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New-York daily tribune. (New-York [N.Y.]) 1842-1866, September 03, 1842, Image 1

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il'HJE? NEW-YORK TRIUNE
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t he TKTWne/
For The Tribune
OUR COUNTRY.
BY B. F. ROMAINE.
1.
OCR Country?'t is a noble name,
Our glory and our pride,
Our watchword to immortal fame,
Amid life's ocean tide ;
And when upon the. stormy wave
Our bark was tempest-driven,
There was an arm to shield the brave
Who put their trust in Heaven.
IL
Our Country?in my childhood's days
That name was dear to me,
When on the plain, sweet freedom's lays
Came swelling wild and fiee,?
And told of bloody, deadly strife
For priceless liberty,
When breast to breast, each gave his life
To die, er else be tree.
III.
Our Country?in thy darkest hour,
When every light had fled,
And we were sinking 'neath the power
That laid as with the dead,
A light appeared, which shone from far
As if in mercy given,
To cheer us on?it was the star
Of hope?bright hope from Heaven.
IV.
Our Country?may rhy flag long wave
In beauty o'er each head?
A clear memento of the brave
Who're lying with the dead ;
And may those stars of glory, set
Amid its blended dies,
Shine on our hilis and vallies yet,
As gems that stud the skies!
Poughkeepsie, 1842.
LITERARY NOTICES.
.Descriptive and Historical Account or Hydraulic
ano other Machines for Raising Watbr, Ancient
and Modern: with observations on Various Subjects
coanected with the Mechanic Arts. Illustrated with
nearly three hundred engravings, by Thomas Ewbank.
New York,D. Appleton it Co., 200 Broadway.
' The above is tho title of a splendid and valuable
vork in the press of the Appletons, of which we
* iave been favored with a copy, in advance of its
mblication. From a hasty examination, which is
ill we have as yet been able to give it, we are in
eliotd to believe that it will be one of the most
airbus and interesting works that have is-.ued
ion the American press for many years. The in?
creasing attention which is paid to works of sci
ence, to new inventions and improvements in the
mechanic arts, is one of the most marked features
of tho present day; and though a philosophic ob?
server?one disposed to look to primary motives
and to develope the secret causes of all social phe?
nomena, and to trace their-operation to their ulti?
mate results, might see in this, reason to appre?
hend a consequent degradation of higher spiritual
icience and a neglect of mere vitally important
truths?still tho philanthropist must sincerely re?
joice at the diversion of the human powers from
t!?paths of blood and ruin in which so many of
the mighty men of the earth have delighted to
mlk, and upon which have been lavished so large
aibare of the energies and gifts of humanity, to
tie more peaceful and beneficent channels which
kid to the happiness and well-being of the human
ace.
This work of Mr. Ewbank seems to be some?
thing new in its design, which is effected with
. wonderiul ability and success. It could only have
beta written by ono a largo portion of whose life
hid been spent in searching the dusty volumes of
tatiquity and who possessed besides an ardent en?
thusiasm in the cause of science and mechanic im
, jiorement. We have not time to give any thing
hiea general summary of its contents. It traces
the history of machinery of all sorts from the very
earliest dawn of its invention?exploring with
the most ceaseless assiduity the records of anti?
quity, and cross-examining their traditions, cus?
toms, &c., with consummate skill, intermingling
toe whole with the most entertaining sketches of
life fcnd character and the most just and instruc
hve reflections upon the features of society and or?
dinary life, which are indicated by the habits thus
brought to light. The werk is divided into five
books, of which the general subjects are as follows"
!? Primitive and Ancient Devices for Raising Wa?
te?2. Machines for Raising Water by the Pres
ftre of the Atmosphere?3. Machines for Raising
Vater by Compressure independently of Atmos
beric influence?4. Machines for Raising Water,
: aiefly of modern origin, including early modern
?pplications of steam for that purpose?5. Novel
Derices for Raising Water, with an account of
typhous, locks, valves, clepsydra?, Sec. Sec. It is
illustrated by nearly 300 fine engravings, and is
v published in the finest style of the typographic
art.
The following cut represents a Peruvian female
^?Bgtea with a 44 sucking tube," which is treated
'.'?&y the author as 44 an atmospheric pamp in em
|ytnVH *
this cut is copied from an engraving given js
'^tier's Voyage to the South Seas; and Mr. Ew
gjves us tho following ingenious and pleasing
ttplanation of the custom which it represents:
"In Frexier's time it was the custom forevery one
* *,P8fty to suck out of the sumo tube?Hko Indi
***in council, each taking a whiff from the same
^met. With the exception of confining a com
BY GR EE LEY ?& M^ELRATH.
YOJL. VL NO. 125.
l.u__hj_i_ _ _ ??
pany to the u.u? *,Tso instrument, we should
think this mode of' taking tea' dcservirg the con?
sideration of the. wealthy-, since it possesses seve?
ral advantages over the Chinese plan which we
have adopted. In the first place, it is not only a
more ingenious and scientific mode of raising
liquid, but also more graceful than the gross me?
chanical one of lilting the vessel with it. It is
more economical as regards the exertion required ;
for in ordinary cases a person expends an amount
of force in carrying a cup of tea backwards and
forwards, so many times to his mouth, as would
suffice to raise a bucket of wet?r from a moderate?
ly deep well. In the u-e of these tubes there is no
chance of verifying the old proverb?' many a slip
between the cup and the lip.' And then there is
1 no danger of breakage, since the vessel need not
be removed from the taUe. How often has a valu?
able 1 tea-set' been broken, and the heart of the
fair owner almost with ;r, by some awkward visi?
tor dropping a cup nnd saucer on their way to his
mouth, or on their return to the table! Lastly,
the introduction of these tubes, would leave the
same room as at present for display in tea-table
paraphernalia."
Some of the most curious portions of the book
ar? thooo C?posh/g .lornn r>P tlio dauico* of tho <xn
cient heathen, and the following is certainly, as the
author calls it, a very neat specimen cf religious
ingenuity. The figure below represents an an?
cient vase of lustral water, so constructed that, al?
though no attending priest was necessary, the
dropping of a sufficient quantity of coin into the
lid would immediately cause the holy water.to
flow. It is thus explained by Mr. Ewbakx :
u Near one side
is seen a cylindrical
vessel at A. It is j
this only that con?
tained water. A
small tube attached
to the bottom is con?
tinued through the
side of the vaso at o,
where the liquid wa*
discharged. The in
nerorifice of the tube
was formed into the
seat of a valve, the
plug of which was
fixed on the lower
end of the perpen?
dicular rod, whose upper end was connected by a
bolt to the horizontal lever or vibrating beam R.
One end of R is spread our. into a fiut dish and so
arranged as to receive on its surface every thing
dropped through the slit. The lever turns on a
pin or fulcrum very much like a pump handle, as
represented. The operation will now be under?
stood. As the weight of the rod kept the valve
closed while nothing rested upon the broad end of
the lever, so no liquid could escape ; but if a num?
ber of coins of sufficient ?weight were dropped
through the slit upon the end of R, the valve
would then be opened and a portion of the liquid
escape at o ;?the quantity flowing out would how?
ever be very small, not only from the contracted
bore of the tube, but from the fact that the valve
would be open only a moment; for as the lever be?
came inclined from its horizontal position the
efflux would as quickly be stopped; the appara?
tus would then be ready to supply the next cus?
tomer en the same terms. This coitainly was as
simple and ingenious a rood" of dealing out liquids
as it wa9 a profitable one, an l after all was not
half so deanoralizing as the retailing of ardent
spirits in modern times."
Here is another repres?-n a ion or a most curious
and beautiful device by which liquids were raised
in a mysterious manner?the real ugent being fire,
concealed from view :
The author gives the following explanation from
the Spiritalia:
" The altar mas of metal, hollow and air-light,
and placed on a hollow base or pedestal (also air?
tight) which contained a quantity of oil or wine.
Upon the base stood two statues, each holding a
vase in one hand, as represented. Pipes, as
shown by tho dotted lines, communicated through
the statues with the liquid. As the air within the
altar becamo dilated by the heat, it necessarily
forced the liquid up the pipes and drove it out of
the mouths of the vases hi which the pipes termi?
nated. It is not easy to see why the bottom of
the altar did not open directly into the base or re?
servoir of wine, instead of the pipe that connects
them, since it would have promoted the evolution
of vapor; but the figure represents only one of the
numerous modifications employed."
The following reflections will strike every one,
after these exposures, us eminently just and beau?
tiful :
" What wonders would an insight into the old
temples have revealed ! To h?v?. h?d an opportu?
nity of inspecting the machinery, new and old?to
have been present at the consultations of the
priests?witnessed their private experiments?
beard them expatiate on the defects of this device
and the perfect working of that?suggesting a
wheel here and a spring there?to have been pre?
sent at their consultations respecting the suspen?
sion of water in Tutia's sieve, and witnessed the
congratulations exchanged at the eclat with which
that and many other trials came off, &c. &c.?
would have made us acquainted with discoveries
both in science and mechanical combinations that
would throw some modern inventions into shade.
But the tremendous evils which their impostures
induced rendered concealment on the part of the
priests indispensable, exposure would not only
have endangered their wealth and influence, but
might have led to their extermination by an out?
raged and plundered people?hence the veil of re?
ligion was interposed to screen tho operators and
their apparatus, and inevitable death was the con?
sequence of undue curiosity : witness that of Al
citkas, a female of Thebes, who ridiculed the or?
gies of Bacchus, and was represented by the prie9t3
as having been changed into a bat; a fiction of
theirs, most likely, to conceal their having taken
her off". jiEpytus might be adduced as another
example?he forcibly entered the temple of Nep?
tune and was struck blind by a sudden eruption of
salf-icatcr from the aluJr; probably sulphuric or]
other acid secretly ejected by the priests. In this
chapter we have seen they had the means of doing
this bv the dilatation of air within the caviiies of
altars.*"
The following engraving represents a method of
raising vater above its level by fire, invented as
OFFICE NO. 3
SEW-TORS, SATURDAY Ufa
early as 1615, by Decaus, from which-rircam
l^.taaces M. Arago, the di-unguished French phi?
losopher, has claimed for his country the invention
of the steam engine :
" The thitd method of raising water is by the
aid of fire, whereby diverse machines may be
made. I shall here give the description of "one.
Take a ball of copper marked A, well soldered at
every part. It must have a vent hole marked D
by which water may be introduced ; and also a
tube marked C, soldered into the top of the ball,
and the end C reaching nearly to the bottom, but
not touching it. After filling this ball with water
through the vent hole, stop it close and put the
ball on the fire, then the heat acting against the
said ball, will cause all the water to rise tbroHgh
the tube C."
The above extracts will give a slight impression
j of the general character of this most valuable and
entertaining work.
It is a large octavo, of nearly six hundred pa
f ges, full of scientific manner of the highest interest,
j We cannet avoid citing the following passage,
which has a melancholy interest for Americans,
and well illustrates the fate that too often over?
takes innovators and inventors:
''Oliver Evans, in 178G, urged upon a commit?
tee of the legislature of Pennsylvania, the advan?
tages to be derived from steam-boats aid "steam
wagoas," and predicted their universal adoption
in a short time. Tito opinion which the cemmit
tee formed of him was expressed a few years after?
ward, by ono of the members, in the following
words: " To tell you the truth, Mr. Evans, we
thought you were deranged when you spoke of
making steam-vagons." The other relates to
John Fitch, a clock and watch-maker, than whom
a more ingenious, persevering, end unfortunate
man never lived. In spite of difficulties that few
could withstand, he succeeded in raising the means
to construct a steam-boat, which he run several
times from Philadelphia to Burlington and Trenton
in 1788. As a first attempt, and from the want of
proper manufactories of machinery at the time, it
was of necessity imperfect; then public opinion
was unfavorable, and the shareholders finally
abandoned the scheme. His feelings may be
imagined, but not described ; for he saw and pre?
dicted the glory that awaited the man who should
succeed in introducing such vessels in more favor?
able times. " The day will come [he observed]
when some more powerful man will get famo and
riches by my invention, but nobody will believe
that poor John Fitch can do anything worthy of
attention." He declared that within a century
the western rivers would swarm with steam-ves?
sels, and he expressed a wish to be buried on the
margin of the Ohio, that the music of marine en?
gines in passing by his grave might echo over the
sods that covered him. In a letter to Mr. Ritten
heuse, in 171/2, he shows the applicability of steam
to propel ships of war, and asserts that the same
agent would he adopted to navigate the Atlantic,
both for packets and armed vessels. Descanting
on one occasion upon his favorite topic, a person
present observed as Fitch retired, " Poor fellow!
what a pity he is crazy!" He ended his life
in a fit of insanity by plunging into the Alle?
gheny."
Johnsonian a, or Supplement to Boswki.l. Being ar.ecdotes
ami sayings ?f Da. Johnson, collected trom Piozzi,
Hawkins i;c. kc. Edited by J. Wilson Ckoker,(1
vol 12mo. pp. 5i9.) Carey it iiart. New-York, Wihiy
k Putnam.
Never were two stranger creatures linked to?
gether thnn'JoHXsoN and Boswell?the Ursa Ma*
jor and Cainis Minor whose names always occur to
the memory in connection and who seem to be as
inseparable, and yet as distinct, in thuir immortal?
ity as they were in their daily walk and conversa?
tion. Johnson was a man of gigantic intellect, a
column rough and unhewn but still majestic and
imposing,?a character made up of the noblest
elements?bound up in the strangest manner with
obstinacy, dogmatism, conceit, and every thing
else that seemed unlovely and repulsive. In con?
versation he is represented to have surpassed any
man of his day, and the celebrity which his writ?
ings and sayings have acquired is of itself a suffi?
cient proof that they were worthy to be remem
j bered. There is no man who has been deud ?o
many vears about whom the present generation
have so perfect and so correct a knowledge: all his
habitc, his nppoarunoo and every thing tbul he did
or said, and his manner of doing and saying it, i
are matters of familiar knowledge to the student j
of the present day. And this he owes to his con?
stant attendant, the unapproachable Bozzy?who
has probably been abused more than any other
equally innocent man in the world, for possessing
precisely thoso qualities which were never vouch?
safed to any other under the sun; and yet no mna
who knows and regards Johnson would lor a trifie
consent that his wonderful biographer bad never
existed. Carlyle and Macaulay have each
written upon Boswell, and the estimate they place
upon him, the points of view from whi<:h they look
at him, are perfectly characteristic of themselves
and indicate the great mental disparity beulen
them. Carlyle magnifies, through his Germanic
optics, Boswell into a hero of the first wnterr Ma?
caulay, with a scorpion lash, drives him to his
kennel. There is truth in both and yet neither ia
true. But we have bo: time, though our disposi?
tion is not averse, to write about eiUter Boswell or
his reviewers. Those who have read his Life of
Johnson will be apt to imagine that there is very
little more to be learned concerning the literary
giant: but thsy will nevertheless find much that!
has interest and vdue in this fine volume, which is i
reprinted from the superb London edition pub?
lished in the style of a gift-b-mk some years since.
Tt is edited by Croxer, the editor of loswell; and
this is a sufficient pledge for its, worth. We open
it a; random and extract the follovsing pa?sa?.e={:
0 ANN-Sr'-'REET*
apparitions.?I well r^merabertbrat-at i?r:.ei:
belmstone oace, when he was not present, Mr.
Beauclere a??erterl that he was afraid spirits ;
and I, who was secreth offended at the charge,
asked hira, the first opportunity 1 could rind, what
ground he had ever given to the world for such a
report? "I can," replied he, " recollect nothing
nearer it, than my telling Dr. Lawrence, many
years ago, that a longtime after my poor mothers'
death, I heard her voice call San .'" What an?
swer did the doctor make to your story, sir?" said
I. " None in the world," repiied he; and sud?
denly changed the conversation. Now, as Mr.
Johnson had a most unshaken faith, without anv
mixture of credulity, this story must either have
been strictly true, or his persuasion of its truth
the effect of disordered spirits. I relate the anec?
dote precisely as he told i:me; but could not pre?
vail on him to draw out the talk into length, for
further satisfaction of my curiosity.
Optniok of the World.?Dr. Johnson had a
veneration for the voice of mankind beyond what
most people will own; and as he liberally con?
fessed that all his own disappointments proceeded
from himself, he hated to hear others complain of
general injustice. I remember when lamentation
was made of the neglect showed to Jeremiah
Mark land, a grent philologist, as some one ven?
tured to call him;?" He is a sclmlai, tmdmibted
ly, air," replied Dr. Johnson; "but remember
that he would run from the world, and that it is
not the world's business to run after him. 1 hate
a fellow whom pride, or cowardice, or laziness
drives into a corner, and does nothing when he is
there but sit and grotel; let him come out as I do,
and bark."
Co.nYERJATioN.?Though his time seemed to
fee bespoke, and quite engrossed, his house was
always open to all his acquaintance, new and old.
His amanuensis has given up his pen, the printer's
devil has waited on the stairs for a proof sheet,
and the press has often stood still, while his visi?
tors were delighted and instructed. No subject
ever came amiss to him. He could transfer his
thoughts from one thing to another with the most
accommodating facility. He had the art, for
which Locke was famous, of leading people to talk
on their favorite subjects, and on what they knew
best. By this ho acquired a great deal of infor?
mation. What ho once heard he rarely forgot.
They gave htm their best conversation, and ho
generally made them pleased with themselves, for
endeavoring to please him.
Poet Smart u>cd to relate, " that his first con?
versation with Johnson was of such variety and
length, that it began with poetry and ended at
fluxions." He always talked as if he were talking
upon oath. Pie was the wisest person, and had
tho most knowledge in ready cash, that I ever bad
the honor to be acquainted with. Johnson's ad?
vice was consulted on all occasions. He was
known to be a good casuist, and therefore bad ma?
ny cases submitted for his juJgemont. His conver?
sation, in the judgment of several, was thought to
be equal to his correct writings. Perhaps the
tongue will throw out more animated expressions
than the pen. He said the most common things
in the newest mnnuer. He always commanded
attention und regard. His persou, though una?
dorned with dress, and even deformed by neglect,
mado you expect something, and you were hardly
aver disappointed. His mannerwas interesting :
the tone of his voice, and the sincerity of his ex?
pressions, even when they did uot captivate \our
affections, or carry conviction, prevented con?
tempt.
A CUMPI.ETELT wicitnn Matt. Dr. JaLncon
being in company with .Sir Joshua and his sister,
Miss Reynolds, and the conversation turning on
morality. Sir Joshua iaicf, he did not think there
was in the world any man completely wicked.
Johnson answered, 141 do not know what you
mean by completely wicked." "I mean," re?
turned Sir Joshua, " a man lost to all sense of
shame." Dr. Johnson replied, thnt uto be com?
pletely wicked, a man must be also lost to all sense
of conicier.ee." Sir Joshua said, he thought it.
was exactly tho same; he could see no difference.
" What!" said Johnson, "can you see no differ?
ence? I am ashamed to hear you, or any body
utter such nonsense, when the one relates to men
only, the other to God !" Miss Reynolds then ob?
served, that when shame was lost, conscience was
nearly gone. Johnson agrsed that her conclusion
was very just.
The Democratic Rev ew for September, Vol. XI. No. 51.
" Luc;an and his Ago' is the title of a well
written opening paper in this number of this Ma?
gazine. The writer gives a somewhat original
view of the age. and a higher character to the
witty poet, as a philosophic reformer than is
usually assigned to him. Though many of the
writer's observations are founded in justice aad
insight, we think h? overrates Lucian when he
makes him a reformer from principle; he seems
to us rather to have ridiculed the absurd pnd
false, because it teas ridiculous and not because
it was not the true. The article is f?r superior to
Magazine papers in general; a good spirit per?
vades it and it evinces a classical taste. We can?
not help wishing the writer had brought us a little
nearer the original than an English version of a
German translation from the Latin would be likely
to do. 4 A Fool of the Nineteenth Century,' from
Zschokke, contains sharp hits at the follies of the
age, and the article on Petrarch speaks the lan?
guage of a truthful and an earnest heart. It
cross-examines the poetry of both Campbell and
Petrarch in a sceptical spirit, and condemns both
as not writing ;hat which stirs the hearts of men
to great deeds and Iofjy thoughts, but as secluding
themselves from the active business of the world
and seeking merely to amuse their n uders. The
whole article is earnest, and part of it, perhaps,
too dogmatic; but the following passage willcom
I mend itself alike by its important truth and the
! eloquent manner in which it is set forth :
It would be a balm to many ambitious minds to
be set right, once ready and truly right, on this
subject of greatness. It would be a pleasure to
shake off the oppression of presumed inferiority,
to reconcile one's *?lf to obscurity, to feel the
consciousness of approaching some standard of
wurth and honor which no breath of popular opin?
ion, no caprice of fashion nor prejudice can exalt
or debase. Philip Vax Arteveide has said, " the j
world knows nothirfg of its greatest men," and i
very probably indeed it is so. The qualities which
made a roan famous and conspicuous?the quali- j
tics which give success in any career, or even |
often the chances which give it without qualities?
I are what poets have taught men to respect; bat
I these are not what our natures are forroed in sin?
cerity and truth to revere. The poets have mis?
led us ; they have pandered to our vices, and have
used their arts to set fotth the jojs of intemper- j
ance, tat. honors of ryrarny and cruelty, and the j
pnetilities of amatory Donsense ; and thus possess- j
ing fully with their sweet tones the ear of child-;
hoed and youth, they have falsified our ideas of
pleasure, honor and ambition through successive
generations. The main error they teach is every?
where the same; they place the objects of life
always in something extrinsic, they bid us look
, fiat celebrity and notoriety as the great tests and
?essential principles o: happiaess. and no: to our
FOUR DOLLARS A YEAR.
TVKtftLE KO. 437.
own be art* or ??Mci?B<MM, ?r to toot narrow ry'rrcl*
of domestic relations where alone we can in gene?
ral be truly appreciated. No one can doubt thafl
if bacchanalian songs had never been invented,
millions of recrvdts wouH have'been withheld from
the armies of intemperance. If no Lauras had
been sung and celebrated, many a female heart
that now pants for the reputation of a belle, would
be easy in the enjoyment and diffusion of some
more tranquil and more attainable happiness.
Many a man who now annoys mankind by hi"
efforts at some sert of violent pre-eminence, who
seeks, if not to extort our respect or approbation,
at least to force himself upon our knowledge and
compel as to be familiar with his name; many a
man of this kind might have been a saint and a
sage in private life, had the finger-posts of his in?
fancy pointed him the way to independence.?true
independence; that loftiest and most perfect con?
dition of the soul, which only can place a man
^bove mankind; can teach him to measure his
faculties with his duties, and do truly and quietly
rhatwhich he can mo3t effectually; andean pro?
cure to'him sometimes the reward of that " self
approving hour," when he feels in the still small
voice that says to him well done," the direct in?
spiration of bis God.
It is a detestable heresy and one for which po?
ets chierV anil r??p?nsib!e, which teaches that
there is no scope for great talent in private B*V?
The mute Milton must be reproached that he is
also inglorious; the guiltless Cromwell is set in
our estimation at a pin's fee in comparison with
the guilty one. A presumption of inferiority is
deduced from the want of notoriety, success be?
comes thus invidious, and bad feelings are gene?
rated which cause half the misery of society. AH
this is wrong. It is in private life that the human
mind is most generally destined and designed to
net; it is thitherward that its highest qualities
tend?it is there they must seek their natural exer?
cise, their appointed tasks, and their reward. It
is there that poetry should follow them; there it
should seek the undisguised, unstudied man, in
the freshness, the originality, the rich variety of
nature. The mask, the costume, the grimace of
public life are gone; the monotony of etiquette and
affectation have given place to the play of feeling,
the ebbs and flows of passion, and the modes,
phases and phantasies, and caprices, that succes?
sive hours and days, and time, and chance, bring
with them. Btrt sock and buskin courage, rhetor?
ical patriotism, and scenic Ice, have had their
day ; our relish of them is gone, and we even hute
thorn, except indeed in the fresh simplicity of
those earliest bards who sang when everything:
was new.
' The Angel of Tears ' betrays a good, healthy
tone of thought and feeling, but is decidedly infe?
rior in point of grace and tastete previous papers
by the same author. ' The Ancient Feudal and
Modern Banking System,' 'C C. Cambreling,'
and a 1 Financial Article,' are the political papers
of the month. A well written paper gives us some
fine sketches of the 4 Folitical Theorists of the
English Commonwealth'; we quote the following
notice of one of the noblest among them :
The name of Algernon Sidney is one hallow?
ed by the noblest exertions, ending in martyrdom,
in the cause of liberty. Justly and with an honest
enthusiasm might Wordsworth exclaim, in one of
his sonnets dedicated to Liberty,
" Ungrateful country, if thou e'er forget
The smis who for thy civil rights have hied!
Ho-x like a Roman, Sidney bor-c;! nit head."
Sidney realizes oiuuidea of Brutus, whom he
took for his model. ~ The same irascible temper,
a similar devotion to liberty, the same contempt of
death distinguish the two patriots. Though most
zealous for a commonwealth, he must not be con?
founded with the devoted udherents of Cromwell,
for he became a strong enemy of the Protector on
his as<umption of supreme power. Like the ad?
mirers of Napoleon tho first Consul, but the de?
termined opposers of Napoleon the Emperor, he
left Cromwell, when he thought he saw his ambi?
tion predominating over his regard to public good.
From his earliest years Sidney was imbued with
republican principles, ulm.>-t romantic in their
scope and tendency ; and on the scaffold, though
denying to the last the justice of his sentence, be
delighted to suffer for the " good old cause.1'
Though appointed one of the judges who condem?
ned Charles I., for some reason or other he was
not present, nor did he sign the death-warrant.?
Shortly after, he-was appointed a captain in the
Parliamentary urmy; but after the nomination of
Cromwell to the Protectorate, he threw up his
commission, and would receive no employment
from him, or his son Richard. Under the Parlia?
ment, which assumed the powers of the govern?
ment on the retirement of the Protector's' succes
j sor, Sidney was sent as a commissioner to Sweden,
to mediate in a negotiation between that nation
and Denmark. From this he soon after returned,
and on the Restoration passed over to France.?
Here he remained until an act of oblivion shelter?
ed him from the reyal displeasure, upon which he
returned to his native country. In England his
active mind kept him busy in agitating political
schemes and discussing point* of policy. At
I'enshurst, celebrated us the family sea: of the
Sidneys, he composed his Discourses upon Govern?
ment. Upon these his reputation as a political
writer depends. The sentiments th y contain are
purely republican, drawn from the most enlighten?
ed historical reflections ; and as for his style, we
have the euloginm of Coleridge, who speaks of
him as disclosing the gentleman in every line.
His trial and execution appears without any suf?
ficient ground of justice, and must be ascribed to
a desire to crush one of the noblest spirits of his
time; and were almost as flagrant as tho trial and
execution of the admirable Lord Russell. It is
possible, however, that mistaken ardor may have
led him into intrigues, at the consequences of
which his soul would naturally have revolted, had
he seen them with a temperate eye. His charac?
ter has been drawn by Burnet, with such accuracy
of coloring, as to supersede the necessity, if it did
not rebuke the presumption, of a new portrait.?
" He was," says the Bishop, " a man of most ex?
traordinary courage; a steady man even to obsti?
nacy; sincere, but of a rough and boisterous tem?
per tbatconid not bear contradiction. He seemed
to be a Christian, but in a particular form of his
own; he thought it was to be like a divine philoso?
phy in the mind : but he was against all public
worship, and every thing that looked like a church.
He was stiff to all republican principles; and such
an enemy to every thing that looked like mon?
archy, that he set himself in a high opposition
again3t Cromwell when he was made Lord Pro?
tector. He had studied the history of government
in all its branches, beyond any man 1 ever knew."
Alexander H. Everett contributes a brief no?
tice of Mrs. Sigourney, Whittier a fine Poem on
the late Dr. Folien, and the number contains seve?
ral other pleasing papers.
OS* The Magnet, No. 3, devoted to Magnetic
Science, has just been issued, Rev. La Roy Sun
derland, Editor; E. H. Brown, publisher, 133
Fulton-st.
C33 J. Orville Taylor has published a capi?
tal 1 Common School Almanac for 1843." If
we had not mislaid our copy we would say more
about it; as it is, we ask the friends of Education
to read and circulate it.
The Histoky or Fiction. Being a cr?tk-?I account of the
rnt?t cH-bra;-,i Prose Works of Fiction, from the
t.ari;cst Greek Romances w ^e Nr-Ve? of" the Pieseot
Day. By John Runup. In two volume*. Phi ndei
phia : Carey It Hnit. New-York: Wiley it Putmtr.i.
This is an exceedingly interesting and tu tho
literary student a very valuable work. The his?
tory of Fiction, as urged ia the Introduction, is of
great worth to the philosopher who would read,
aright the devclopemeats of the human mind, and
the aspects of the successive stages of socif.y.?~
Thougii tho work* of Fiction tn every age serve*
mainly .>s sources of pleasure an*'. tarvlj mix with,
tbo higher intellectual achievements uf Ui? time,
they afford, perhaps, a better index of ;ho pro
vailing temper of the age?the peculiar phase of
its social existence, and the customs and manners
by which it is to b? remembered than the prouder
and more worthy achievements of high Art or of
rigid scientific investigation. Much of the lifo of &
century is embodied in the fictions to which it ha*
given birth ; and these therefore become fit subjects!
of srudy to the mau who would read the age aright.
This work of Mr. Da7NLAr is universally received
as the best of the kind ever written. In the ?ng>
j iish language, indeed, it has no rival; and the
I French works upon the same subject are far infe?
rior to it in the comproheusiveness of its aim and
j the elegance and success with which it is marked.
Fiction is traced to its birth-place in eariy Greek
and its principal productions down to the time at
which the authors wrote are examined with criti?
cal ability seldom equalled.
Thk Christian Review, No. XXVII, September, 18*5.
Boston: Goul J. Ken?lall Si Lincoln. New-York: H. ft
S. Raynor, 76 Bo*ery.
* Christian Doctrine tho sole Basis of Christian
Morality ? is the title of the leading article in this
Review. It is long, able and valoable, and is fol?
lowed by a very interesting notice of the Lift and-*
Writings of W. B. Homer, a young man of ex*
traordinary abilities and acquirements, who died!
recently, but a short time after finishing a-dieo
logical courso of study at Andover. Harris's
' Great Commission ' is reviewed, as also the Lifo
of Dr. Wilbur Fisk,' Watland's ' Thoughts
on College Education,' and Dr. Humphrey's
l Letters to a Son in the Ministry.' 4 Swedenbor
gianism ' is the subject of another article.
George St. Cf.orge Julian, the Prince: By Renkt
Cockton. Author of4 Valentine Vox.'1 Stanley Thorn,'
Jtc. Complete in One Volume. With nuf emus Hins?
trations. (Pp. 360, l2mo.) Carey k Hart. New-York;
Wiley k Putnam.
There is a good deal of fun and dashing adven?
ture in this book, and it will be read with gusto by
many ; but, though the author tells us it is a moral
work, and intended to put the pnblic on their
guard agaiust all manner of swindlers by means of
4 Banks,' 4 Companies,' we imagine that con
siderably less profit than amusement will bo ex?
tracted from it. Those who have read 4 Stanley
Thorn ' ami 4 Valentine Vox' will know what it is
heforo eyeing it.
The Plain Calculator: Being an Elementary Arithme?
tic, based on the Inherent Properties of Numbers: By
Lewis Joerrks. Professor of Mathematics, from Russia.
Philadelphia: Morly, Orr it Lippincott. {pp. S?.)
This work evinces a profound acquaintance with
the Philosophy of numbers, ao to speak; but wo
think it. less ' Plain' and easy for learners than
several which are better known.
From the Democratic Review.
John Quincy Adams.
Our attention is now nttracteci to a ray of light
that glitters on the apex of a bald head, 4 located'
on tho left of the House, in the neighborhood of
the Speaker's chair. It proceeds from thut won
doiful man who in his person combines the agita?
tor, poet, philosopher; statesman, critic and ora?
tor?John Q. Adams. Who that has seen him
sitting beneath the cupola of the hill, with the.
rays of light gathering and glancing about his sin?
gularly polished head, but has likenod him to ono
of tbo luminaries of the age shining nnd glitter?
ing in tho firmniopnt of the Union? There he sits
h?ur after hour, day after day, with untiring pa?
tience, never absent from his seat, never voting
for an adjournment, vigilant as tho most zealous
member of the House, bis ear ever on the alert,
himself always prepared to go at once into the
profoundest questions of State, or the minutest
points of order. What must bo his thoughts as
he ponders upon the past, in which he has played
a part so conspicuous.' We look athimand mark
his cold and tearful eye, his stern and abstracted
gaze, and conjure up phantoms of oth'T scenes.?
We see him amid his festive and splendid halts
years back, standing stiff and awkward, nnd shak?
ing a tall military looking man b) the hand, in
whose honor the gala was given, to commemorate
the most splendid of America's victories. We see
him afterward the bitter foe of the sume 4 military
chieftain,' and the competitor with him for tho
highest gift of a free people. We look upon a
more than king, who has filled every department
of honor in his native land, still at his pos*; ho
who was President of millions, now the "Repre?
sentative of forty odd thousand, quarrelling about
trifles or advocating high principles. To-day
growling nnd sneering at tbe House with an aboli
liori petition in his trembling hand, and anon lord?
ing it over the pussions, and lushing the members
into tbe wildest state of enthusiasm by bis indig?
nant and emphatic eloquence. Alwne, unspoken
to, unconsulted, never consulting with others, be
sits apart, wrapped in bis reveries ; and wiih his
finger resting on his nose, be permits his mind to
move like a gigantic pendulum, stirring up the
hours of the past, and disturbing those of tho hid?
den future; or probably he is writing?his almost
perpetual employment?but what7 whocan guess?
Perhaps some poetry in a young girl's album ! He
looks enfeebled, but yet be is never tired; worn
out, but ever ready for combat; melancholy, but
let a witty thing fall from any member, and that
old man's face is wreathed in smiles; be appears
passive, but woto the unfortunate member that haz?
ards an arrow at him; the eagle is not swifter in
flight than Mr. Adams; with his agitated finger
quivering in sarcastic gesticulatiuns, he se'r/es on
his foe, and, amid the amusement of the House,
be rarely fails to take a signal vengeance.
His stores of special knowledge on every sub?
ject, garnered up through the course of bis extra?
ordinary life, in tbe well arranged storehouso of a
memory which is said to have never yet permitted
a single fact to escape it, gives him a great advan?
tage ever all comers in encounters of this kind.?
He is a wonderfully eccentric genius. He belongs
to no party, nor does any parry belong to him.?
He is of too cold a nature to be long a party
leader. He is original?of very peculiar ideas,
and perfectly fearless and independent in express?
ing and mentioning them. He is remarkable for
bis affability to young persons; and surrounded by
them at his own table, he can be as hilarious and
happy as the gayest of them. For one service at
leasr, his country owes him a debt uf gratitude:
I refer to the fine illustration which he offered of
the true character of our institutions, when he
passed from the Presidential palace to his present
post on the floor of the House of Representatives.
Though the position which be has there made his
own, may not be that which hi* friends might
wish to see him occupy in that body, yet in every
point of view tbe example was a fine one.
His manner of speaking is peculiar; he rises
abruptly, his face reddens, and, in a moment,
throwing himself into the attitude of a veteran
gladiator, he prepares for the attack ; then he be?
comes full of gesticulations, bis body sways to and
fro?self-command seems lost?his head is beat
forward in his earnestness till it sometimes almost
touches tbe desk; his voice frequently sbaltcs, but
be pursues bis subject through all its bearings;
nothiHg daunts him?tbe House may ring with
cries of order?order !?unmoved ?contemptuous
?he stands amid tbe tempest, and like a00**
that knows its gnarled and knotted strength,
stretches his arms forth and defies the blast.

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