 'violate ill
against the consent ol lUo other, and by
that violation bind the other, unless it be
upon terms, before , agreed upon ,,Y'tu,
cannot, therefore, hang a man as a traitor
to a Government that has been made
without bis consent.' '. r -hi -?.-.. :
I do not know what particular art
Andrew Johnson may have done which
would imply he intended to- become a
citizen of this Go vernrai lit. I say that
when his State seceded he had a right to
abandon his State; and if tic did, ia
good faith, abandon that State-, he is an
alien enemy, and not a traitor.. How far
his specific act goes of attempting to
represent Tennessee in the United Stules
Senate, is another question. 1 am not
patting it upon that ground. I ask this :
Do you hold Andrew Johnson, who aban
doned the State of Tennessee, and never
camo underohligation to the Confederate
Government, to be a traitor ? Can he be
a traitor? I am discussing the general
proposition. I say Hint, as regards
every man who held allegiance to the
United States originally, while he had a
right to adhere to that allegiance, there
was no power on earth could break his
allegiance against his consent. This
proposition I assert, and when a gentle
man denies it, ho need not talk about
State rights and individual rights. lie
erocts the Government into a-despotism,
whether it goes by the name of monarchy,
aristocracy, or democracy. If you can
lay hold of a citizen and tear him loose
against his will, from his acknowledged
allegiance, you exercise tho greatest
power a tyrant is capable of exercising.
I say again that no power can rightly
force a man to break his allegiance! The
very violation of allegiance implies a,
consent of the will.
TheSenalor says that there arc no cit
izens ortho Confederal States. lint the
Constitution says there are. -'The electors
in each State shall be citizens of the Con
federate States." . The gentleman says
it does not mean that. I should suspect
any theory that '.drove me to destroy or
change tho language of the Constitution
itself. Here it is plainly written; and
because I abide by ir, the gentleman calls
me a "nationalist." God save the mark !
Mr. Wigfall. I hope ho will.
Mr. Hill. I have always understood
that tho fundamental priuciple of State
rights is,, that the power shall bt found
in tho grant, and thai it ia to bo defined
by tho words used, and that "construc
tion", was the old theory of tho national
ists. We will take the coctrine of Stato
rights, if wo go by tho letter. The words
are, "citizen of (he Confederate States."
The gentleman, to save State rights, 6teps
in and begins io construo- "It did not
mean that; I grant that it says so, but
it does not mean it." Who construes?
Ho not only applies words not used, but
changes words used, puts ia words, reads
Ww meaning, and talks to me about con
struction and "nationalism." It is not a
question ; it is not used in that one single
sense, but here it is again. "No person
shall be a representative who has not at
tained the age of twenty-five years, and
been acitizen f the Confederate States."
It did not mran it, of course. Hut it says,
furthermore, "No person shall bo a sena
tor who shall not have attained tho age of
thirty years, and been a citiaen of the
Confederate States." t Now, unless ur
friend will admit he is a citizen, of tbe
Confederate States, he ought to be ousted
lrom libs seat in this body ; he is incom
patent 1o hold it by the Constitution
that i9 by the Constitution as it mitis. Of
course, if my friend is allowed to decide
by, "national" and "federal" rules, to
construe the Constitution, to pay no at
tention to what it says; but only to what
he. thinks or desires it to mean, he will
be entitled to bis seat. . , -,
Mr. Semmes. 1 would liko to ask tho
.Senator ono question. 1 This Constitution
says "tho ' people of the Confederate
States."' Do you suppose it means other
than the citizens of the States?' " 1 '
Mr. Hill. I certainly do not. They
become citizens of the Confederate States
through the States, except they be aliens.
I grant that no person can be a citizen of
the Confederate Stales who is not a citi
zen of some one of the States, but it does
not follow that a citizen of a State is ne
cessarily a citizen of the Confederate
States. Gentlemen may endorse subli
mated theories that deline our Constitu
tion after the mauher of the interpreter!
of tho will In Dean Swift's "Tale of a
Tub." They wanted lo construe it, not
according to what it saidj but according
lo the measure or their own wishes.
The text did not suit them, so they took
sentences; but sentences would not give
the meaning, so they took words; they
could ' not find tho right consecutive
words, so they look syllables, and, find
ing they would not do, they selected let
' ters. and putting them together they made
a will to suit their taste. Gentlemen
upon iho same principle may destroy the
Coniditution, anil make it mean what they
J please, in order lo accomplish their pur
r poses, liut I am thus much of a State
! rights man; I deny the Confederate Gov
; ernment has any power not granted; and
1 say you must look' lo the language of
Iho grant to find the extent of the power,
and that which necessarily results from
the grant the power to i carry eat the
grant mast be in, tbe grant. The - lan
guage ''citizensof the Confederate Btatea"
is used in the Constitution bo lesa than
three times. It is true, thay are first cit
izens of ih. respective States,' bat they
become citicentof the Confederate States
through the States compacting together
confederating together. ' i.i !,;
1 The Constitution also' declares what
shall be treason against the Confederate
States. What is treason?- A violation
of one's allegiance. A gentleman ' gelt! 1
hp' 10 argue 6r 16 intimate that a man can
not' owe allegiance to the Confederate
Stales On account of sotae" legislation in
North Carolina' ;
1 ' TUe nirlli.r nA .... .....Z KA ... V
V ' ....... . i ' J j UU . J I MXJ CNII J
Mr. Hill." Isay he can owe allegiance
lo the Confederate Slate's a far as the
Constitution binds h'm. He did not owe
original allegiance, I grant." ' ' N' 11
Mr. Oldham. Obedienre.' ' '
Mr. Hill. Treason is defined by jurist
and by dictionaries as to the violation of
one's " allegiance "that is the word. ,
Mr. Oldham. , I w vll explain, the pur
port of my question. I hold that ererv
citizen of a political community owes
allegiance to the sovereign power. In
this country the people are the sovereign
power, and rvery titizen owes allegiance
lo the public cotninmiily that constitues
his State. He owes obedience to the State
Government which that community may
establish as its agency; and, whenever
this sovereign directs hiin to chance that
obedience to any other source, he is
bound lo ofey in conse quenco of his al
legiance io his sovereign. He owes pre
cisely the same allegiance to thi sover
eign as tho people of Great Ih ilain owe
to the r.nghsh Crown.
Mr. Hill. I do not uuibble about
words. " I do not care by what circum
locution you arrive at the brigin of alle
giance. I do uoy-are how a citizen owes
allegiauce, or by whose allegiance, or by
whoso agency he gets to owe allegiarw e.
All I say y 1hat under the Constitution'
every citizen of the Confederate Slates
owes allegiance to the Confederate (States.
iou may call it obedience. , . ,
Mr. Oldham. I onlv deeired the irrn-
man not to confound terms.
Mr. Hill. He confounds term himself.
He gets up a word to define authority und
employs tho same to overturn anihorily.
Mr.. Oldham. Onr Government over.
Mr. Hill. It did Hot say the treasmi
We define is different from the-'treason
that has been settled for all time, Oo
of. I he definitions is, that treason hall
consist m levying war against the Gov
ernment. It adjudicates upon cases coin
ing within the meaning of the word.
What is meant by the word? A biench
of one's allegiance. The gentleman says
it is a breacti ol one a obedience. Then,
I suppose a viblatioh of the law may bo
made treason' for that is disobedience.
Desertion or any other violation of a pe
nal. statute may be made treason. You
may call it allegiance or obedience. I
say citizens or ttusuovernment owe that
which only citizens can owe they oive
allegiance; and if they violate that alle
giance they can be bung. . You need not
go and read your sublimated theories (o
the man npon tho gallows; you need not
try to comfort bira by saying it is all
wrong to hang a man for violation of bis
allegiance, but ought first to decide bis
obedience. I fear he would be huug
before j ou concluded your rhapsodies-.
, There is no necessity for the introduc
tion of these theories to bring about a
conflict .bctweea the Stat Governments
and the Confederate Government -My
idea I do not know whether it is a. na
tional one or uot; certainly it does pot
depend, upon a change of, words in the
Constitution, upon reliucd arguments and
well spun theories for its justification ,
is this: Tbe States were originally nov.
ereign, independent States they are or
iginal and sovereign yet and us such
they had a right to exercise absolute
and sovereign power. They havo by
their own free will and consent delegated
these sovereign powers to a common Gov
ernment. And (hey made it a Gorern
ment, not simply an agency, for they call
it a Government in the compact, and
they have said all citizens of tho resnec-
! live Slates shall be citizens of (he Con-
i federate States. They have established
' laws requiring these citizens to obey that
which the States have agreed they shall
:obry the common compact.
To the extent of Iho powers delegated,
the Confederate . Government exereisns
the sovereign power. I grant (hat it did
not have original, national sovereignty
nor do I care whether it has or not. It
bas the power lo dcclaro war, the power
to make money, to collect, duties, and
these powers are sovereign powers; (hey
are expressly delegated ' to the Confed
erate Government. Violence done to the
Government, by a citizen is treason, be
cause it id aviolaiion of the citizens allegi
ance. I admit that the men who were
originally citizcns'of the' States, and w ho
are yet citizens of tho Slates, iuv their
first allegiance to the States, but through
the Stales they owe allegiance lo I In- Con
federale ' Government. The State, .f
course, under cerlaiq circumstances, Iks
a right to qualify that allegiance; and I
ay wluu you disHolvo tho compact the
ciiizt n has a right lo elect. ' If we, upon
the part of the Government, w ill exer
cise powers plaiuly delegated to uu. and
exereia, none that are not dlgle4,
there will never be any conflict between
the Slates and the Confederal Govern
ment. If the Statei -.will exercise their
reserved powers properly, and the Cbi
federate Government exercises it deft
gated powers properly, there) ' will 'tvTr!
baany difficulty.;. ,y k , ,,,,,.
' I say to gentlemen here who tnaka rrotlv
a clamoriti defence of Stat sovereignty,,
for whioh they fay this w nM r.a
waged, that if they will recur to history'
they will find that tho great ;oge 0f
disruption was tha interference, br SUtftS,
with a aompact into which they had sel.j
emnly entered. No man found causo for
dtsaoluuon In any thing the Federal Ckrv
ernmentdid; for all declared they want
ed to preserve the Union until Lineofa'
was elected. 'Not against the Supreme
Court that tribunal was faithful to tha
lasi Not against Ibe Federal Congrass,
for there you had a majority. Not against'
Mr. Ilnchanan pan $aclknc4 the ma
rhosen by tho South., What was the dif--ficulty,
Mr. President? . The Northern
Kfates, sir, passed their personal liberty
bills and nullified the acts of Congress.
The State Governments would not render
up fugitives, declaring they were not
criminals, because they , stole negroes,
which were not property; and the tftata.
judges took it upon themselves, in their
Stale courts, lei set aside the acts of0o
gresu for oarrying out the fugitive slave. ;
law. ., These , were the snormilies that,
drovo the South lo her condition of de
termined secession. I know that throng
my section of counfry, these facts Lad
more inflnenee upon the popular mind
than any other;, and when Mr.Lineola
was elected it was thought he was seek
ing not to continue Ihe Federal Goyern
menVbnt pervert the Government and t '
accomplish, through Federal igescy,
wnai me roriheni Mates had already,
sought to do. Thai perfected the argu
merit. I am not national in one sense; I iu '
not federal in another, I am sure. I re
gard the reserved rights of the Slates,
as much as any other man, and will never
seek to entrench upon them The powers
I am sworn to exercise' I' will exercise
with strict reverence for the purposes f'
tho grant. . I think if we would all gu to .
work in Iho exerciso of delegated powers,
and act instead of theorizing, we would
accomplish more satisfactory results for
Mr. Wigfall. . I proposo to answer the ,
gentleman, with the simple prefatory r- .
marks, that I am as much astonished at
his recollection of the faels as bis avowal '
of principles. For a Senator lo arise in
this Confederate Congress, within a few
brief months after the nation has been
difso'.ved,i und declare., the Federal Gv--eminent
of the llnited Stales never tres
passed upon our rights
Mr.' Hill. I never said that
Mr. Wigfall.'''' If yon did not, ywu said
something bearing a wonderful resem
blance to it, t
Mr. Hill. I said the trespasses of the
Federal Government were not the evils
alleged by Ihe people ih seceding ; it was
not the trespasses of the Government that
influenced the people lo secede. . I said it
was the trespasses of the Northern States
in their faithlessness to the common com
pact. ' I always held tha Missouri com
promise was unconstitutional, and things ,
of that sort ; but the Federal Government, .
as such, did not commit these trespasses
which drove the people f o secede. !
' Mr. Wigfall. Well, I ask if they Lad
any complaint against the judiciary ?
Mr. Hil None.
Mr. Wigfall. , I Jieed not ask him
about ti e legislative branch, for he' says
we bad no rsuse of Complaint here.
"Surely not," be , says, ' for you had a
majority there." His, language, is plain
and uumiijtakablo. Why, sir, in that
Congress the Mark Republicans had an
overwhelming majority in the hall against '
us, aud a' lie vote in. the Senate, with a
Waek Republican casting vote.
Mr. Hill. 1 It was not from any act of
Ihe Supreme Court or , of Congress, or of ,
, (he Federal Executive we seceded. I
t)o not say they always did right I
was utterly opposed 16 Ihe Admirtistra- '
lion of Mr. Uuehanan. ! '' I '
i- Air. . Wigfall. m He forgets Congress
panned a law abolishing slavery in tho
District of Columbia, declaring no slave
should be sold (here.
' Mr. Hill. When did it pass V
' i Mr. Wigfall. In 18.r,0. ......
' Mr, 11 lit And. tho people expressly
said they would not secede on account
of if., ii.
Mr. XVigfall. I do not know what
Georgia politicians said.
: Mr, Semmes. I call tbe gentleman to
, Tbe President. The gentlemen will
uiake no remarks not pertinent to the
issue. ' '
Mr. Wit-fall. The Senator asks if An
drew Johnson is a traitor. He gets up
and makes a terrible to do about my
denying the right of taking up arms to
resist tyranny, and trying to hold men
to their allegiance. .J never dniod any
such right. A man may change his allegi
ance provided he does it iu goo.d time and
good faith. Nc man has ever asserted
the contrary and if it were not for the
lax notions of Ihe Schatior about the
organiilion of tlio Government and Iho
paten, palpable errors he has fallen into
(iliNTINVr-p ON roUKTII PA'iB.) J