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NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE, SATURDAY, DECEMBER G, 18G2.
JOHN HCGH SMITH, Mm for,
WILLIAM PHASE, lteeorder.
JOI1H tTTCHBLEY, Jfarsfcot
2V1 jrMI W. II. Wilkinson, A. C. Tucker,
wi Jamrs A. Pteols.
CAerlu ttflke. Marl John Ct)cmbley,a-0U, flrst;
of. L. ttran,scorid ( and John Reddlck, third.
Tarn JwiKr-VlUltm Driver.
Cmm CuUtetor A. B. Phanklsnd.
RTaMr Taa Collector i R Garrett
, gYaamrw- R. Hoary.
WTurrf MaMer Thorn Leaks.
prtalnt 0)4 Workk"nJ. Q. Dtxld.
. , S-ptrUienAetU of (At Water lVor James Wyatt.
' Cm ttf ike Fire Ifpatlment Jolin M. Seabury.
Stto i th4 Cemetery T. II. McBrlde.
go-Mi Ormuur J. L. ftcwart.
Vut AUorney J""" Mcl'hall BmltU.
Board 0 Aldermen U. M. Brlen, rrosidut ; J- T..
Newman, Q. A. J. May Hold, H.O. ..Tel.Wm.S. Cheat
bam, J. C. Bmith, M. (J. I Claiborne, aud Jas. Robb.
Common Council IT. V. Juuts, i'resldnnt i William
Roberta, T. J. YarbroiiKb, Tm, Drlrcr, Wm. Ptuwart,
bonis Hongh, W. Mulllni, Janica Turner, O. M. South
gala, A. J. Cole, Jan. DaTis, Andrew Anderson, J. B.
Snowies, and John CrcaJ.
TAXD1NO COMMITTKKS Of Tilt C1TT COCSCTt.
Finance Knowlos, Pcoycl and Cule.
WaiM Work Anderson, Fnilth and Claiborre.
rfrMte Yarbrough, Turner, 8outtigale, Davis, Brlcn,
llayflnld, Cheatham and Claiborne.
WW Newman, Ftewart and Turner.
UoepiUil J"ino, UayOeld and 8loan.
BcXooU Choatham, Mayfleld and Knowlca.
fir Department Crcady, Driver and Newman.
Cae Drivor, Cheatham and Davli.
: , Cemetery Hroltb, Stewart and Newman.
H Market Wow Kbrt, 8Uwart and Turner
I Blare Hough, Culborno and Davis.
Police Cheatham, Brlen and Anderson
Bprinp Hough, Cialborno and Brier.
Workkoute Cheatham Tllay field and Knowlea.
Improvement and SpendituTmCoe, Scovel and
Publie Property Drlen, Cboatlium and Tarnor.
Pt Hons -Majrnol.l, Joues and Roberts.
JJJ-Tlie Board ol Aldermen meets the Tuesdays
am preceding the aecoud and fourth Tbursdsys in
each month, and the Common Council the second
and (ourth Thursdays in each month.
Captain John Baugb.
Itret iiu(nrti Wm. Yartirough.
Keeond Untenant John H. Paris.
PoIicm Wm. Jackson, John Caveuder, Ntcti Da
via. Joel rhiUlim, Wm. Buker, John Collrell, William
i.avo. John Euslea. J. W. Wright, John Puckoll,
fiobsrt Poult, W. C. r raucis, Thomas Francis, Andrew
Joyce, David Yates, aud Charles llulilt.
Mr The Police Com t In opened every morniug
car James M. Iliuton. Denude Thomas Bob
son and J. K. Bm liar.au.
liegitter Plilie.as Ourretl.
Trtutee W. Jajir TnylT.
Coroner M II. IV-lche.-.
Hanger J"lm Corbitl.
Revenue Collector J. 0. BriL y.
Railroad Tax LUIrtlorW. D. UobortRon.
Ctmstall- for S-nhvllU I'ulriO John D. Uower
and J. E. Newman.
Judge Hon. Jamea Wbitworth.
Clerk V. Liudrli y Nichol.
ar-The Judge's Courl meets the first Monilay In
..rh mnntb.ard the Ouarterlv Courl, compoSi d of
the Uacistratis of the County, is held the Erit Mon
day la Jauuary, April, July and l.'tobor.
Jndje Hon. Nathaniel Baxter.
Cta-fc David C. Love.
MW The Court mo tn the flrtt Monday lu March
" Jwdjfe Hon. William K. Turner.
Clerk Charles E. DigitonS.
T-Tti Court meets the firit Monday lu April Au
gust and December.
CkameeUar Hon. b'amuel D. Friereon
CUrk and Hotter J. E. Gl.avee.
- The Courl meeU the first Jlondi May and
L 0. 0. T.
Job 1. Hids, Grand Seeretury, should be
ai AO!'!!, IM
Ttnneuet tV, A'o. 1 Mc-ota every Tuos ay Evc
lug, at their Hull.ou the c-ruer of L'ulon aud Fum
met streets. The ollieere for the prefer term, are:
O. . Isuur,S 0.; J. E. Mil, V J. U Weak ey,
8icreUry J L. K !-'iain, Tre.uuter.
Train Udqe, e. 1C Meets at the same place
.wwv Uondar Kvi-ulng. Tlie oir..-rt are
Campbell, N.O.; Henry Apple, V
; J. I. Park,
Secretary j B. F. Brown, Treasurer.
Smiliy todj. So. 0 Moels at Iheir Hall, on South
Cherry lrvl, every Friday tveutug. The ollle. rs
are t O. C. Covert, NO; Frank IUrman, T.G.J Jam.
Wyatl.Seerelary J W. M. Mallory, Trtaaurer.
. r-x- Ka. lufl. (fJermaoV M'-u at tba
Hall, eon er ot l;nl 0 and Summer streets, every
rhtrsday Fvtnlng. The onVr are : Ctiarlea Rleh,
N B.J P. Frtedma ,.(l.; mtler'.ish, gocretary;
0o. tWifarle, Treasurer.
Hidgel, tnmamrmeml, K: kt the above Hail
a ihe Srsl and third Weduea lays of te- h wonlh.
The oOlcra are: J. K. Mills, CP.; T. n Melinde, HJ.;
1. f. Fuller, W.; I'etw Harris, Jr., J W.; Ji.ha T,
lUde, Sor.ke ; B. B. Cnttor, Treurer
Otw Brmmek ten I""' 'J- -MeeU at the
above Hal uo the secmd and fourUi Wednesday
(..hi of eaab month. The onVrs are: Jas. T IWIi,
C P.; Henry Aprle.ll P-; I klok.r, 8.W
uaa, J W.t CWb Kurchr, Sorlbe; 1
Tullithe-1 by an Association of Printers.
Office on Printer' Alter between
Union and Dcadcrick ftitreets.
SATURDAY MORNING, DEC. 6, 18C2.
The President's Message.
11 tbo kindnt-ss of IIod.IIorace SIat-
nard, from whom wo have received a
copy of the Mcssago iu advance of U10
mails, we are enablod to famish the pub
lic with this important State paper, in
advance of all competitors. As every one
is intensely anxious to read this Message,
which is ono of the most interesting
document that ever emanated from the
Executive Department, .we Lave printed
it in an Extra.
Fellow-Citizens of the Senate
awl ILiuse of Itepresentaltves :
Since your last annual assembling an
other year of health and bountiful har
vests has passed. And while it has not
pleased the Almighty to bless us with a
return of peace, we can but press on,
guided by the best light lie gives us,
trusting that in His own good time, and
wise way, all will yet be well.
Ihe correspondence touching foreign
affairs which has taken place during the
last year is herewith submitted, in vir
tual compliance with a request to that
effect, made by the House of I'epresen-
tatives near the. close of tho last session
If the condition of our relations with
other nations is less gratifying than it
has usually been at former periods, it is
certainly more satisfactory than a nation
so unhappily distracted as we are, might
reasonably have apprehended. In the
month of June last there were some
grounds to expect that the maritime
powers which, at the beginning of our
domestic ditliculties, so unwisely and
unnecessarily, as we think, recognized
the insurgents as a belligerent, would soon
recede from that position, which has
proved r nly less injurious to themselves,
than to our own country. Uut the tem
porary reverses which afterwards befell
the national arms, ana which were ex
aggerated by our own disloyal citizens
abroad, have hitherto delayed that act of
Ihe civil war, which hus so radically
changed, fur the moment, the occupation
and habits of tho American people, has
necessarily disturbed the Hocial condi
tion, and affected very deeply the pros
perity of the nations with which we
have earned on a commerce that has
been steadily increasing throughout a
period of half a century. It has, at
the same time, excited political ambi
tions and apprehensions which have
produced a profound agitation through
out the civilized world. In this unusual
agitation we have fjrborno from taking
part in any controversy between foreign
States, and between parties or factions
in such Mates. We have attempted
no propagandist!!, and acknowledged
no revolution. But we have left to
every nation the exclusive conduct
andd management of its own allairs.
Uur Mrup.tMe has been, of .course.
contemplated by foreign nations with
reference less to its own merits, than to
its supposed, and often exaggerated ef'
fects and consequences resulting to those
nations themselves. Nevertheless, com
plaint on the part of thU government,
even if it were just, would certainly be
The treaty with Great Dritain for the
suppression of the slave trade has been
put into operatiou with a good prospect
of complete success. It is an occasion
of special pleasure to acknowledge that
the execution of it. on the part of her
Majesty's government, has been marked
with a jealous respect for the authority
of the L'nited States, and the rights of
their moral and loyal citizens
The conventinu with Hanover for the
abolition of the stade dues has been car
ried into full effect, under the act of
Concress for that pnriose.
A blockade of three thousand miles of
sea-coast could not be established, and
vigorously enforced, in a season of great
commercial activity like the present
without committing occasional mistakes
and iullicting unintentional injuries upon
foreign nations and their subjects
A civil war occurring in a country
where foreicners reside and carry on
trade under treaty stipulations, is neces
warily fruitful of complaints of the vio
lation of neutral. riutits. All such colli
sionstend to excite misapprehensions, and
possibly to produce mutual reclamations
between nations w bioh have a common
i iuterest in preserving peace and friend
1 ship. In clear cases of these kinds
have, so far as possible, heard aud re-
dusted complaints which have been
presented by friendly powers. There
still, Iwrwever, alare and an augmenting
number ot doubtful cases upou which
the government is onable to agree with
me governments wnose protection is tie- I
ruanded by the claimants. There are,
moreover, many cases in which the Unit
ed States, or their citizens, suffer wrongs
from the naval or military Authorities of
foreign nations, which the governments
of those States are not at once prepared
to redress. I have proposed to some of
the foreign States, thus interested, mutu
al conventions to examine and adjust
such complaints. This proposition has
been made especially to Great Britain,
to France, to Spain, and to Prussia. In
each case it has been kindly received,
but has not yet been formally adopted.
I deem it my duty to recommend an
appropriation in behalf of the owners of
the Norwegian bark Admiral P. Torden
skiold, which vessel was, in May, 18G1,
prevented by the commanderof the block
aiding force off Charleston from lea'ving
that port with cargo, notwithstanding a
similar privilege had.shortly before, been
granted to an English vessel. I have di
rected the Secretary of State to causo
the papers in the case to be communi
cated to the proper committees.
Applications have been made to me by
many freo Americans of African descent
to favor their emigration, with a view to
such colonization as was contemplated in
recent acts of Congress. Other parties,
at homo and abroad some from inter
ested motives, others upon patriotic con
siderations, and still others influenced by
philanthropic sentiments have suggest
ed similar measures; while, on the other
hand, several of the Spanish-American
republics have protested against the
sending of such colonies to their respec
tive territories. Under these circum
stances, I have declined to move apy such
colony to any state, without first obtain
ing the consent of its government, with
an agreement on its part to receive and
protect such emigrants in all the rights
of freemen; and I have, at the same time,
o lie red to the states situated within the
tropics, or having colonies there, to ne
gotiate with them, subject to the advico
aud consent or the Senate, to favor the
voluntary emigration of persons of that
class to their respective territories, upon
conditions which shall be equal, just and
humane. Liberia and Hay ti are. as yet.
the only countries to which colonics of
African descent from here, could go with
certainty of being received and adopted
as citizens; and 1 regret to say such per
sons, contemplating colonization, do not
seem so willing to migrate to those coun
tries, as to 6ome others, nor so willing as
think their interest demands. I be
lieve, however, opinion among them, in
this respect, is itn proving; and that, ere
be an augmented, and
considerable micra'ion to both these
countries, from the United States.
The new commercial treaty between
the United States and the Sultan of Turr
key has been carried into execution
A commercial and consular treaty has
been negotiated, subject to the Senate's
consent, with Liberia; and a similar ne
gotiation is now pending with tho repub
lie of llayti. A considerable improve
lnent of the national commerce is expect
ed to result from thefe measures.
Our relations with Great Britain,
I ranee, Spain, Portugal, Russia, Prussia,
Denmark, Sweden, Austria, the Nether
lands, Italy, Borne, and tho other Luro
pean states, remain undisturbed. Very
favorable relations also continue to be
maiutaiaed with Turkey, Morocco, Chi
na, and Japan.
During the last year there has not only
been no change of our previous relations
with the independent states of our own
continent, but, more friendly sentiments
than have heretofore existed, aro believed
to lie entertained by these neighbors,
whoso safety and progress, are so uiti
niately connected with our own. This
statement especially applies to Mexico,
Nicaragua, Costa liica, Hunduras, Peru
The commission under the convention
with the republic of New Granada closed
its session, without having audited and
passed upon, all the claims -which were
submitted to it. A proposition upend
ing to revive the convention, that it may
be able to do more complete justice.
The joint oommission between the United
States and the republic of Costa Rica has
completed its labors and submitted its
I have favored the project for connect
ing the United States with Europe by an
Atlantic telegraph, and a similar project
t: extend the telegraph from San Fran
cisco, to connect by a Pacific telegraph
with the lino which is being extended
across the Kussian empire.
The Territories of the United States,
with unimportant exceptions, have re
mained undisturbed by the civil war;
and they are exhibiting such evidence of
prosperity as justihes au expectation
that some of them will S'jjd be in a con
dition to be organized as States, and bo
constitutionally admitted into tho Fed
The immense mineral resources of some
of those Territories ouht to be devt lop
ed as rapidly as noible. Every step in
rthat direction would have a tendency to
- improve the revenues of the government,
I and diminish the burden of the people.
j It is worthy ol your serious considera
I tion w hi ther Rome extraordinary meas-
to promote that end cannot be
loplcd. The means which suggests it
self as most likely to ! ellecUve, is a
scientific exploration of the mineral re-
pions in mose .territories, witn a view to I
the publicatioa of its results at home 1
i a; .r 11. uai
and in foreign countries results which
cannot fail to be auspicious.
Ihe condition ot the finances will
claim your most diligent consideration.
Ihe vast expenditures incident to the
military and naval operations required
for the suppression of the rebellion, have
hitherto been met with a promptitude,
and certainty, unusual in similar circum
stances; and the public credit lias been
fully maintained. The continuance of
the war, however, and the increased dis
bursements made necessary by tho aug
mented forces now in the field, demand
your best reflections as to tho best modes
of providing the necessary revenue, with
out injury to business, aud with tho least
possible burdens upon labor.
I he suspension of speie payments by
the banks, soon after the commencement
of your last session, made large issues
of United States notes unavoidable. In
no other way could the' payment of the
troops, and the satisfaction of other just
demands, bo so economically, or so well
provided for. Thfj judicious legislation
of Congress, securing the receivability of
these notes for loans and internal duties,
and making them a legal tender for other
debts, has made them an universal cur
rency; and has satisfied, partially, at
least, and for the time, the long felt want
of an uniform circulating medium.
saving thereby to the people, immense
sums in discounts and exchanges.
A return to specie payments, however,
at the earliest petiod compatible with
due regard to all interests concerned,
should ever be kept in view. Fluctua
tions in the value of currency are al
ways injurious, and to reduce these fluc
tuations to the lowest point possible will
always be a leading purpose iu wise legis
lation. Convertibility, prompt and cer
tain convertibility into coin, is gener
ally acknowledged to bo the best and
surest safeguard against them; and it is
extremely doubtful whether a circula
tion of United States notes, payable in
coin, and sulliciently large tor the wants
of the people, can be permanently, use-
lully and safely maintained.
is there, then, any other mode in
which the necessary provision for the
public wants can be, and tho great ad-
advantages of a sale and uniform currency
I know of none which promises so cer
tain results, aud is, at the same time, bo
unobjectionable, as the organization of
banking associations, under a general
act of Congress, well guarded in its pro
visions, lo such associations the gov
ernment might furnish circulating notes,
on the security of United States bonds
deposited in the treasury. These notes,
prepared under the supervision of proper
officers, beiug uniform in appearance aud
security, and convertible always into
cin, would at once protect labor against
the evils of a vicious currency, and facil
itate commerce by cheap aud safe ex
A moderate reservation trom the in
terest on the bonds would compensate the
United States for the preparation and
distribution of the notes, and a general
supervision of the system, aud would
lighten the burden of that part of the
public debt employed as securities. The
public credit, moreover, would bo greatly
improved, and tho negotiation or new
loans greatly facilitated by the steady
market demand for government bonds
which the adoption of tho proposed sys
tern would create.
It is an additional recommendation of
the measure, of considerable weight, in
my judgment, that it would reconcile, as
far as possible, all existing interests, by
the opportunity ottered to existing insti
tutions to reorganize under the act, sub
stituting only the secured uniform na
tional circulation lor the local and va
rious circulation, secured and unsecured,
now issued by them.
The receipts into the treasury from all
sources, including loans, and balance
from the preceding year, for the fiscal year
endine on the d'.Jtu June, lHhZ, were
$I83,8S5,217 (X5, of which sum 19,030,-
.".07 0- wem derived from customs
Sl.79o.331 73 from the direct tax; from
public lands $152,203 77; from miscel
laneous sources, 931,787 01; from loans
in all forms, .529.092.400 50. The re
mainder, 2,257,005 bO, was the balance
from last year.
The disbursements during tbo same
period were for congressional executive,
and judicial purposes, $5,939,001) 29; for
foreign intercouise, 1,339,710 35; for
miscellaneous tApenses, including the
mints, loans, post ofllco deficiencies, col
lection of revenue, and other like charges,
14.129.771 70; for expenses under
the Interior Department, $3,102,933
under the War Department, 391,303,
407 .'K, under the Navy Department,
42,074,509 09: for interest on public
debt, 13,190,321 4.j; and for payment
of public debt, including reimbursement
of temporary loan, aud redemptions,
90,090,922 09; making an aggregate of
570,811,700 25, and leaving a balance
in the treasury on the first day of July,
1S02, of i3,on,rpj ai.
It should be observed that the sum of
90,090,922 09, expended for reimburse
ments and redemption of public debt,
being included also in the loans made,
may be properly deducted, both from re
ceipta aud expenditures, leaving the ac
tual receipU for the year $ 137,733,32 1-
Ui, and the expenditures. S 174.744.773-
ia 1 .
Other information on theauhlertof the
finances will bo found In the report of
of the Secretary of the Tieasury, to
whose statements and views I invite
yonr most candid and considerate atten
The reports of the Secretaries of War.
and of the Navy, are herewith transmit
ted. These reports, though lengthy, are
scarcely more than brief abstracts of the
very numerous and extensive transac
tions and operations conducted through
those departments. Nor could I give a
summary of them here, upon any princi
ple, which would admit of its being
much shorter than tho reports themselves.
1 therefore content myself with laying
the reports before you, and asking your
attention to them.
It gives me pleasure to report a decided
improvement in tho financial'condition
of the Post Office Department, as com
pared with several preceding years. The
receiUs for the fiscal year lisOl amounted
to 3,319,290 40, which embraced the
revenue from all the States of the Union
for three quarters of that year. Not
withstanding the cessation "of revenue
from the so-called seceded States during
tho last fiscal year, the increase of the
correspondence of the loyal States has
been sulhcient to produce a revenue dur
ing the same year of $8,299,820 90, being
only 50,000 less than was derived from
all the States or the Union during the
previous year. The expenditures show
a still more favorable result. The amount
expended in 1801 was 13,006,759 11.
ror the last year the amount has been
reduced to '11,125,304 13, showing a
decrease of about 2,481,000 in the ex
penditures as compared with the preced
ing year, and about $3,750,000 as com
pared with the fiscal year 18G0. The
deficiency in the department for tho pre
vious year was $l,bol,yuo !)8. lor the
last fiscal year it was reduced to $2,112,
814 67. These favorable results are in
part owing to the cessation of mail ser
vice in tho insurrectionary .States, and
in part to a careful review of all expen
ditures in that department in the interest
of economy. The efficiency of the postal
service, it is believed, has also been much
improved. The Postmaster General has
also opened a correspondence, through
the Department of State, with foreign
governments, proposing a convention of
postal representatives for the purpose of
simplifying the rates ot foreign post a;
and to expedite the foreign mails. This
proposition, equally . important to our
adopted citizens, and to the commercial
interests of this country, has been fa
vorably entertained, and agreed to, by
all the governments from whom replies
have been received.
I ask the attention of Congress to the
suggestions of the Postmaster General in
his report respecting the further legisla
tion required, in his opinion, for the
benefit of tho postal service.
Ihe Secretary of t ho Interior reports
as follows in regard to the public lands
" Ihe public lands have ceased to be a
sourceof revenue. From the 1st of July.
1801, to the 30th of September, 1802, Ihe
entire cash receipts from the sale of lands
were 137,li0 0 a sum much less than
the expenses of our land system during
the aame period, ihe homestead law,
which will take ellect on the 1st of Jan
uary next, oilers such inducements to
settlers, that sales for cash cannot be ex
pected, to an extent sufficient to meet the
expenses of tho General Land Odice, and
the cost of surveying and bringing tho
land into market."
The discrepancy between tho.sum here
stated as arising from tho sales of the
public lands, aud the sum derived from
the same source as reported from the
Treasury Department ariBes, as I under
stain), from the fact that the peri d of
time, though apparently, were not really,
coincident at the beginning point the
Treasury report including a considerable
sum now, which had previously been re
ported from tho Interior sufficiently
large to greatly overreach the sum de
rived from the three months now reported
upon by tho Interior, and nut by the
The Indian tribes upon our frontiers
have, during the past year, manifested a
spirit of insubordination, and, at several
points, have engaged iu open hostilities
against tho white settlements in their
vicinity. The tribes occupying fie In
dian country south of Kansas, renounced
their allegiance to the United Mates, and
entered luto treaties with the insurgent
Those who remained loyal to tho United
Stati s were driven from the country.--The
thief of the Cherokee has visited
this city for the purpose of restoring the
former relatiot.a of the tribe with the
U uiied St a ten. He alleges that they were
constrained, by euperior force, to enter
into trea'ies with the insurgents, aud
that the United States neglected to fur
nish the protection which their treaty
In the in 'iith of August last the Sioux
Indium, iu Minnesota, attacked thu set
tlements in tht ir vicinity with extreme
ferocity, killing, indiscriminately, men,
h ouiennaiid children. This attack Mas
wholly uueapeeted, and, therefore,
no means of defence, had lceri
provided. It is estimated that not lets
than eight hundred person were killed
by the Indians, and a large amount o(
property was destroyed. ITow thfsout-
break was induced is nol dofinitelr
known, and suspicions, which may bo
unjust, need not be stated. Infor
mation was received by tho Indian
bureau, from different sources, about the
time hostilities were commenced, that a
simultaneous attack was to be madd upon
the wnito iettlements by all the tribea
between tho Mississippi river and tha
Uocky Mountains. The Sfato of Minne-
sota has suffered creat inlurr from thin
Indian war. A large portion of her ter
ritory has been depopulated, and a se
vere los has been sustained by tho de
struction of property. The people of
that State manifest much anxiety lor tho
removal of the tribes beyond tho limits
of tho State as a iruarantee against futuro
hostilities. Tho Commissioner of Indian
Affairs will furnish full details. I sub
mit for your especial consideration
whether our Indian system shall not be
remodelled. Many wise and irood men.
have impressed me with tho belief that
this can be profitably done.
I submit a statement of the proceedincs
of commissioners, which shows the pro
gress mat lias been made in theenferprise
of constructing tho Pacific railroad. And
this suggests tho earliest completion of
this road, and also the favorablo ac
tion of Congress upon the project
now pending before then) for enlarging
tho capacities of the great canals in New
lork and Illinois, as being of vital, and
rapidly increasing importance lo the
whole nation, and especially" to the vast
interior region hereinafter to bo noticod
at some greater length. I purposo having
prepared and laid before you at an early
day some interesting and valuable statis
tical information upon this subject. Tho
military and commercial Importance of
enlarging the Illinois and Michigan canal,
and imptoving the Illinois river, is pre
sented in tho report of Colonel Webster
to the Secretary of War, and now trans
mitted to Congress. I respectfully ask
attention to it
To carry out the provisions of the act
of CoHgress of the 15th of May last, I
have caused the department of Agricul
ture of tho United States to bo onrau-
The Commissioner informs mo that
within tho' period of a few months this
department has established aa extensive
system of correspondence and exchanges,
both at home and abroad, which promise
to ellect highly beneficial results in the
development of a correct knowledge of
recent improvements in agriculture, in tho
introduction of new products, and lit the
collection of fhe agricultural statistics of
tho different Stat0.
Also that it will soon bo prepared to
distribute largely seeds, cereals, plants
and cuttinss, and has already published,
and liberally diffused, much valuable in
formation in anticipation of a more elab
orate report, which will in due time be
furnished, embracing some valuable tests
in chemical science now in progress in
1 he creation of this department was for
the more immediate benefit of a larce class
of our most valuable citizens: and I
trust that the liberal basis upon which
it has been organized will not only meet
your approbation, but that it will realize,
at no distant day, all tho fondest antici
pations of its most sanguine friends, and
become the fruitful eonrco of advantage
to all our people.
On the twenty-second day of Sepetm
ber last a proclamation was issued by
the Executive, a copy of which is here
In accordance with the purpose express
ed in the second paragraph of that paer,
1 now respectfully recall your attention
to what may bo called "compensated
A nation mty be said (o consist of its
territory, its people, and ils laws. The
territory is the only part which is of cer
tainly durability. "One generation pass
eth away, and another generation cometh,
but the earth abideth forever." It is of
the first importance to duly consider, and
estimate, this ever-enduring part. That
portion of the earth' Surface which i
owned and inliaKitot !. il people of
the United States, is well adapted to le
tho home of one national family; and it
is not well adapted for two, or more. Its
vast extent, arid its variety of climate
and productions, are of ad vantage, in this
age, for one people, whatever they might
have been in former ages. Steam, tele
graphs, and intelligence, have brought
these, to be an advantageous combina
tion, for one united people.
In tho inaugural address I briefly
pointed out tne total inadequacy of dis
union, as a remedy for tho difference
between the people of the two section.
I did so in language which I cannot im
prove, and which, therefore, I beg to re
peat: "One section of our country believes
slavery is right, and ought to be extended,
while the other believe it it icr.,y, and
ought not to be extended. This i the
only substantial dip.ite. The fugitive
slave clause of the Constitution, and the
law for the suppression ofth.- foreign
slave trade, are rsch a well enforced,
iMThapa, a any law can ever be in a
community where the moral sense of the
people irni-erfectly supports the law itself.
i he great U.dy of the wonle abide by thl
dry legs I obligation in both cases, and n few
break over in each. This, I think, canuot
b perfectly cured; and it would bo