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New-York tribune. (New York [N.Y.]) 1866-1924, January 01, 1880, Image 2

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THE YE]
A CIRCUIT OF THE WOBIfi'S HISTOBT.
RtlVIKW OP TUE POUTICAL HI8T0ET OP AasXBJCA
ANS ECROPK DITRINO TUE PAST YKAE-*. CTB1E
INO CONTRAST BKTWBEIt VHK UKITITD BTATEa
AND THE OLD WELD?CROWN Ufa argBXTg OP
A RBJIA BEADLE YEAS.
Eighteen hundred and sevcntjBiine bas
been a year of unexampled prmptAy en one
aido of the Atlantic, and of comrrXi inl rie
prcssJoe and eociai aud political reUeasnesa
on tho other. In tb* United Bta1fc^t<<<
crowning net of public faith, the resumpftu
of specie, paymenta, baa been su<*easfully -sau
rocapliahed, and National honesty haa been
domonatr;Ud to br the beat policy by the gen?
eral revival of buainesa, toe development of
borne industries ajid the refunding of a large
snare of tbe public indebtedness. True to ira
instinct*, tbe political party which baa periiat
ently advocated measures of financial dishonor
baa shifted ita ground to the ballot-box uud
Canvassing Board, and by ita cipher telegrams,
ita revolutionary course in Congress and its
public filching in Maine bas shocked the moral
eensiuflities of the North. In the Old World
tl*aamJR?v? been scant harvests and shrinkages
hlajHfesflBrd enterprise. In England aud lie
last Wat* bas Wren something like a collapse
of agrWartnral Interests, and the termination
of two foreign wars haa been awaited with
tgfjagttience. In Germany an economic revolu
tJoR bas been wrought, and in Austria there
lana been a general upheaval in politic*. Two
diabolical attempt* to kill thc Czar have illus?
trated the anomalous condition of Russian so?
ciety. In Fronce and Belgium the irrepress?
ible conflict between Church and State has
boon renewed, and in Spain tbere baa been a
reactionary change of Cabinet*. The Triple
-Alliance hus fallen to pieces end Germany
?nd Austrc-IIungary hu ve formed a diplo
.matin combination which gives them a pre?
dominating influence ou the Continent. It
liasbee.i a changeful year in the destinies of
tbe world.
UNITED MATES.
This has kana for A ?ricans nu honest year, for
the Government batt kept ita pledges aud redeemed
ita notes in coin. On the firM day of resumption
th? Treasury paul out f 130,000 in gold and received
$400,000. From tbe outset tho ability af tbe Gov?
ernment to meet ita floating obligations m ruin waa
manifest, und the demand upon the Treasury for
gold aud silver in exebanff?? for Uuited Stat< s notes
was expetilimrlv small. On January 1 the reserve
at coln wai $i:U>.vm,?v.?t 50. During the next ten
months United States note* amounting to
$11,250,078 were presented forretlemplion, and the
net balance of coin available for resumption in
creaewi to $ir.2,737.1.V> -1?. At that time the im
port* of specie amounted to $01,479,007, af which
$56,300,094 had boen received since the hrs' of
August, mid mainly from the Hank of Franee. Hy
the middle af December the specie imports had gmie
above $8:t.000,000. At the close of the Bara! yeal
the excess of exports over imports waa $204.061,600.
Thisexceas has not been met. as dunn*- the four
preceding years, mainly hy remittances ol Uuited
t .ates securities, bnt in good part by shipments of
specie.
The resnmption of specie payments anti the in
rreoae in loreign trade have been net om panted by a
general revival ol business. It has I teen a year ol
bountiful harvests ami commercial prosjierity.
Every form of industrial enterprise luis felt thc im?
petus ; immigration has increased; the settlement
of the Fur West has gone on apace ; and the volume
of business iii the mm.eta: v and commercial ex?
changes has o.>*u oeor.uotte. Dunne October tbe
speculative movement la the New-Ynrk Stork Ux
rhan?e was at the rate, of Kxi.txiii shares, with a
)iar value of $40,000,000, per diem; and duringa
pingle week ni Ntive-nbet share* with a par value ul
J350.OOO.0O0 rliaiiaed hatuls. The sale of 200,000
shares of Central nnd Hndsmi Block Nte in that
month, !>v William H. Vanderbilt, toa syndicate of
foreign hankers and munsters and lo the owners of
tbe Wabash system, was a finaneial transaction nf
"stupendous proportions. The failure nf Archbishop
Purcell was a large opel il iou ol u different cLarai ter.
RKPirXIHNU.
The in -p; iiveiiiem- of pub lie cn tl it during the
year has Boee in?licate<l by the BBflgnituda of the ic
fuotlina operation*. On January 21 $16,000,000
ol four per cent bonda? ero taken hy aSyndioate. On
April 4 the Banangal of live-twenty bonds outstanti
!?? waa$50,805,700, und this was aovnrrd hythe
day'saobsenptionsto the fmir per cent loan; with nd
ditioBal bulb for $00,019,soo inesceasof tbesun ie
quired. '1 here being no athol six per cent buud* re?
deemable, the convers.ou of thc five per cents was
completed ou April 17 by subscriptions ol
I149.38il.050 to the lour per cent loan. 1 ht-se opera
Ciorja etrablod the Secretary <>f the Tr.-asttt j tn re
port in Doocmbor asavingof $9,355,r*77 50 in in?
terest by the refunding- ttince November, 23, 1878,
of f370.?48,750of sixes mid ?19n,S90.U50 of fives.
The lours have been Bold in small sums aud are
now held mainly in the United States. The reduc?
tion of the rate of Interest in this State from 7 to 0
par cent will take effect ta flay
Theopeuingof the hutro Tunnel, the completion
of the Mississippi jetties, aud the laying ol a new
tranaatlautie cable, have lieen among the great
enterprise* of the year. The In*-"ioceanic Canal
CoaurraaB at Parla was at feuded bv .? American del
r-gation, turf their distmctive plana s ara reieictedand
tba tide level scheme of Oe Lam , ?'" the Napol?
eon Wyso was adopted. The in i amicability of
this project has been demonstrated Iv the recent
nooda on the Isthmus, and the prospect* of the ea*>
strootion of a water-wsv timmali Nicaragua nre
uow favorable. The outbreak of yellow fever at
Memphis caused momentary alarm throughout the
oont*try, but the ravnaosof the disease were cou
fined to that centre ol infeetion.
Tiir CAVCrs CAMPARI*.
The demoralization wrought by thc publication
td tho cipher dispatches and the overwhelming de
feataof XofaajaW* increased the desperation of the
Democratic leaders. Thc evidence ta.\eu bv tbe
Potter Committee early in tho year established thc
accuracy of The 'I ntBtJtn's translations, Bnd
tbe stock in trade of tat- party?aUegations of
fraud in the Presidential elertioit?became
?0 utterly worthless as to pi umist- iKihucgjH
bankruptcy. Under these ciuuinsta|$|fl the]
?Democratic Caucus determined to opedlha flood?
gates of fraud at elf coota. The eJJeacpt to foist
partisan riders upoB tte regular appropriation
bills waa stonily laalatoa by the Republican miuor
ity, and the XUTtb Coagreaa cam* to anfod, with
the Army and tb* Leetalative, EseenttTe and Judi?
cial bills still on the table. Tho main issues which
caused tbe dead-lock were these: In Ihe Army
MU tho prohibition of the presence of troops at
galluig-plaoes; and in tbe other appropriation hill
tba repeal of the Southern jnroiV test-oath and of
tba provision for the payment of United States
HuBorviaore of Elections. The majority report of
tba Potter Committee waa'presented at the cloae of
1 his disgraceful session and by giving Mr. Tilden a
ceittteate of character virtually committed the
Democratic party to his leadership during tbe next
Presidential canvas*. At the same time the Teller
Committee pointed tbe moral of the fraud policy hy
rap ar tong ou tho genera! use of tisane ballots in
tbe South Carolina election.
The XLVIth Congress cou ve ned ou Msrch 18,
with a Democratic majority In each bonne, to com?
plete the work whicn tba caucus had left undone.
Alter tho reeroctlottoi tbe Speaker and tbe organ?
isation ol both houaes, tba rerolutiooary programme
of the previous Congress waa carried to even mater
lengths. Tba Demoeratio leaders threatened to
leave tue country without troop* and without Na?
tional judicial oansoss nnleaa they ware allowed to
?BjflManl the emyleyantiat ot* troops at the polls and
to abrogate the f unctions of supervisors, marshals
and deputy marahala at eaeetiooa. Tba Republican
minority stood Arm. and tbe President, la his admir?
ably drawn veto as ams gea, stripped toe Demoeratio
aHERRRUtt s.1 tb* UttaeMM teni kaw taaaonwbkhU
possessed. Late in April the President vetoed the
Army hall en the grounds that the existing statutes
provide again*}the danger of military interference;
that political legislation iugttt not to bej...ited
upon appropriation bills; and that tbe Federal Gov?
ern mont, haa tao right to control election*. H',h?
veto of the Military Interference bill eArly In May
was founded npon tbe nnanswerable at ku mont that
it wonld impair the efficiency of tbe Executive, and
that from the feandatian ol the Government the
Power which tbe Caucus was seeking to abrogate
bad been exercised. Kally in June the f resident
vetoed tbe Legislative. Executive and Judioial Ap?
propriation bill, with Ita rider repealing the provis
lonsof the Enforcement act relating to the powers of
tnnrshnls, d 4rT."* -marshals and supervisors of elec?
tions. Ile distinctly reasserted the right ol the
Federal Goveifaneut to it-ijulate Congressional
e'^clions. In reply to these vetoes tho House
Judiciary Committee presented an offensive report
rebuking the President fur presuming to call
Congress to task f >r attaching partisan
riders to appropriation bills. Alter the President's
course had been fully sustaiued by the lb-publi?
cans in each House, the Democratic Caucus, being
at itt wits' end, ordered an ignominious back-down.
The Army bill was passed without material altera?
tion, and the P. dent sigued it on the ground that
lt deprived him of no real power. The Judicial Ap?
propriation bill was vetoed innsmnch as it gave him
uo power to execute the Electiou laws. The hill
waa then divided, and the section providing for cer?
tain expenses was sinned. The other section, by
which the payment of marshals and deputy-marshals
was conditionally provided lor, was vetoed, A ses?
sion, in which tho repeal of the duty on the salts
and sulphate of quinine was almost tho only useful
ineusnre, came to au end .lime 90, After months of
Caiu-ns conspiracy, thc Democrat* hail gained thia
saudi point: the appropriation lor the rxpeu.-.-sof
marshals and deputy-marshals was withheld. Hap?
pily, tbere was no flnanrial locislutton, owing to Mr.
bayard's reluctance to report the -warner silver
bdl.
THK Et.MTIOXs.
The mingled fofclinga of contempt aud alarm
which the revolutionary Booree of the Democratic
leader* excited tbroutriiout the whola North lound
expression in the r ate Venous of the Autumn
In Maine, Ohio. New-Y.<rk. Pennsylvania, Massa?
chusetts, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Nebraska, l?>wa,
ronneciicnt and Sfew-Jersey Ihe ancceaaoi thc Tfe
publiean party was unt qui vocal. When Congress
reassembled in December the majority were re?
luctant I- renew the Btraggle in which they lind
sustained so humiliating a defeat, ami accordingly
t!ie session has opened tamely, lu Maine, bowevt r,
tbeeancnapolicy of promoting frand at thc jmiIIr
has been supplemented by a conspiracy whereby a
minority legislature is to he couuted-in, Biitl a
minority United Mates Renato! ami tninrin State
ofiiccrs "ure to he elected by thc Fusion party.
The only change in the. Natl wal Adtniiiudration
haa been the appointment of Alexander Ramsey a.i
Secretary ol War in place ol Swretait MrCrury,
trauaferred to the bench. The IVriin Mission waa
accepted by President Andrew White after it had
ben declined by Whitelaw Reid.
ruinn m. i msoOKs.
The adoption ol a Constitution io t'aliiomia is
one of the most significant episode* in American
polities, lt restricts citizenship to natives tn foi:
eignersuol of Mongolian Mootl.j?r?hibifB corpora
liona from employing Chinese i.iho rec ulai cm gas
;:ntl telegraph rbarges, stock specnliitioii nud stock
watering, taxation ol mortgages and legislative
corruption,and in nain otherrespect i- tim mist
uiiomalniis body 'if laws ever frumi ri, The pibinni
excitement in lbs Stale was increased by tin- de?
bates in Congress on Hie Anti-Chinese bill, which
was vetoed by the President on constitutional
grounds, ami bv the al tempi made b.\ De You;.J,
editor ot a San Francisco newspaper, to kill
Mr. Kal lor h, the workingmen's candidate for
Mayor. Another polilu-aJ episode was thc riot
in ' Yuanu City, early in August, st!.en
Colonel Dixon anti tim e others, who kati announced
tl.cir intention ol partirlpatinc in the lueal rnnvas*
irrespectively of t lie wishes of tho regular Demo?
cratic organizations, warr wailed upon by a mob,
aud compelled lo renountie their political aspira?
tion*, ll.foie th" < h-ct lott-D'Sj in rti-iimeii bis place
ni the canvass, and was shoi by one ni his rivals.
I'wo mouths aiterwanl tinily, wh'i was rnarged
! wito complicity in the murder ol Cornel't
I Chianina, waa a qtiittc.l in Remper Ci utity. l?m
iug the brat four mont aa of tbe yen s.r.tm cobired
Linen arrived nt Si. L?uis trom the South,
western Nt atna on thru wu) to Ka naas, rbisiutfr*
State mijfraiton ol the col it-il race reused a punic
among s-outh-ni pl tilters, and Bieasorrn were ut
j once taken to coi.nitr.ict the movement, lit Ibo
Autumn the exodus ".ts n- urned, ami a similar t li?
re, if wa- s'-t in motion Inn North t arotilia loll, io
I and Indiana. Many ol lb* ??? rmigrauls wen tll
l>io;?are'i for the uiidertakni --. and were ut t, i r\- iles
tittil,? when tint strived at .nen new ho . -. Willie
tUiN hu- lieen essentially ?? p.mle i -icm--ii til of
population, it.-- gcii'-ral ? fl'- f li ? ??> bet n ls nett, ia! to
l>oth races :u thc .South.
INDIAN RAIDS.
There hive been three Indian outbreaks, one of
them finite serious. N. C. Meeker, the Auent al
White Uiver on the western roalilieaoi Colorado,
appealed lo Ihe Ooverntueul for proR dion against
a ftortioii of h;? charge, who were uttering resistant *
to bia agricultural oo< rations. M :joi Thornhnrgli
wit h Three companies ol rat airy, whi ie on the him i eli
to tbe station, fell int" an ambuscade, and the com
Blander and ? loveii soldier-wcie killed. Thc cav?
alry were Mtbaeonently reinforc* il hy n ron pu nv ol
coloretl men, and the whole roi.i mauri wa* resent ri
bv Colonel Merritt, af'er a lo tl march. Who
lue Agency was reaih?d?i! I'-IoIh-i ll. Meeker**
budy waa found. Tbe baibliuioi had '.t-.n buruedi
tho white women carr.ed into captivity um! tlu.
men butchered in cold biood. The :.t. otiationa lor
the surrender of the murderers ba*enut y. t Iw-en
crowned with success, ami prave apprehension- are
entertained of un alliance between the Binn* pud
L'trs and tho outbreak of a new Indian war. Tbe
other raids were those of die Cheyenne* of Dull
Knife's hand, and of Vu iona at the Mesctleiu
Afccncy in New-Mexico.
THE BBlTlBX EMPIRE.
GBEAT BRITAIN*.
This has been a year of disenchantment for tba
English people. Their mililary resources have Imm-ii
?trained by two urotraeied campaigns into which
they ware dragged again*) their will. Their debt
paying instincts have been .docked by aUoveru*
mont which has eontinued th.- practice of rolling np
big bills and paaaiug them over to ito successors in
office. Their patience with a |*">h<iy which increases
their responsibilities un tl multiplies theireiirhiiira.su
iuenl.s without giving them any substantial com
ptmillen in the TJodllarTaecnn. in A-ia Minor, in
Aighaniatan or in South Africa, is well-nigh ex?
hausted? Tbe Nation has hagan to count the coat
of Imperialism anti to wonder whether it would not
be bottoi tn havu a Government w huh pays its way
BO it goes, albeit it may have less presume mihi
diplomatic centres of Kuiope. "
PAELia MEXTaBY DEBATE*. 1
Parliament rcasbctnb'.ed in Febr-UAry, after Janey.
Oula, the Ministry being upulo^cU|Bp4he openlof
ki-oceeoiuga very mme. One of^jHa first issues on
Which the partied measured their strong! h wag the
Zulu war- Tis- Liberal reaolutloji ol censure sup?
ported the Government In all measures for defend*
lug its possessions, but expressed regret that thc ul
tiu.aiuiu had been presented to ,ho King without
the authority of the re>-pousi> la advisor- of Usa
Crown, and that hostilities should huve Ix-i-n j.re
eipitatcd without netc**ity and without adequate
preparation. Hie Government tscaped with a vote
of 306 to 240 in the Commoi s. This majority
ufterward rose from (W) oa Sir Charles Dilke's mo?
tion to 7~> OE Mr. Kvl.inii's, perl.tining lo the fin-iti
t lal nolie v. In the subsequent detntes on the Pre?
rogative* of tbe Crown, indisn Finance, and Army
J iisoipline, the Liberals wt re bailly led. Parliament
was prorogued on Aucnst IS, utter the aeesetanca
ol- an equivocal Huriget, tho pnsssire of a
liankinc act, an Irish Ctnversity bill, und
the Army lb-i inline act, ami the uppeiiniuei.t ufa
Boy al Commission on the Bourees ol Agricultural
bepiession. While tbe Government hus krui its
majorities uuiuipuii. >i, it is uutiiiostoiiubly weaker
Inion- the country limn lt was a twelvemonth sko.
Tbe municipal electijus held thii>u>hont England
on November 1 were unfavorable to the Conserva
tives. jud Mi.Gladstone's tri un iphal progress riming
his elei t i.;al campaign in Midlothian, where he ha*
undertaken to supplant Loni Hm?<-lench, has shown
thal the popularity ol Lord Heat misfield"* adminis?
tration is waiting. Lord lim i n.uion still retains
the titular leadership of the tba Liberals, bot it is
loamiest that the rank and uJo of the party are anx?
ious to enter the next canvass auder tbe guidance
of a Statesman like Mi. Gladstone, who will chal?
lenge the whole system of government lol lowed hy
tbe Administration. It is oot oiobshle that Parlia?
ment will t>e dissolved until tbo close of the session
next August. Lord Derby will undoubtedly act
with the Liberals in the next canvass.
tMTEEMAL DISOUDKIIA.
The commercial depression in Great Britain has
been vary dense, and has resulted from bad trade,
worse erupa auden inifuitous land system, lu Ire-1
i i. a ?L-aasJHa^
land, the discontent eaaaed hy the agrleuRaaml iii
tress and tba condltleaai af land tenure hut Roi--1
minuted in an acrariau movement Of eonssiaaab!
proportions. Charles Parnell's prominence aa an
Obstructionist in Parliament haa enabled mea to
control the action of the Home Rulera, to aummon
a National Convention lu the face of MltoheO
llenry's opposition, and to aspire to the rete of
O'Connell af tbe leader of the Irish mosses. The
recurrence of agrarian outrages, and the violence
of some of tbe harangues made to the peasant./,
impelled tbe Government to ord<w the arrest of
four of the chief speakers. These prosecutions hsvo
checked the disorders temporarily, at Mst, but
hava alienated from thc Government the sympa?
thies of Irish voters whose prejudice* had been
favored by the University bill as well bs by tho
Intermediate Education act of the preceding year.
In March, Prince Arthur, Duke ol Connaught,
married the daughter ol Prince Frederick Charlo*
of Pmstdu. Daring tba Autumn the sons of tho
Prince of Wales set out on" a vovage around the
world. The death of young bonaparte in the
brush of Zululand was mourned ostentatiously at
Court, and the outburst of sentimentsl'ty was so
r' mug that Dean Stanley gave his consent to the
erection of a monument in WesttiMiister Abbey.
The scheme waa reconsidered, however, before the
susceptibilities ol the French Republicans hud
been seriously wounded. The British Mercantile
fleet hassulicreri from a series of wrecks and dis?
asters dunne ibo year?tbe loss of tbe Horns/ ia on
November VII) bciiiK the most conspicuous calamity
?and within a week a section of the magnificent
brid ire over the Firth of Tay liss gone down in ii
Storm sml cairied with it a railway train lilied with
Passengers,
THE ZULU WAR.
Tlie campaign m Zuiulaiitl is one of the most fla?
grant crimea in British history. Under the pretext
that the security of the European settlers In Natal
was endangered bv the hostile relations between
the Zulus mill the Roers, the 1 hitch Republic of the
Transvaal had been annt-sed to the Crown; und
within n year the peace policf whit h had Worked BB
admirably Binca 1438 waa abandoned and au ulti?
matum which rendered war inevitable wau dis?
patched to Ce t* wayo. This ultimatum was board on
the Bartender of certain chiefs who bad been guilty
of depredations in Natal, the disbandment pf tho
Zulu army, the abolition of the marriage law, the
establishment ol a British resident iu Zululand, and
Compensation lor Dutch settlers who had been rom
pi-llu! lo abandon their farms. The main crimes of
which ('ely wayo was accused were the mai n te nance
of a well disciplined standing army and resistance
offered to land claims which alli it ish commission bad
admitted lo he utterly un tot: a ide. The real cause of
war erasa showy aebemeol colonial confederation
"Ireh S:r Hurtle Frere had been sent to South
Afticn to tarry into effect. Th" campaign wases
uiiin-e,-.-Mirv us it wa- anjnstlflable.
The tint- ment'oneri in the British ultimatum was
January ll. Al that lime Lord Chelmsford invaded
/. di land with a lorc< comprising R.O00 regulars,
f'oni J.(? ul io 6,000 volunteer*, annuli.mt 7,<lMliui
lives. As the campaign was originally planned, thc j
ul. ... ti vc po in I was lob-- (lie Kind's krna, at I 'nomi. '
nm! a concentric moven eui was lo lie made by thies
columns, under the command ol Colonel Wood, '
Colonel lVais'. i iiimI Lord Chelmsford himself. I
Willie the fnllllllllllriiT-in chief wilt li-culilioil ling ;
with tue ininti colutuii dliriuU t he lu-t week ol Juno- j
int, thc th tm lum nt which h..tl h. eu left in tamp ,
waa surprised al Isandula by Cetywavo's armj and
mu-siiereii to a man?I dirty ofnWnt, ."?7?> Kuropoana j
..ml .'.im? natives. A larae coiivoy ol military sui.- '
j plies i.-ll nun the han t.i ol lin- Zul.is. An attack :
I ii lum the p. -I of I;-.ike's linn wr* rcpnlveri. hm |
Lmd Cheltusfnr l's nluinn was comp-lied to retreat |
I aud active operations were stisj.i-titled, ('uli.iiei
\V.j bad a skirmish with tb<-enemy and retired tu
IliS lofinel t-lieutupiilent neill 1'trccht. I 'oloilei I't ii I -
, son, meanwhile, hail penetrated as far ns Kkowe
\ and thrown up eniretu-hmenta, and, notwitbataiid
i ing the i. -treat ol I be other columns, ret ii :u neil there
I nii'.i i:ji'. in April, winni the arrival ol re,iif?nre
1 me.its i nahleil fvutl Chelmsford t..di leal Hie Zulus
sud tn relieve the garrison, fm March .* ('?doini
? Wootl. having been beguiled min a emile raul.
j found himself eutrapp d, bm cul hw way t ul
through h.ml lulu mi.-.
1 h.-te were no v ut I a*" 30.0000 Iii iii- li lrm?i<* ii
the t'n ld, Bud Ihe <\|.eii-.e ol ila- ra hi pu i gu wm
t->tiiii:ited st n.imy millions. Fatly In .lune the
Home U ?v niitient miiI mit Sir Garnet v\o>le>
and i om'mr..led the military ami civil powers nf
N ital ami i'rsii?vual iu his hands. H-i. n- he
arrived al t!ie inml l.?rd ('io-linstor.1 won a signal
victory omi (etvwuMi. Ile had lusde a rerun
naisvsatici mi I'lundi' (tom ^tbe southwest, willi
S'ewdi.aie'-. d vision .vu! Wood's rlyine column:
and Mti> r in euKBgetnrnl lastina one hourbsd routed
the Kiug'sarmy, Ceiywavohimself wu* raptured
on August I."*, ia the nuthessteni corner ot Zulu
hivt^bt -i 'letiic'inn i.t . I the I '/.ur.em liniM,. His
suldii rs had dessrtt ri hi n, ami hui.milton! r, ts Inch ;
-v i- bus- ti entirely ii j'on li- military powt r, w.-?. un
lunge) reo.-i.i7.il. Hi (..t'lit-i Will* h-y, lui
ileUitoi.eil thc King i-iiri e i-i him into s million ?
I ir i -a, i r.i it i. ? tl t in rlnel ul vii n ti. li lies to rea*.
inipoi i ni.: uius, ti entourage einiRtatiou sud lo j
icier disputes Ui two lb, I mu agents. l>iiim< the I
l ema ii, ni I ul Hie Veal lu- im^ lanni oi lipted io mn- j
dilating thc ll ht-, Kn Ivm* the I'miili* sm! drte.it
inij M-vi-ial s irhne i i it-. Moft't i's Mon ii i am w -^ '
carried bj storui ni No*eml*r, mid ."erm-oei.i v. ,i->
luken prisoner. Ihe los-ia couimue ina stale of
gn ..t i-i- .1 un nt.
1IIK \Ki.ll.\N i AM PA KIN.
WI en the yeal o{?en?-ri liner Itnt i?li col iii ii amino ;
bonne ii.'i.iiiwi ii,en wei,- in motioii. Kol-erts was '
attn' I. mu' tb< hi! nun intheKhoM Valley, Urnwne j
waa balling at Jehilabad, ard Sti-wart wt- mernie !
ing Cniriabut. Alli I Un- is . upatit u nf Ihe Kum in ?
Valley ami Candaluir, ami Hie disbi ami deuth ol
Shire Ali, neg.it int mn* were op.-nnl with Vakooh
Khun ami ihe Irralj of (iunriainuk wa-si^tn-d. ll.
thin treaty At ghan stun wn- rcilm cd to tho b-vel of
a tiiioit-nx Male without liemg formally icim \. I
to thc llnlish CroBh. An Knvoy was admitted t-i
ihe c.ipitii', and the frou'iei was pu heil |prwmd sn I
u- to include Khybci i'aaa. Hie Kuruui and
Kho-t \ ulit v- aud Ute rommaiid ol < '.imlahar. 'J he
supremacy ol Great llritam a. t-stnl-lisht-tl si thu
expense ni a subsidy ul J Pill/IOU a yi ar tor the sitp
pori ut u guard.
The rejoicings in Ruglauri and India over tbe close
nf this brillteiul rampant!! nero prenislu rc, Du Sip.
(culbet ii several regiments lil the At..et l's tllMipH
re vol led. und a I lei extol I ihk trom lulu three mouth-'
pay, demanded the dismissal of the lirituih Knvoy,
who hail bern extremely eiiergelic iu protecting
friendly liibea. Il Vakooh Khan was aol
actually treacherous, ba was laiiit-heartrri
in the tb .'lice ol his gilesta, Ihe jiiu
iiuous region uta al larked Sir Louis favag
nari. four civilians and eighty guards, ami massa?
cred tliem to a man. Ibis revolt wm followed hy
sui uprising al Hi rat, am! the conquest of Aghan
Ulan biiiinie a uiilitnn ami political m-cessitv.
stewart w i- i.rib ret! t ? remain at Calida hnr. Ilrighl
to styonvtheu his force st Khyber, mid Kohrrt*,
wnh 5,MMi nu ii, to inuit h on Cabul from the Ku
mm Valley, int* transfer of baagagacaiuela from
Ciirduliai ennblid Kol-cits lo th set-nil thc Sliutigje
gunian Intern September anti to occupy Cabulfg
tkitober. lb re he established himself as military
go vern..i uno begun-to hangi mutinous sold iocs for
oompiicit.v in tba aasault upon lin ianhassy. Yu
koob Khan had already taken refuge in the British
camp and formally abdicated. Owing to tho ex?
treme rigor of the military government?Warrnu
Hastings lnmseli could not nave been more arbi?
trary in hi? methods?the hostility of tho Afghan
tribes was quickened, and before rt-info'eeiiicii's
could be received from in.ha Kolserta *s* run
flouted with lin,(Kin men and compelled to abandon
the 111>- und dahl t?r his life, lb- finally sucroodml
in utterh' roiniiiB them ami in regaining poss* sidon
of (.shoi, after re-establishing Ins eontmnnicstion*
with his hui-t- of sapialiaw. I',.e hiiiiui inn of Hie
Uritbtb. iilthi.ii di tm louger ciiticul, is fraugbl with
emliarraunients. Afghanistan is sin! to he con?
quered, stol when once ronquetrd il will have to be
permancutlr oceupwd sod admiuMiered,
INDIA.
An attempt hus luaiit) lute in the>eui lo usaaaai
nate the Viet roy. lt waa tbs work pf a luuutic and
wus apparently without political significance. He
hied st Lord Lytton front Cn- roadside, hut his
markamamuiip was even worse tiiatithatol asses
ams usually is.
The British Miadon waa wilhibawn from Manda
lay after month* of iiegoiialiou aud menace. Klug
Thee bau wa- iud albiwedan oiipon unity ol ptotll
mir hy the example of h. Afghan iv I iel*.
\\ hil. ihe Wu .,iun- nat. brou plojet Uns railwaj I
in Central Asia, Kui li-h suainrttrs an- srtuallj si
work un the Indian tnmtatr, 'lin- railrosattoward
Cautlahai hu- I cen tm-..e.I rapidly, and a broad
*Bugo lim- ia to be Dontiuard loroagb Khyber te
Jelaiabsd.
DOMINION OF CANADA,
Tho Conservative Admitiistrati.m broaght into
Pailuunciit iu March a larifl act framed on the
prim inls of protective retaliation ni:;iiii*t the
I'nitcd States. This act wan flna'li naa-ed with
ont mai' rial m<sltflcatioii. Sir John Macdonald,
siter i'liiliutiifiit hsri loitiiallv ceii.-.uri tl thsotlieisl
conduct of the Lh-utentnt-doveroor of (juebor,
recommended lils dismissal. I<onl Ix>tur declined
ft> take the rcspuiisibilily of such summary ac imo,
but referred the question to the Itiiti-h Colonial
Neerelarv. 'lae ilomo Uoveiumeut refuacd to m
terrene in tho eaoe, whereupon L**]P Rle ap
hBrvano tn tee ease, whereupon l
jointed Dr. EobttaOle as LetotWa
THE QEEMAN EMPIEE.
Berlin bas boon tbe diplomatic centre of Europe
daring the year. In January tbe abrogation of the
fifth article of the Treaty of Prague was announced.
Thia vu Mis stipulation tnat tbs populations of tbe
northern dtatriets of Behleawig, if they ever by free
vote should express the wish for reunion with Den?
mark, should be restored to that country. It was
inserted in the treaty at tbe saggestion of Napoleon
III., bnt was practically inoperative. In formally
renouncing the right to enforce this article, Artstro
Hungnry cut out of the treaty the only clause which
gave her the right to intervene in the s ff ni rs of tho
Fatherland. This bit of statecraft opened the way
for a new combination in European politics. l^
September Rismartk paid a vjk* to Vienna, and
was cordially received by Uta Iv,'Tor. tba Arch?
dukes, thc Chancellor nnd the Premiers. Thirteen
years after he bad duped the disciples of Metternich
anti diciatisl n humiliating peace, lu bound the two
Empires together in an offensive and defnnsive
ler.gue. Whether a cn ni me rei al as well a? a politi?
cal unc^ dynastic alliance wsvs formed, and whether
the stipulations between the two Courts were re?
titled to writing, are still open ouestions; but it is
certain that henceforth the twoLinpires, with their
70.000.000 people and :$.000,000 soldiers, conni
as one in the Hui kau Peninsula and on tho Conti?
nent.
While old foes have become new allies, old friends
have been entranced. Tho Austro-Gcnnau League
left thu third partner of tho Triplo Alliance in The
buckyrotinri. While tho relations lietween the Oar*
mau und Russian Chancellors have been clouded
since 1875.1 boreal Point of departure in tba di?
plomacy of thc Continent was the Treaty of San
Stefano. From that moment Ihe Three-Kmiieroi
League waa at an anti, and (iermanyaud Austria, by
nice, instinct sud interest, were natural nllirs.
Th re has been, however, no open flfaueh l>etween
lin- Russian mid tu-rman Courts, and both the Czar
and hm soua have been assiduous ni their attentions
to the aged sovereign al Berlin. Whatever may be
I'.i- nun i kn ulterior object, whether tbe equivalent
tor the Austrian provinces toward the Hoaphorrfa
will be thc dorman districts on iiu Leisha, or
w hellier another campaign with France is upprc
hendod, ho ts ibo commanding heme in Knrope, and
with Ins mysterious alliances, which stet all the
world agoir, he appeals to the patriotic pride of the
Fatherland.
DOMBBTIC POLITIC*.
In domestic legislation the Chancellor has won s
sciiesof remarkable successes. At the outset lie suf?
fered a defeat in the rejection of the Parliamentary
gagging lull, which aimed to lender words spoken i%n
debate punishable bv u special commission. The
Reichstag declined, looroover, to conseol to the ur
lest ami prosecution of the (Socialist deputies, l-'riiz
srho sud Hasselmann, the |ead<*r of the National
Lilierala declaring thaftbe Anti-Socialist bill wu i
not deslgnrd to cover Mich ofl'cucra, Even more rc
aettonary wss thc st brute of constitutional reform
which the chancellor unfolded siter the adjourn
incut of Ibu Keir hst ag. Il cont, in plated tin Mi'.-ti
| nt ion of hietinial for anuna) sessions of the Legis?
lature, ami released the U ore ru mont for two yean
from Parliamentary pontrol over expenditures.
While these iteastirea iinji,ure.1 the Chancellor's
popularity, the |>oliticnl t nmhination which he had
found iu order lo carry Iris Turill act through the
Keichstag wu* ton compact to ls" broken. Karly
in the Mir he had nrrteit tl a special Tariff Commis?
sion |o revise the i ustoins fs bcd n les, and nfl ci I wo
months ol 1.1.hm ni wruiiirling nml hedging
tho l.cich-t.-iB nv.- its consent to s rnriicnl ehiiturc
in thc 11..;. mi. polity ol the F.mpiic. lin- msjor
uv lu v, hat was it-ally a high lunfT, although il
was denominated a revenue isiiff, ran up to 100,
tin- Koiniin Catholic Centre, who had npuoscri tb"
Anti-Sot ia isl [lill, voting in the inujoriti with thc
Conserva 11 vi-s, while the National-Liberals wine lu
o hopi I ss mn.ol itv. I lu- t hal ci ll. t's political ob?
ligation* i-i Ihe Centre have not lu tu full) mel.
Iii,-.i iii, i ci! of I-i. F.ill. fi.-iii th- dliuisliy was
tin- '"ir--! in-talment, but lbs new Ciilius Minister.
von Cu'Kim merer, has not ti .ide I hr abject Mitre il. r
lo the Hi,'.ole. vt hit ll W;a.. I'tpeCteil J .Hld lieVntl.t
ii.uis arr -i. .1 peiidiitu iu n-gard to thc lorin ami ox
t. ni of lin- nilli..--, v to Ih atauini lo the rctu-Mas
lit - who li iv. - iffeied from repressive legislation.
Il, I lo i'll- . ; 'I- I i li co ill pl i UH isi h.i- h.-i ii i d', ltd
lu-t Weeli I'. Hill and l.'i.ine. I !is i'li lin i 1 ol hu- dot
fulfilled in- eiig.igeuo-iits. and the Ci ntre, whit-h
h.is sUppol .ci his colline u- ii! |nilti.y, ti. .j < et ritiM-i l
Iltur. ?
i he I lit iiilUS fol dui it cl. flora I" i iioi.'e lb lill?
lie-, lo ihe l'iii*-i|..u l?iel itM-k place on Srptt mlnii
MO sod n-sult .1 iu mi overwlnjuiiugilefeui of the '
>.: S f I ? Hal Libera'-. Ih.ll f.U ll'.tl. Itoi.'evi t, cv iiu ed
Hs willillslo-ss to i.i'.Ii. Mle willi l.if lt.iv i i mot ut
;n il,t .ti '!? i rut i i ?!.-'.: i '. it roi over the rai I wu vs
?niie ol lite ChaH'cllol's liivorile s< Iii lui?ami
n ,i i .I linn .i.'it |>. t.li n1 cl ihe -npisirl nf Hit
i ci ii.. \ i-.'.l loot..' iu- lin i'm- pm..-i- of foin
rai i wu li.- i'-.eh d it.-dual statue iu lin Landing
lins .o'li. and .the uuc-tioo ol aiiMjauteos b.ts
, ;,',. tl ntl, Vi IJ ii Lil' i ipi' ll .li. I ..?? ( '. .-. ',i . 1,..|
ii |s i.nu-- il si thc close of the teat mole Armit
tn i- iirin I in pow cl c. ;in i > .i bc; ie, | he .-.., .;,;.
i-ts h.i\i tn.-td him Bligh* annoyance, and iii-a?
sui .-ince t! .: .I :: .ir il ? io-vi year ri ii ct lav- v? I'M
!., i.i :>uil revenue ni uti ri Lt i!.. - lit. fiom
is. pu >? n i-1 ol i'- iv j I- ran* sys hus mivctt to it
. o.ti ile 1,1 |H fl'le t" tl.'e I t ,v ll n , lim.( the
leal, iif hmperor'a golden wedding hts bren
i .delit..t."I at a period w lu-u tlt-rmanv is more
in iv . ti :1 thai: alie has If nu Hu il iv -of ('haili -
V, AU icc-l.orr.mic h..s ni ivcd a giivi-rniiii'iii ol
ll- OW ll slid bet Ollie I nie 111 I te I of ll:- C-?llf literal too.
Tliistroplii of Un- Inst gnat warrior* not satisfy'
ii.i- I atht-llaii'l. lie Nu i lull i- ft t il kent in Hie
sa.!.ll-. Veal hy Vial I';- arno is growing mon
I .;?.. Ll ?'. _____
TUE I: I ssl \\ h. Ml'Ht E.
? -
Th- ai oma! ms e .iiditi ti of ? ., h ;;. in Ku si i ?ti!l
i Vi iles Ile- t n i in. -el.it 'o:i ul lin Win hi. I'ri the
night oi .Much Ul, notices were posted in various
,-e i ri cf of ?*?. I', t. I-btu.; tv il 'i tie Ihe C'.'t Illili hs
Ire wa- on ll -p.tit d i-ti ti. i t ??!,.lt. I. ii ot iii- ii trod il- -
m ; relot ni iiie.i-'ircs. (hi April 11 an aliclupl wus
marie li rn ? ute the jurigiiiciil of lin Revolutionary
Commit I et-. Ah x.nilli Solovieff, a sch io!m,is>r,
nut Hu- Czar neal tin- W lilli I l'.tl.n e Uni hied HlPM
shot- from a revolver without hitting hun. The
assassin a as sci red aller he had Bred al bis pursuers
und vsinlj Httemptrd lopoisou himself. This h ld
ri ittie, rotning so soon after I be attempt to shoot the
Chief of (I eil diurincr ie iu the open street, threw the
(iovcrumcui iiitn :i pill.ic. A uk.ise was i--iii ii plac?
ing tho sn districts of St. Petersburg, Kharkov,
Odea ss, Moscow, Kiev ano Warsaw under martial
law, This waa a return to Asiatic methods.
Tin- hurharisra of military despotism waa
pitted against the barbarism of assassination. I he
rentres ul populnUon were turned into camps.
'I In- j u!. were lilh d ; w l.oev i-i waa suspected nf dis?
loyally Was doomed to Siberia ; i veiy Iii u-eholilci
iraB treated like a prisoner; und thc press was for-.
bidden to criticise tin conduct of oflhials, t cm ii lo
publish tb' lew-ol the tl.iv. 1 he urea of dissffec
tlOli lipi'i'llis. however. 1" have willl'llOd* ,IL? 1111
bbbjbbs numbai ol hres in the Spring aud Summer
indicated that tba Kihilisl bsd exchanged the dag?
ger for the torch ; and on hit em uer 2 a most dia?
bolical attempt was marie to blow np the train In
winch the Czar was approaching Moscow. Thc Im
1 dial train had nvcrtaken lind passed the baggage
Hain, ami escaped the explosion by which the latter
w as destroyed.
Tiri- outrage occurred at a time when thc lovers
elan ts ns contemplating an important reform
measure. This ?m- Hie rwOTocnt ion or s body i-f un
. tliellll IliU l-l-IS to HS'-i-t bim lu Hie (iiiVCl'lillli nt.
These rmtiirillora were mn tobe invested with ex?
ecutive furn lions, bnl vere to be chosen in part lo
the direct suffrage, of the peasantry und limb.t.
clas-cs. lins Would be un nppuiach Ul ? National
J'ailiutm ni.ny SJ stem, M; burnie reform sr hemes
have been set before the public, hut it is i xtretinly
il.-ubi lui wh*llii-r any un mci ii.itt- change io the iron
bouiiil system ol reprqealoii is io lu- made, i he ouiy
cn.-.iiii uLinit lealnre In the situation is the fart that
the Nihilists n<>W llBVe dellnite nun-, und do not
vt lisle li,fir eni-icv in simply Striking down those
who oppose thelli.
'Ihe pio vince of Kulrijti hus been retro'cried lo
Chitin. Tills cc-voii wuk demanded by the rilli
rpti-rorof Kasbgaron lue ground ol an agrecim-nl
made son ti- Hine ago. h'n-*,i received Q2.i'MMI,UtNI
ti.i the grant, I ii- Iraim-Caucusmu expedition in
the dui i: mu of Merv bas met it it li n disastrous ter?
mination, li - "it ti? uiucJi us H.OOO.OOfl ii aides he
foil' il .t.i i ? ??; lit m 11 lu kt-I mi, uml the t ul iiiiiii luis
turned b.-u-k iii url v tli.H..i-.-:tiii/i-<l ?ftorbatlliUK ivitti
di-t ;i<e, Un climate and theauomy, Tbe attempt lo
i.i|.luie lint 'Ickle slloiiuludd st I'enulill Tope <"i
Sc|i'eiiilni S was mi utler lui lu rr. Thc enemy ti
pulsi tl every slttiek, uml hiitill.v swim eil tho nile ti
Mvt-and uiuile so fo-ice sn oiialuURut that the alua
biatts were torccil to ret teat tlurinn the night. Of
the HO.ono men who left the h>i\ only l.too tc
inaiueil ni line. Theoiitlueak of the plsaue in the
Weil,ni,Un district of thu Volga i ul ly in the year
chiumnI alarm evon inGenuauy ami Hungary, wneie
rigid quarantine pwantions were taken on the
frontiers, hut the ravages ai the disease were con
liinil to a thinly Populated district. The peaatign ul
Kussiu liss declined in Karapa since the negotia?
tions between the Coutts of Berlin and Vispfu, hut
iu tho balkan Vennuuu. sud csppualiv ai (Jun .tau
Moopla, its Influence ts arranger ai) tba end than il
waa at tho beginning of Jiu year. All attempts to
unseat tbe aged ChanoefloT have proved futile, and
he remains the moat powerful ami independent of
ihe Czar's advisers.
THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE.
.Signs of the impending dissolution of the Ottoman
Empire have multiplied. Tbe flouting debt already
exceeds $250,000,000, in the form of loans from
bankers at high rates, ami a new loan cannot be ne?
gotiated. The Empire is utterly impoverished ; the
revenues aro squeezed dry. Kbaireddin undertook
early in tbe year to introduce measures cf adminis?
trative reform and to establish a Constitutional
Ministry ; but the Sultau, after consulting with the
L'h-mas, dismissed him in Auguit and abolished tbe
title of Grund Vizier. Tho office was restored on
October 18, when the administration was entrusted
to Mahmoud Ncdim Pacha, a friend of tbe Russians.
Hitherto British influence had been supreme at
Constantinople, and the change of policy met with
resistance and open menaces from Loudon. Tho
flourish made with the Hset was meagre in its results,
for the only concession made by the Porte to Eng?
land was the appointment of linker as commander
of a irciitbu mei ie iu Asia Minor that has not been
enlisted.
The influence of the Russian Government has
steadily increased. In March, a treaty was nego?
tiated whereby the war indemnity was fixed at
9160,000,000, but no provision was made for its
payment. The evacuation of the Adriaiiople
district beimu iilmost immediately, lint the with?
draws! of troops'from fcusteru Roumelia was ds
' -rretl nntil the arimistration was organized. The
British Government complained of thi encourage?
ment givtm by Russian agunta to the ngltatino for
the annexation of the province to Bulgana, and
after a scheme of joint BCCttpatiOU bv the Powers
hud be> n abandoned, Prince VoRonries, a Bulga?
rian (Week, was appointed Governor. Cnder his
administration peace has been restored, bnt owing
to Ins own prefercne s and lo the emigration of
Muaaulman families, Husatua and Bulgarian inter?
ests am ulakine- headway.
The Anstrisn conventions with the Porte relating
to the occiipatvsin (,f Bosnia and Novi-Bszar
reeoi.Tiire the sovereign riirhtsof the sultan, hut the
districts hive prsetienlly been anuexed to the
Northern Power. The Montenegrins have been nut
in ltosssssion of Spuz ami Podgoritza, bnt skirmish?
ing still continues on the Albanian frontier. The
I'orte has refused to rome to terms with the (Sreeks
within the lines recommended at Berlin. France
has taken up the cause nf the Grreks und appealed
tcethe Powers to enforce their will, but the neg*Kia
ttoi ? in r-irnril to tin- cession of Janina have been
renewed only to be broken oft',
EOY PT.
Asiatic mle was reestablished in Egypt early In
the year. I Hs Khedive was Irritated b.v I be euergy
niul zeal ni bia European counsellors, and af ter a
mob hail surrounded the palaces of thc Ministers,
he turned his Premier, .Nu oar Pasha, mit ol office,
and u ftti diam lasing ihe English ami French mern?
ot rs of ins Cabinet orgaainetl another fran his own
subjecis. Franca resented the riobttimi ol tiie
Kin nne's pledges. I icm.,my, Italy uml Austiia
united with Waddington'* Snvernment in demand?
ing the abdication ol Ismail, and Great Britain
finally acquiesced in the umi'-m'-ut. Pressure at
Constantinople Induced tin- Killian to Papuan the
Kln-dtvc and make Ins ehh-st son his mirri sam.
Meheiiiet IVvvfik ascended the throne on Juno-JU.
From tim participating of thc l'owi is in this force
I'olicy Eiiklut tl has los: ber ascendancy on the Nile,
I here haa laren no marked improvement in internal
administration, The King of Abyssinia menaces
Egypt with a rvniuaigii, aud evinces a determina?
tion to conquer Msseowah. All efforts to sappreas
the slave tradi' arc hki Iv to bc abandoned.
AVHTEO-UVNOARX.
This has beru a year of political transformation
ii om-hnlf of the riual monarchy?the half which
ha' the weaker nat ional life, owing to the composite
liaractri of its pi potation and the absence of a
rioiuiiianl race. In the Austnan elections during
August tin- Liberals were overthrown hy a coalition
ot political groups, ami a new cia-Lei than Ministry
was formed nuder Taafe, < omit Andra***'* resig?
nation waa l.eltl in abet iihce from Augtiat tulb-|o
ber, when it w.is finally aeeepled aud Harou vim
llavmerle was np|Miiuieil Minister ul Foreign Af
11111-.. 'I lie Conservative Cabinet has had uniform
support from lho coalition in the I <ower Chamber,
bm iii the l*pper Hon-*- tt baa been SUCOSBsfuUv re
si-t?d. I he most important riebgts in Parliament w.is
i all. o om In the military budget, and tin- sn^ces
tii'ii that thi army should be reduced baa not been
acted upon.
The ront|iiesle in Ihe Halknn I'eninsnln have been
emended li) llieoeriipalion of Novi-lia/.ir. About
,r..tn in trisips ent'-red tiie dist net on Keuteniher * and
i ii'-iuitiieit'd no resistance. 'Ihe alliance withUer
many hiis mvru Austria im-rou?ed inttuence on ihe
Continent. lin-commercial reta'ions lietween the
two Empires limier this rompaetare "still undeter?
mined, lue Emperor ol' Austria hus celebrated
tiiir'nir tin- year his si!,et wedding, lu linnean
lll'-re hit* he :? ;\ tel I lb i- cn 1 tinily. Tile |o?s ot life
iroui tin- inundations at saegediu was very great,
i nd un.tsxi persons were ilepriVt <\ ol h.mic.-.
?nu. i hem ii ni. m. li c.
Iii tin- Senatorial elections of Jannary ^ ih? Re?
publicans i irricd thc la-t slr'iitrhoht is-rupiedby
llie Kesrtionary factions. Tbere were vi vacan?
cies. 7-" of which were tint- tu the retirement of one
iliuil if the liiu leis. T!;e Conservatives were
sm . ? -v in! h. IU sud thc Republicans int.G districts.
1 hr is, ia j .hiv of the Republican- ni tin* upper bouse
vs ii- .*. t, the minority numbering vs.'.. of whom fit)
were Legitimist*. yji Orleanists, aud '20 Hoospart
Mt- When the Cou.it 11 n 11 on was flamed thc organ?
ization of lim Senatorial electorate was complex.
iiiol ns ii large majority ol the electors represented
ihe most oouse-rvulive bodies in Fiance, the
Monarchists confidently eipected to retain control
nf the up|s-r house, and io obstruct Ihe progressive
point ni il,i- lower chamber. Tiie Senate has lu
t.ie a citadel of the Republic.
Ihe attack nu the Cabinet mada In January was
hil by M. Seiiiinl, but Prouder Dufaure was sup?
ported by the Republican press, mid ii vote of coull
ilrure vvns passed. President Mi -.Mahon, being un
nble to accustom bJmaell to the new ideas, and
being fully convinced that Franco was on the
iltivviiwanl track aud cluee to tho ahyss, objected to
displacing Bourbaki and other commanders who
wera distrusted by tho Rcpublieanai He waa at
once menaced with tho impeachment of the Do
llnnrlie Ministry, und on February U7 his rreigna
tum was sent to the Chambers. Tiie houses met
immediately in Joint convention, and elected Jules
llravy hy .?ot> voles out ot a total of 670 present,
General Chancy receiving 09. Uambotta was sub?
sequently rlrcti-dpresident ol the Assembly by a
vote nf 1<>"> lo 314. 'Itu* lhtt.uu>> Ministry re.
signed, and a new one was organized
mulei Waddington, with Jules Ferry us
Minister of Public Instruction, Man-em was
soon forced to uivo place to Lepera, one
ol Uambotto'sdisciples, lim impeachment of the
Mun.-, crs nf the Ililli of Muy. v. inti marie a Cabinet
onsvjajyii, \\..-, i.t.'.l il.m\ ii. lind il.) Ministi v, with
gUsji&eh in . i. rein.lim- I in i.ile i' until lain
ce ni be*, when their re-'i'iiaf ions were pla
the Preddeni's hands. Hie new Premier is ,
Freycinet, who was Minister of War under Gam
?bet lu's riictatorsbip. Uris uu t utl.usiuatie Rcpub
hean and a state*man,of stronger character than
his predecessor. The Cabinet as reorganised repre?
sents the pure Lett, but is made up of moderate
men.
Ihe National A-se rn ld y met on Julie 10, and de?
rided bv a lsr*-o majority t<> abrogate the article nf
the Constitution prohibit inn tho Chamber 1mm
meeting m Peri*. When the Lrgialature asseuilried
mt November -7, tim Assembly occupied the Palais
lioiirbon and the Senate tin- Luxembourg. The must
exciting dr bales ot tho year have related to amnes?
ty anti public etliic.ilion. The Kduciitiou Law in?
troduced ny Munster Perry gives tho bennie a
monopoly uf degrees, und al Hie same time strikes a
blow nt' the Jesuit Colleges. Tins Ina hu- not
lusted th'" eVnate, ow lust lo Ile powerful efforts
made by Jules Sim.rn to defeat Ilse measure. This
measure *ili uni be likely to promote the cawse
of und* liomin.itiotial education, lt would be a
proof thal Ihe Kepii bl icu ns regard with uncssiuess
the inrrrasing popularity ol iustttntintia winch are
controlled by their Worst enemies Hie religious
nritcrs, snil especially tbs Jesuits, lt cannot be
tlotihted ttl il it will he unwise to interfere with tho
iii-Ms of religions laslies tt? conduct their own
Hi-hotils amt lo confer degrees upon tln-tr own stn
tb als. A wiser polity Botttri be iheeh-vafion of the
Mud uml free lay schools tu a higher level of efl*
ihe death ?f Liuis Bonaparte Ru Zululand on
Jttim 1 has uiven Imperialism a staggtriug bl-iw.
1 ne Nnialiu Consult nut ul 1 STO gave the sm cession
lu I 'mire Napoleon, the son of Jerome, bul a codicil
of therieitil I'nuoe'swiU named the sou Prince Victor
us Ins 1'ulit:t al heir, ut pince of the father. The
leaders ot the fautn.u iliri not ventura to disregard
the law ol succession, btu acknowledged 1 itu o
Napoleon as the head ot tbe party. Ilia unpopular
itv with tho clerics I etrateai rt mhos auy asseitiou
of lils claim to the throne a remote contingency.
Tho Legitimists held several hunqurta on the feast
ot St. Minhaal, aud there was a gieut celebration ut
the Chilean do Chuiuborri, but there were neither
lluiiiit trtists nor Orleanists presrut,
Wh le tho dangerous tendencies of Kadioal Re
pablkanistti haye boen npiuaaad during 'le yt-ag,
?
tho relations of tba PreabJeat aud his Cabinet tis.
eacboafcuc Bani to the Ccamber* if still in tba '
anomalous state in which they were loft hythe
framers of tba Constitution. An approximation
will ultimately l>e made either to the American or
to the Kagtiah avstem. and Gambetta will lie either
PsStirZ" SLTT" T ????"???? wm oe eitaar
1iTe"55?^*_j7e,E,*,,> in a.ccorduuce with tba
changes effected n the Constitution. M. sn wiri is
th?w is a stronger Premier to fill ibo gap J tba
end than tbere waa at the opening of the year"
/fly*
The Pope issued early ia tbe year an encyclical
denouncing 8oc:aliam and KibiHsro, uud attributing
these evUa to tbe touchings of tba Kefoinnrtion. In
August he published another encyclical presenting
the writings of St. Thoniaa Aquinas*!* the source
where Catholic teachers should derive suggestions
in dealing with the religious difflcnlf ies of the time
Of tho nine Cardinals appointed with Dr. Newman*
only three were Italians, A modus vivendi wltri
tua German and Italian Governments baa boan
son ah t with patience sud tact, and in the
negotiations with tbe Belgian Muristrv Leo XIII
sud Cardinal Nina have shown singular caution and
moderation. The present occupant of the Papal
throne is more diplomatic, if not more subtle, in his
methods than his predecessor Waa. His policy
would be described by Gambetta as ecclosiasticid
opportunism.
One of thc scandals of the previous pout inc ate has
been brought to a close il the conns during the
vcar. This was the rejection of thc Couutesa Lam?
bert mi's claim to a share in Cardinal Antonelli's
estate. The flual decision rested on the ground
that as a sacrellgious child she would tie entitled to
nothing, even if her case were well founded. There
have been two political crises during tbe vear, but
in each instance tho Cabinet bas been reorganised
without difficulty.
SPAIN.
There has been another Koyal carriage in Madrid.
The necessity of putting tho succession to the
crown op a more satisfactory basis than it stands ut
present, shortened the days of mourning for Queen
Mercedes, and induced Alphonso XII. to make a
formal demand for thc hand of the Austrian Arch?
duchess Maria Christina, granddaughter of thc pop?
ular Palatine Joseph.- Tbe marriage was celebrated
in Madrid on November 2t?. Thia uuion of the
reigning head of tho Spanish Bourbons with a
Priuceseof the Hapabtirg-Lorralne house was ap?
parently devoid of political 8'gnitlcance. Yet it was
not a great while ago that the candidature of Prineo
Leopold plunged twogre.it nations Into tho abyss
? of war and openefl Ute way for thc establishment of
a Republican government in France,
The Spanish Government haa made au effort to
grapple with the Cuban question. The pRUner
Martinez <'ainpos. who had been Governor of tho
inland, r.nd had promised tbe Cubans to do what hs
could to redress their wrongs, endeavored to fulfil
his pledges whan he entered upon office earlv m
March. A bili was flr.tillv introduced in the Cortes,
t ffitcting salutary administrative reforms, modify
int.' the oppressive monopoly secured to Spanish
trude in the West Indies, and abolishing slavery
nuder certain reservations. Thc Premier was op
pn?rri by the more ti actionary members of tbeCabt
hoi, and when tim bill was repnrteri back hv
the Renate Committee the abolition Bebema
was essentially muddied, so as to las
practically -.-. nrtlih ss as a reform measure.
Ho- dwsatiaCaetioa of tie kai'.!'als mid the in?
trigues ot tho Conservatives culminated in tho res?
it,'!,ation of Martinez Camjtoe ami the formation "f
a nev*- Cabinet lintier Csnovus riel Castillo. This
political movement was a triumph for the reaction?
ary factious, ami will impede the pacification ot
(ulm, where ievolt hus broken out afresh. Au
eniiiiicipation act which is a mem unske-sbitt has
been pu -sm tod by tho new Cabinet and posiiod
Hu ninth om-ot the Chambers, but there are strong .
Impcs Uni! it will be strengthened before it leaves tua
I.ovve.- Jlottse, A dastardly attempt to assassi?
nate tin- Klux "*" mane bv a waiter, on December
ill). Ihe doods at Murcia iu October, caused a
terrible lost* of life and property.
SWEDEN AND HOLLAND.
Two important geographical problems iu An-tie
exploration have boen solved during thc year. Tho
Swedish ship Vega, under the leadership of that
persevering and enr-rsetic explorer, NordenskjOM.
has completed a Vojago lrotn the Atiantic to the
Parttir bv rounding the northern termination of the
Old World, a voyage which, ht it should not prove
important in a commercial sense, will always tank
Bl one of flic greatest L'c-ojrripliical feats of the
present c.-ntury. Tba Dutch exploring Schooner,
William Barents, baa u!ao succeeded in reaching tina
hitherto inacouaaibbj shores ol' Fraaa-Joaof I^and
BELGIUM.
Thc I.'bernis having secured a tn.-jority in Pattin*
m. ut determined to mako use of lin ii opportunity
by releasing the public schoob-frMa thc coutrol ot
the priests. Accordingly a law was passed provid?
ing {or religious in.strcrttou out of erliool hours.
prohibiting the use of State buildings for religious
settools, mid in oilier respects secularixiog public
instruction. The llishops directed the priests tn
t-cfusc the sacraments to parents who should sr-uri
their ehihlieii to coiumiuial schools; to teachers
who should use the Catholic catechism without.
Episcopal sanction, anti, moreover, lo teachers
.mil pupils of the State uoiiual schools, ibo
clergy uVuiauuVd tue right io furnish books.
to appoint leacbers, and eva n wt nt so fal
ns to threaten with eternal damnation every
adult connected with rite State cduoatiamal
system. Hie Cirri' al party were tluowu
mto consternation when thc Premier, M. Piata -
(iibau furnished in delsateunanaweigble|>roolaof
lin- luis's disapproval of tl e li.stn p's preci .lure bi
leuunl to the l.ilucstioii Law. While tiie Yuin.ii
recognized that We bishops were corn-, t ns to sVsvC
niue, ii was forced to admit that they had drswa
itu,librium-deductions und had pushed those cuii
i lillians too (sr. I he un deration of t he Pom?'.- conr
.-el to thu bishop* hus dampened tho anlur nf the
li'iU-amontauo party, ihe pew law declares pn
muiy adoration neutral, and bares religious educa?
tion tree and independent. The clerical paity, on
the other baud, will have noue hut coiifcssiouul
schools, rn_
TUE SOUTH AMERICAS WAH.
The war grew out of a frouticr dispute of lotg
BtaudHig. The .-trip of territory claimed by the re?
spective Suites, Chili and pnlivia. ls a sf retch of
desert, which woubl be utterly worthless were it
not for the aiiano deposits and mineral resoirrs "f
the coast. These sources of wea'th were developed
hy Chilian enterprise, and brought into competi?
tion with Peruviau products. The Bolivian officials
undertook to servo their Northern allies hy impos?
ing a heavy export duty on nitrate of soda, and
when payment was refused the property ot th*
manufacturers aud traders was confiscated. As
these acts were tu direct vtolatiou of a commercial
ticaty, the Chilian Covernmcnt fllspatcbfd a fleet
to AnU>f.!gahta, disembarked troops and reoccupied
thc works. The Peruvian Government made olfi
rloua offers of intervention, but the discovery that a
secret rom ps ct was in existence between Bolivia
sud ber Northern neighbor led Chili to declare war
upou both.
In this war the Chilians have achieved signal
suet-esses on land and sea. The Peruvian in>' dad In
ilepsuKsenOM was stranded on a reef during the tiist
ajavsl oiigaaoment, and thc Huascsr. after a during
iTnW, was forced to hght on uuetioal terms uml
finally oafhar ??!. Bv landing at Ptsagna the Chilian
anny get ml a position between the Peruvian foroea
ut lipi.iiue andaby lmlivuu.it at Anea, aud in the
-uliscoii nt bsttleA'-uanjd.iuut San Francisco ami
Tum naen, the allies ufa* defeated.
AfTnoR*. _ Richard Roney ^ana. Henry C.
Cany. Michael Chevalier, Jaeab Abbott, Klihit
llnrritt, Johu T. Delauc, Jean ViUmneasaiit, Yibllot
le-Dtic, William Ht pworthDixou/WiliiJui Howitt.
Octave Dulepterre, Silvestre do Secy.
STatkmmkn and PouiKilANs ?Zaahiuiuli Chand?
ler, William Allen, George G. Barnard^. M. T. Baan*
uau. Herr You Hlilow, Isaac Hutt. Colfrii Cashing.
Marshall R. Champlain, Kspai tero, Ayala, Sir how?
land Dili, -bibil K. Hackett, Richill 1 Mjtiell. J.d
lux, William Lloyd (turiison, Sir JV
bbaw Lefevre.
ClMOT. ? CRrtlinals Antonncei ac
Bunnip Foley; ihshops WhiCiughuui
brittler ; Bishop Ames, Dr. Joseph 1*. I iiou.j
William Ives Ludiugtou, Hr. Janies DcKovi
W'eias. jI _
PoMtOKKU or Han*k.?Prince Henry. o4||Cethor
hud", Prince of Ornum*, fri iii i" of Abyssinia, Prin
rtvss Lnroliuo Murat. Priuecas Mary of Licthteu
stein, Conni ess de Mon I no, Itiirfn Lioaol Nsf han
J.'oii.s' hihi,l'l.tic- tania Napoleon, Countsnu) of Wat*
ucgiiivf, Amccr Shore Ah.
MOUMMuV-Joseph Hooker. Kn hurd W. Taylor,
J. II. Hood, William P. Harry, Jell C. HjvIs. Jana*
.shield.-, Suleiman Psi ha.
Thk SiAtiK.-Mrs. Ibmsby. Chsrles Alhavt Foch
ter, H. D. Palmer. J. ll. HneKstone. ^
Mi-m', l.isNKDi-.-.-Mrs. Charles Dicken*. Mrwsv^r"
PattcrBor -Bonaparte. Asa Packer, W. af. Huid-^
Gardner Colby, Daniel Drew. Antonio Pnnlf?. Jj??4*
H Scribner, fi. 0, Wiuea, Tbotnt.9 Couture, >**??
.Inaniira. ; v< a ?
S

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