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WHY THE NEEBO SHOULD
STICK TO THE FARM.
Read Before the Last Race Con
Held in Columbia-A Splen
Mr. Chairman. Ladies and Gentle
It is unfair, I claim, to ask an
unpopular set bf men to speak on
an unpopular subject the last day
of the Conference.
It is to bc remembered that most
of our young men want to take up
some trade or profession or to go
to town to live easy, therefore you
can't expect us to entertain the
We like to follow the white peo
ple, dress fine every day and ride
around. Wc never stop to think
that the white people had our help
more than two centuries before we
began the life that has counted for
The Negro is, hy nature, adapted
to agriculture. We were pre
pared for this work on thc banks
of the Nile. When the cultured
white people of Virginia stood in
need of farm labor a band of Ne
groes were imported winch were
used in the cultivation of tobacco.
The white people could not work,
the Indians would not, so it was
left for the people of our father
land to contribute the muscle neces
sary for the agricultural advance
ment of the United States.
For more than two centuries the
majority of us spent our time on
the farm under the strict super
vision of white farmers, who had
been well educated. It was in this
capacity we learned the art and
habit of industry, so that when we
became emancipated wc had some
idea of farming from a business
point of view, as well as an idea of
cultivating the soil.
I know of no business or trade
which thc Negro had been so well
prepared to make his way in life
as a f ee man. I say it without
v4any just fear of^ contradiction that
the reason why we; as a race, have
been so much more successful as
farmers is due to thc training we
received at the hand of intelligent
It is claimed that we spend
every year $60,000,000 for medi
cine and advice from practicing
physicians. This could be greatly
reduced if we would go where we
could live in a healthier atmos
phere. The condition of the masses
in towns and cities is far from that
which is conducive to long life.
Poorly built houses in unhealthy
places, eating poor and half pre
pared food will shorten the life of
any race, nation or individual.
Statistics show that farmers live
longer than any other people. Not
withstanding, a farm properly con
ducted requires business judgment,
there is less risk, less worry, more
out-of-door exercise where we can
breathe more pure air and eat more
It was not till the Negro began
to enter the skilled trades and pro
fessions that he became a victim of
consumption. As long as he
stayed in the air he was healthy.
The need of a practicing physician
was seldom felt. A race spending
two hundred years in one life and
changing to another could expect
It takes time to become skilled
in any trade or learned in any pro
fession, or perfect in any business.
The vast number of inventions
that have facilitated muustry,
thoughts that have mouled senti
ment, the men who with brain held
the masses in their hands, were not
the efforts of a day.
This being a free country, every
person must meet competition in
nearly every walk of life, the farm
being the exception.
I do not mean to be understood
as meaning that the Negro is un
able to compete with his white
brother, because I believe the Ne
gro has the ability, if properly
trained, and can do anything for
which he is by nature fitted. Bul
we have to contend with prejudice
which has made its way into laboi
A race half intelligent and pov
erty-stiicken cannot compete witl
a people superior in number,
stronger intellectually, stronger
financially, with the law of thc
country at his back. Our success
must bc along uncontested lines.
While the records show that the
Negro is gaining in other occupa
tions, only goes to show that thc
trained Negro is gaining ground,
but not to the point to insure sta
There are 2,143,176 Negroes en
gaged in agricultural pursuits or
21 and 7-10 per cent, of all persons
is by no means displeasing.
There seems to be an unrest of
leaving the farm and going to
town to live hy wits, but it seems
the interest is greater among white
than among Negroes. From 1900
to iQto, the increase of white farm
ers was 9 1-10 per cent., that of
the Negro was 19 per cent. Thc
Negro farm labor decreased nu
merically, while the Negro farm
ers increased. This is due to the
fact that farm work is depreciated,
thc masses of colored people are
made to feel that it is more honor
able to move to town and follow
some trade and half starve.
The poor white man has neither
thc money or the brain to control
Negro labor. Some leading white
politicians arousing race hatred,
make the poor white man feel hu
miliated working in the fields with
Negroes. The well-to-do white
man will not do manual work, at
the same time prefers to live in
town where he can educate bis
children. The poor white man
finds employment in cotton facto
ries. This leaves the farm to the
Negro and the mule. Here is a
chance to buy land and live unmo
Our white friends are grieving
over the race problem. Let us buy
farm land, cultivate it intelligently
and let our white friends talk poli
tics and look dignified. Sell Kim
all that he needs, in short, let us
produce while he consumes. This
will solve the problem.
There are in the South several
millions.o? acres of .unimproved
land which the Negro can buy and
cultivate successfully, which, if we
wait a few years, will be owned by
some one else.
The newspapers and the railroads
are advertising the South in for
eign countries with the hope of
bringing people of foreign birth,
foreign ideas, people who are in lit
tle or no sympathy with conditions
in this country, for thc sole pur
pose of maintaining white supre
In case this country is overrun
with these ignorant people the
question that ought to concern us
is : where will we stand ?
We arc practically debarred
from white labor unions, hence thc
unimproved land is our place.
Notwithstanding there is little 01
no inducement to the unthinking
young Negro, the Negro must takt
that as his lot and thank God it if
The National House of Repre
sentatives seems to be un favorable
to the progress of Negro agricul
ture, and in no State do we get al
the encouragement necessary foi
intelligent farming among Ne
groes. But this is tn no way du?
to the white people of character anr
ability. Anything done to discour
age the Negro in his progress on
ward is the work of the politiciar
whose stock is in arousing the hat
red of the poor, ignorant whit?
people against colored people.
Let it ever be remembered thal
the white people who have stooc
for progress among their own rac?
have extended a helping hand tc
the Negro struggling, the Negrc
who wanted to rise. There an
hundreds of farmers here and else
where whose success has openec
the way for Negroes to stick to th?
farm, and whose career stands a<
possibilities. They owe their sue
cess to the kindly advice and finan
cial ltelp of their white friends.
But we must not let any of thesi
' prove barriers in our way. To b
t sure, we must go the faster.
; We must bear in mind that w
r are no longer slaves, but free mer
walking and thinking as other pee
1 We, like the other people whoi
God .lade, owe something to so
ciety. We are not here just to slay
until we die. God made us for
.something. We can best serve the
end for which we were created by
doing that which we are best pre
pared to do.
I believe that we can better
teach our people the habits of in
dustry and honesty on the farm.!
There are no tricks to be learned'
nor practiced on the farm. i
There arc hundreds of Negro,
farmers who are making good, j
What they are doing others can do.
Why remain in crowded tenement
houses in cities, half starve, suffer
from contagious diseases, and in a
place where employment is hard to
get, when in the rural districts la
bor is wanted and needed and must
be had if material progress con
Tn the South the people arc wak
ing up truck farming and cattle
raising. Thc South is now thc
garden spot of the country. Peo
ple from other sections are coming
here finding fortunes in our unim
The United States Government
is spending thousands of dollars
every year lo eradicate the cattle
tick and boll weevil. We must not
let the opportunity slip now. To
be sure, town property will en
hance in value or depreciate as the
town builds up or goes down. In
the country, property enhances in
proportion as we build up our in
A man in town builds a city home
for six thousand dollars. A man in
the country buys a farm for three
thousand dollars. The man in the
city can do nothing with his home
but live in it. Tn case he loses out
the home becomes worthless prop
erty. Thc man in the country in
vests just half the amount-three
thousand dollars-has room for
stock, for chickens, at the same
time makes a good living.
If you will pardon me for per
sonal reference, I own both city and
country property. Taking into con
sideration', insurance and taxes,
country property is the cheapest
you can buy.
I ask my friends to leave the
towns and cities, come to the coun
try and help us clear the woods
and make things go.
RAGE RELATIONS DISCUSSED
From (Benedict) College ?Tourna^
Memphis, Tenn., May 7,-The
co- operation of the races for the
purpose of bettering conditions
in the South, as discussed by
Bishop Theodore D. Bratton, of
Jackson, Miss., and Booker T.
Washington, attracted large
crowds at the afternoon session
of the Southern Sociological con
gress here to-day,
Bishop Bratton pointed out the
necessity of race cooperation in
church work as a contributory
factor in laying the foundation
for the solution of the race prob
"The first point of cooperation
for the two races, in this" he
said, "is the example of a solid
religious faith and justice; the
second is the points of contact in
their churches and schools and
sharing with them the benefits
of our great public school system.
But above all is to live the Gos
The Bishop took to task ex
tremist? of both races.
Following the address of Bish
Bratton, former Gov. Mann, who
occupied a seat on the platform,
called on R. R. Moton, a leading
Negro of Virginia, to lead the
colored portion of the audience
in singing "Climb, Climb Up
Higher," and "Down on the
Suwanee River," brought rounds
Booker Washington discussing
race cooperation in securing law
and order, pointed to the socio
logical congress as the best
means of bringing the two races
to a better understanding of each
other, as well as the needs and
aspirations of the Negro. His
subject was "How can the Ne
gro in the South do his part in
using this Congress to bring a
bout better conditions." He
"We can use this organization
to spread an influence among our
people for the prevention of
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crime.. In spite of all that may
be said, in palliation, there is too
much .crime committed by; our
people in' all parts Of the country.
We should let the world under
stand we are not going ito hide
crime because it is committed
by black people."
To You, Mr. Stock Owner
Would you own a horse and let
him suffer and be satisried ? Why
the horse needs a dentist as well
as the human beiug does. If you
have his teeth kept up it will
save other trouble on the horse.
When this is done the animal
will eat better and give you bet
ter service. Do you know that
you give away better stock than
what you buy every year because
you don't call a veterinary sur
geon and ask his opinion about it.
As long as you do so it will keep
you buying stock. Our business
is to take care of the stock and
his owner. The white people
have us to work the same ones
over again and then they sell
them right back to you for the
same price you first paid. Why
can't you do the same thing and
save the price of another horse or
mule ? We are called all over
this county to do so for the white
people and you are paying for it.
It is time to wake up and get
busy. We will do the same thing
for you. Yours truly,
DR. J. H. SIMS.
Veterinary Surgeon and Animal
Dentist. 1518 Williams Street,
Columoia, S, C. Phone 2677.
Five acres and up with dwelling
Will rent, Sell or Exchange for
? Few New Lots and Houses
i544 Main Street, Columbia
DR. L. M. DANIELS
PHYSICIAN & SURGEON
Office Hours: 9 to 10 A. M. ; 1 to 2 P.M. ;
3 to 4 P. M. ; 7 to 8 P. H.
Residence 1610 Sumter Street,
Office, 1100 Washington Street.
PHONE 1429, : : Columbia, S. C.
I. L. BAILEY
Licensed Architect & Builder
' Plans and Specifications
gotten out for Residences,
1330 PINE ST. - COLUMBIA, S. C.
No need send to the mail order houses
for what you want. We have it here at
the same price, if not cheaper. You
owe us a trial anyway. Send a list of
what you require and let us figure on it.
We have specially laid ourselves out to
execute mail orders and you may rely
on prompt attention. Our PAINT de?
partment is unexcelled in this country.
L?rick & Lowrance
Columbia, South Carolina.
Palmetto Meat Market
J. S. DENT, Prop'r.
Butcher and Green Grocer, Fish. Oysters and
Game in season,
1330 Assembly St. Phcne 172. Columbia
N. K. Collin's Big Department Store
THIS is the store that
gets the new things first.
We are now showing many new
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1125 Washington Street,