Newspaper Page Text
THE LETTER-CARRIER ?
oVEi*SM.:NT EMPLOTE8 IN CLOSEST
TOUCH WITH THE PEOPLE.
t???? i:i:m.vkk \i:i.K ORGANIZATION T?> HAVE A
(OjrTKNTlON Tills WEEK JOHN N. PAR
?-.iNS AM? what HE HAS DONE.
m tin- grand army ol Government employe? non?
' |n ,-los. r touch .vith Ihe ?people than the 13,000
li? who deiiv. r the mall. Noi onl] in the business
but In the .mines throughout the land the
looked for at .?. rtaln
corolnR ol the pos? ma ? t
r?pSPr> day, and though he remains to th?? ma
Maty ti 'l!'??" whom he aervee only "tb?? postman,"
with n?? a* rsonallty, hli failure to appear al the reg?
nar time would cause a howl ol compiali l. But
m got* noi fall in appear. The weather and the
?.aie-ns an not allowed lo interfere with liirn. and
?Ml?* oth-T meeaengera wh -. ,iuties bring them to
-flt*rs and hontes are ? \ -.?sed for an Occasional
?ip??* ol nuty, there is nev.-r an exCttM for the po-.t
?We ,r?? even taken to task for noi furnishing
-tier*." !"; ? "G?? "? ?G|,> Kr.iy-iinlf,?rmc?l for,?.?, "and
manya time l have ????-?? called 'mean' because I
aged to bring the letter which probably never
put there is another side |o the pletore. People
?-arn to know their letter-carrier, and ?-!*tl.ir??
ilor.g th? t'1"!'?' know th.? man wbo bringt leiten
?from papa" or from other members ol the family,
U.i although they have only ihe address from
JOHN ? PARSON?
which to draw concli
becomes known to th?
"Ilan.l thos? -
is th?* lastraetiOB rt> -
earner, an?! when they
family ?? r. ?
?rs to me on the quii I "
".? young man ? ?
? p illy cenan t.? c,.mo and
the y ;?np p?..-i ll - m his ,;..sk .,r count? r
for ? ?h?rt tinn. the letter-carrier knows full well
tit.it another - ? ' ? tetter or for worse has
THEIR EXPERIENCES NOT ALL HAPPY
The < liners' it ? ? ? not all end so happily,
though." said a veteran :?-. the service "1 remem?
ber bringing letters t us? for about two y< re
They wer?? all addi ine sani? band, always
the Mum ??? atmark was a Western
health resort ? ? thei worn..:, with anxletj
written iti her fa ? was always at th? d ?or when I
ImuKa? ti e leiten I sh? Reem? d plea** d a It
them eie:, befor? I . were read, fine day a letter
?.ame fr?.p, I ce In the s.mt.? kind ol ?
v-iope. tat wll Ir? ss in another hand. Tl en
there ?ana no for a week and then one came
which w.i- li m , hand thai ? ?? atrai gi to me,
N.-xt t:m? I saw 1 I lady she n .s dr. ss???! in
Mack, and er ? ? e told the atory even
if ?he had rtv, stopped me to Bay tl * her poor boy
had pause?! away, and she was so thankful to n?e j
far havtnt- brought all her letter?. 1 didn't know !
irv-son. iu.t .?. you ? inder thnt I waa i:,t. r.st. d'.''
Every >;\- day* I brought a letter t?? a h ?um on
ihe Ea*t Si ? said an observing ? rrler, "and Its
?-o?tsiark and th" regularity ?aith which th.? letters
cam? jav. m ? pretty good reason to ballava thai
rAe wr/rer wwi not away for ?.?s h. alth. on busi?
n^uero:. pleasure. I was -:r? tl at he had MM ol
Iris* *:.;,<ly jobs which most p.ople obje.-l to be
MWe (he) ar?? so COQflnlng. ? ?t: ? <)a> I passed the
. never thinking of th" Blxty-day letter, when
a lit tl?? lad ran up to m?? and said: May, ye ? needi ?
?Mr.?? round any m.r??; Mlk'-'s ont.' "
THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION
Tir? letter-carriers, although they ?!,.?. ;in im?
portant part, have 1?<*???? looked upon n< the pri
T?te* ir. the service, but through their own efforta
toy have advanced to .?. htghei l<evel The Na?
tions! Association of L.??- ??? rganls^d
it Milwaukee In IMI, ?? ? has grown steadll)
then, and at the present lime about 10.500 ..f the
'.Me? carriera are members of the organization.
Befor?? ??.,. formation ol the National Asso
ft?carriers had benefll societies ? t?? ni
ut:?? --. but there w.. - no arrangement ? ?
Dart? ? -, . nd no nr.? thod by which carrli ?
bodie? could communicate with ?? ther. But
even in ihelr disjointed way the letter-carrl? ?
dettes had considerable Influence, and the pa
of the eight-hour law in IM was the reault of ih??
labors .f ?;<? various societies with the New-York
Society in the bad. Th?? statue to S. S COS was
Meted by the letter-carriers to show their appre
BSttkM ot hla services In th? ir behalf at that time.
Th<? rg satlon Ol the carriers was n?
Tf-r.fr ??- : .... ? atep It, th?? riKlit direction, and th??
poeta! elerki fit?.?! ihe railway mall employ?? soon
follow?-??: the exntnpto. In formina t lie association
th* carriera did not art In a spiri' of opposition to
their superiors, "fin th?? contrary." a member ?x
plaln?*?!, ? !; wa? our nim to co-operate with th??
Mfh?r authorities, and the association never har?
bored anj spirti >>f antagonl
In pr-of of this statement th?* fact was men?
tioned that nt the last National convention In
Itstadelphla Pnatnaaater-Oeneral Wilson was pr?*e
?rt ar.d inaile th?- opening nddre-s, and i-aid that
?t heartily iridor<"?l and approved the .alms and
<*'*<*?. < th? BSSOCtSttCD. At thnt MS-'.oli A. W.
kirhen, BUfsrrintendent of th?? free delivery sys?
tem, ? so apoka, and approved of the organtsatlon'fl
AIMS OF THE OROANIZATIOM.
The almi ol the association nn?: To better th<lr
tenute ol office, ??specially In such poatoflta
those in which Iba Ciri! S'i vi ? ?? laws did not
"Tkars is ..:, office in this country," said s carri? r,
"where men wen discharged riK'it and left on
trivial, trui'ipe,i-up chargea, Everybody knew lhal
the men w. re pul out simply 1..?? a ti???- ol ih? Ir polit?
ical opini.,?., ?nd the fncl thai ?t.?? ol them l?e
c*me a valuable memi? r of ? newepaper stall
thow.il that there must have !.?-en prejudice, to ??'
ihe ;eaM. To guard agnlnat-such ?buses is one ol
the ohjr.-s of the saeoelstlon. We want als., to
M'.end the rivll Hervir- rules to nil postoflsOM, and
??a. except the smaller ones. \V.? Mteve thnt no
??? ?houid ?,?? dtochurgwd without cnuseor before he
ha? had a chatte? ?o answer charges. That part of
our ansata," he add.-l, "Is now in forre, bui we
*'an? an ad of <'or?re?s to clinch it. because If
Bryan shoiiiri Im? eteeted, nnd if he should name
Generai iv,s-v -i; tj*oaUBnat<rr-0<Bi*?ral, when would
The lotti r-? arri? r. ?being human, wants an Ini t? Bsc
? ?alary ,\t present s subatltnte receives a salary
0**G. a year and the pay ol the carrier whose work
ha looa. u th?? "*?_?>" la lucky h?? may make MOO
?War, ar..) although tie always receive* the regu?
lar pay of \),<. carrier whose work be dosa, there
l?no ease on ivcord when? h?? received th? $i pro?
?""led fog by i,iw.
?after in? earner ha* Imm regularly appointed he
receive?? ?MOO the first year, IMO Ihe m ?nd yenr, and
?MMa > ? :,r after that. In towns of less than 15,000
Inhabltfints the hii/th? st salary 1* ?aast,
BCTIRBMBNT AFTKH LOlfQ BBRVICB.
The ossorlatlon alao favors kglslntlon looking io
? law by which carriers may be G'??1p??| after a cpr
l*!n number of years of faithful service. To illus?
trati? th?? Justine of this movement the case of
Charles A. Tyler was cited lie in Hie oldest carrier
'I the tervlep, and is now an empli.ye nt the
Prodip*?? ??,?hange branch of the Nl w-Vork Post
Ofnre j?,. (,,,??,.,? lotter? In olil'-n tlm??? when the
letter-carrier received a penny fir the letter whl-h
he delivered, and he became a m< mb?*r of the for???
nhen the free delivery service was organised in
i^'ew-York I>. spite? his long service, n* is hope?
lessly a letter-i-arrler with no chtinee for promo
?aOOl er pcn*lon. The only man w!io disputed sen?
iority win, Tyler was Moses ?'horch, of Worcester.
*1-"'*.. who died within a year, and whose son Is
???vlng m the Worcester oflaCC at prison!
The association has also directed Its attention to
"? special ttg-ent i-ystem which Whs instituted
?bout a year ago. The duly ol the special agents
was to watch carriers and re??ort thOM !.. head?
quarters at Washington vv.t?, were In any w.?v der?
elict In the discharge of their duties The men
weni ?., the vartou? cities, and In the garb of irt
vate citisene, and unknown to th? post mn s ter or
any postofflce ofth lai, lay In wait for the ui ?
(secttng carrier. If one wa? seer, talking on the
atreel or loitering foi , man? nl beyond the al?
lowed time, Itis name w is s?in i?> the Washington
"?,i"-' ?"?'l hi tl - , called ? ? ? ,. ; . .? dut)
i:''' .tM* ???< ?'"'" W ?hli gton ran ly came
within sixty ?lays, and .u, i, lime had elapsed
?h? lb? man was placed a? ., dtsadvui tag he.
'r'1;:''. '' ,"'"", '?" clrcumsianc, - ,?.
f.ried ? by ih?- "informer" had been fori otter
ll..- carriers did not object ?? ??? v.
wer o,'!' ''"'.'."'y. rtini.nt t? empio)
.?. , - ?",? ? '"' ?orvir..fnr "'" Purpose, aal
?,,,. ";.''"" N" itpproprl itlon w ? ? m idi ??. ron
11 ?Il ?? I II?? a : ? ?, la Moli
bJnih!2!.ainto! ? : ' '?? whl " ""?"" '?rough!
b> th. .?.? Informers, an employe said ih ?? ih? r?? wa?
?humorous as well ,? , ,,?,,,,. ?,, ?, .,,. ?J,\.
?.,., p ? 4 '?"" "?"?'? '' ?'hlcngo ? irri. r h id been
r.port.-,? f,,r pfolng Into an ?martm.nl ? use md
romalr.In.: there for hour? fin ton"
in,,, G "''" ""' ??rrler did ent. ? ib. upa ri
mu -h..,,... ?n the dat. named, bul Ihul be | '? II
,h" mn ::"s Intfr by , rear ?.? ?ri I,
In l?,?"in ?ra#lrJ?ln" ?h" ,1""! ' ?
In net-iiy ,,, N,.w..v ,rk ,,,,,.?.,... ?, .. ,.... ,..,, f
?i.V. i-!m '".'.""V", ,1"" ?" 'h? Oovcrnor's Islan I
','?'',' '?'? - I md f. rry-hous.? when r. ill) thej
,. .' nlv "'?'"'?? for Ih? boat ll I? said lo the
' "" ,"? ?h? New-York office thai with all the
??"?'?.?? machinery al work onlv fifteen men wore
report? .1 ?hile In Chicago ?7G. nnmi ? were ?em : ?
During the same ?-;, ice of i Im?
OOOD WORK IN THE NEW-YORK OFFICE.
"This good showing." ?aid ? carri r, "was un?
doubtedly ,iu, to the admirable organisation In ihe
New-York office, which ?.ou rage? a ?pirli of
faithfulness t . th, ?postal ?. rvi . Thi president I
the New-York organisation I? John ? Farsons,
who has been in the service about eight y< irs, nnd
*b ? " administration of the uffa Ir* of our bodj .
aboul |,4RQ strong, ?hows him to be ? man of mor??
than ordinary executive iblllty. Mr. Far.? If
about forty yi .,?? ol I, and come? from
his father having been secretary to Chart?*? O'Con
or. He is a mechanic, and as a prnctl< ?; work
in in he know? ??,. u ml? and r< (juin m. m? nl ?
,v!l" work, 111? w irth a? an organizer nnd a? a
leader was recognised b) Postmaster Davion, w it .
off. red ?,? fiiak? him Ihi ? ??? rlntendeni ol ? posi :
t- a! a sal n ? of >.?.' ? a y.-ai ? ?- ' ed
the place In order that he might k?*ep bis pi.?-.?: ?
position because he ihoughi ih.-n he could .I
more service to hi? fell iw-carrlers
'Sim, [inte ago." hi added, "the carriers or?
ganised a movement i?. give Mr. Parsons some
tangible evidence of their nnpreciallon Wo made
up . purse of $1 no v. hi h, ? ther wli
r. ?'ant! ?? .?. w is given In him. No ? ??
lowed to give more than 11 Mnnv a man, knowh .:
what he had done f ir Ihe ?? -?-??. would hav.
? : to glv.? mor? '
The . nthusl ist le carriel
learned if t erward, that in outstdci h*. - ? im il ?
a sui,s'ami.,? , infrlbutlon lo the Far .? purse,
bui thai ihe ??l?, r wa? d? III ? il b) ?
T ? presiden! of the . ?
admirable example bj hi? ?. nu ? ?
? la- comsequeni e Is thai ? ??? ?? :? " ? ? f thi
N< w-York organlz lion are ?
The ?eveni entIon of tl Nal
\ - n lati in of !,???? r-< 'arrli r? will ' ? op? ? ? ? .?
t Iran?! Rapids, Ml ? ; ? I ? roh ibly
noi ? '? ;? ? Repten It Is exp? led I
Mr ? irsons will ? ted to th : ? ?
the National Association.
Al ..M'PI atin?; OVERTIME CLAIMS
Carriers here and all over the coui try ? 1er?
????.] tit the proceeding? of the ? mi ol the
. Our? of Clalmi non In session In New ? rk for
? ? ; -, -?? of adjudicating t?.?- rema nder ol ihe
overtime claim? ?"if ? arri? ra ai fi
eight-hour law of IM** Thi? Ian provided that If a
? triar w irked mor ihnn ? hour? a day he
w ? io re ? Ive exti : ?? The Postoffl I ?
meni a! thai time de? bird that eli il rs a day
m? int fil mr? a week or eli I even
?lays in ihi week Tt e ai
lion of thi a nd < mploy? ? -
took .. ?? ?- rase to thi Fi Ited Btat?
? ? lima, wh? re a ?'? lai ? wa? r? nd. red li
favor, ?til,? ? ? personal t ? ; ? ' I ? Post?
---.-;.?? ? . ,\
Biate? S-tpr? me Court, where 11 if th.
lower . "un w ?? ?usi ??? ? A?.?
dei Islons, ? omn ? ? ? -
ighout the ? ounti y for ? ? tw?i
due ? ? '? ? ? ' ivertli
N< w-York hav?
; ire Ih.es ar? int vi pro
r? sch ?WA00O.
In speaking of mi of th? unkn >s ? ???? ?: ?
service ?aid "Most p. .pie ' ? '?? ?? ' ' '? "? '
carrier has noth g to
Ai rting. arranging
nddressed mailer r? ill*. ' k??.? ? t? iban half
..... .? .?.r-. ...... . ..
?? ?? mall matt -
different names II? r? we call It ? ?>'?
ark this matter I? called '
? ' ? ne ha?
.'??.'.- ? ?. ? ' ? '
fo :!-? sfllce a I? ttei ? ?? a I ? ?
ther.? ?? .. vicious ?!? ? Thi ? ?rrler ? ?
l?...r th. letter and In explanat
.,.?>? . ? ?'
mote i.'artf I ? . ?. ? ?
ing Which shoul.l have licei Ihe ?
... or?! dog' wi it.
and th? y will know that the
... ? tn excuse for non-dtllvei on timi
Y Ml POEMS BY Bl BSS.
? From Bl u k and IVI It?
-?? The edltoi ??? I ?? nave ? ??- .???-. ?. ? ? ? ?? ????
afforded Ihem In ihetr gr? >i * ? ?;? ??;.
sevrai poem? ??!" "' '?"??? the ori.
?t?i m.ii.'i- r.p?.? " ? .f these ei lit!, ? . . - ? ere?
0' Love" may be quoted
?? : Th* ?ai?? ? ' !. ' ? ?'"'
?i han ' nl? ? M ? ' ?
Ani!? r It? ? irrowi
I.n!??? men! shai
?.,: ? fear mitt, ?
ll.lv! ? - hi
Tl .,? '
Probably there I? noi much to recnll Bun ;
f.? p, m? ...? -.??fr,, ?;?]<":[:??-.:,:;??
I r:,,mau.,rr;;;,:,-:,.:,v:'?h..,'.l:1' '.i..//....'.?..?.
FRENCH ??????? SYSTEMS, j
ELECTRICITY POPULAR AS ? MOTIVE
'"": 1: -; "? ??"Mi'l:i..-s':i. .vu: a TALK ?'ITU
??' l; ABDAXK, a ?'? insti:' CTIXa i'.V.l 1
XKKH ' ?:' KAKIS
_ N1 l; Abdank. long . r? ltd? nt of Paris, and for '
' :'? ' "" ? '*?< en y? ira ? ?? - iltlng ind < on uni' ting ?
? ' foi num. ??, ?- itrect rallwu) rompant? s in '
arance, bai ??-en spending a week cr iwo In this !
' ".?? |?1?! all. for horn? In a f? w da) Ile ha h "1
?? good deal ..f , >.;.. rienc? with various -.. item? ol .
,,;,"""M' and for this reason .. Tribune report? r
hunted hnn up ycaterdny at thi? Broad wa) Central j
''"'?' I? and tin ? t?. gel him to talk on th? ?ubj.?? t. j
Th? m im? ni m ?? opp ,? tune, and the frenchman '
complied gracefully, ih? his a good command of I
Kngliah, an.? spoke with u dlrcctnea Indicative of
clear . onvk-tlon.
"In Lyon ? whl h I? th? .-? ond Urgeal clt) In i
Vi m? '." h? (aid, "n< irl) ???> rj Imaginable ?
of prop? tin - ? . ?, , ?,. ,, -p, ? In th? laat |
few ?, ? ira. s?? m ? was used "ii two roadj there, bul ?
It ha? dready rx en ihandoned on .f tbeae. and :
?HI ??? on ii..- ?thir within .? f? a month? Com '
l,r.I air was also employ?I Thi?, however, haa
1" ??? ?:.' p up entln l? Blecii Iclty I? now the gen?
ii il favorite, and In l? ??- than ?? year will I?? the
exclusive motive power on ?tree! ? illwaya In Lyon?
in the irreiter p.irt ,,f the city Ihe overhead trolley
wir.? will I?' tolerated, bui li ma) ?? nerewnr) to
': : m ?'. n.l'nts in th, .???: ir I di tri? I "
"I Ihi fr? i.. h trolley system thi s.,ni.? as the
Am< ' I? an'"'
"Ye? ?ubatantlally. But French taste exacts bet?
ter construction than you permit In this rountry.
1 u;r polvi :? more on imcnted, nr.? always erect
. ' 1 :?;.? ??? mise of ? mnlnlrip In service longer."
H . the ?lectri? j ? m Ix en Introduced Into
??,?? r ? Iti? -""
'Certainly. Havre and bmutlful old Rimen now
h ive troll? y-e in In ti.? ir ?Ir? et?, nd It will i Ib
pfor? w? ih? them In many other large French
M lu Havre electricity la uw?d exclusively
"! ?, ? al oui ? irl !"
ELKCTRICITT POR TRACTION IN PARIS.
' TI ? " It now an ? xc< lient pro?!* ? ? for the adep?
ti m of the - nn?' system Ihi re All lo? si transport i
? ? r?? eh capital, except under
? ? ?. : , * ,,??? eorp - lion, t ? ? 'omp ignle ? :. n- ;
craie des Omnibus??? Thi* monopol) pur?.? .??
vi r) cot sen uh.? ourse foi ? long time, ind relic?!
almost exel ... : m ? ? for moi li -? It
But during the last two y< <r~ ? more
poll ??. ! , l?en nil? pled Bxperlm? ni
have beet con?! ict? I with rl othet igents,
loras " ' ? ? "in?
r motor ml th?? 8<rp ill? ? -?? im ? nglne.
Two Un??? wen ? rat? : a Ith ompn - d air ? ?
t in ' '?? ? nn Within th? last ? ?\ month , as th?
result of these tesi ? --s ,,f the 11
in L) ?n- and ? Is? a h< re th? ? 'omp igni? (lei
? ?,!? A to . ijulp ill of ll
?vtricnl nppnrai : tlcular type
? . be dopt,,] ?? termln? 1er. 1 ? "in
;?,',' ? ? . In? ? r. M .'.!? mm? rque, h ij t.. ? ??
Instruct il to maki ? careful ? stltn ile of th?
transforming the varlou
of el irlclty, ml proposals h ???
? ? ? era nf elect rl
?h? ???! m- on whl ' ? | ??
und? rtak' th? task Thi - romp? ? ? op? ?
n f? n w ? ? ?,
"1 ' .Il I ' ? wa 11 ed ?
! ?*"?:? '
1 ? ? ? 1er thr? ' ? l':r ?.
?. .???. . ? ? ? '. I A mei
: ? ?? not
mor? . I and Oerni.it
r ?? ??< ? t r i ? ? s y ? ?
t? ta Tl ird'l Ihe exclusive pi ? ? ?
? ? ? ' ? timi
? . ., -? nal irally
liowevtr. the Ini
billon r. and
f ?, i '
THK l Si: "G C? ?MI'RKKrtKli \ Ili
..... ? ...
.... f nw ' '
,, . , ? ? ? ? ? I at ? nt. ?
, . Itemi?! ? ' penile a lit:??
lance of th!
?as I essf ni f ??
? . to ? ? .
,,. . . ?. e?) u? ni * ? wll h compr?
? ,.. <? ? - ? ri,, ni. a hl h l< about
r .- ? ? fr? ? ,? ? ? Mop
il th, . ? ? ? ? pendil ??? "f
p a ? t required ' ' .? ? ? ? ?peed
afterward reduced th?
??What m? ?? ? "f iractlon ir* employed In Ver
? ? | , . ? ilectl ? ? compr? ? -??
... ,,, ,. :., ??? ? -.?. III l nh indon? ?
.lf ,),,. dose ?if the current n
Krom ; r ?. ?ml ol*? rvatlon wh it
woulil ? , ? ? ? ? ? g? of ? lei tri? Ity
ov? r ? "i:.: " ?? d air for running irret
? ?,. kin* of th? t of ? oping j.'.w.-r
? ? ,,, .a t' ? . "f il ?ai th. ?ars
??,,;, (he ? t ?? rhfip ? the mai ' Iner? f ?r com?
. ,, ?,,, more ? xp, nt Ive than lhai r??
,,,.,,, ,? ,.. :-, :., rat? ? lectrlcltv Bui ihe ? hit f dlf
f, ,. , , ,? i n. ih?? "i" t mon "f Ih? t., id "
?, , , , . .... ?? ? ,? m ili motoi wa ???? mor?
|,?,v.. r II ?'?' 'tor?"
?? , ? r,?. r ?,, ? >., in? rei ni cost of repair? V?"i
. . ?, ,,|,. motor ha - "??!??? one movable ? irl
itnatur?' and lhal rotatei \n air motor I?
.... , nain?' ???G) mu? h ?k? lb? '? ?m ? nglne, and
? ?, ?? , ,,.,,?., ,??| f at least Aft) ?t slxt) movabl?
;, ri Moreov.i th? motion w feclproc.illng, noi
.., ,IV ?? ?,.,? , "uhi ??? t ?? perfeol ? ll ?G) engine it
; ?.,?.,,, ,... ,:,?.,.,.? A It Is. M.in? I hit gj? likely In
.,r hreak VV.? hav? found In France that
,,.,,,, ar for IT centimes p?r k ?llmetre, and
,? ,. |t rost? from II io -i ??? ntlm? ? for ? ompress? ??
... ,?[,, ,, . ih? cosi per mile you musi multiplv
;??,.,. h) : ., . The latter :? lem can ? ?
.Mit. CECI. RHODES ??? THE M?TASELE*
niest plan will '?? to go
, ,..'ci,i.fs. And of '' ur?*
??. ??.? trust the b'ssoii will not be lost ?t> Mr.
,'.,,^ ??. ir.....! like human being??
\I ,?. ?? ,.?;?.?? n ??.'
Unix. ? ll? - ' ??'" -'?'"' ?" '"' ?"" ' , ., .
about whacking one a ? > u ? *?,n),,r,.
?S? u\&?1??SAar?' .?ta
mad? to work, no doubt, hut our Btochholdera cannot
m iki un) mone) oui of it."
"Have vou ? ?.,mi?,, ?? thi air motors now in usa In
"?1", ' ' ey noi 'Mrf. r somewhat from those
wi',1 which you .?r? iamillar?"
"1 htiv? noi i"?.k??.? at your American air m ?
, '??"'? th? Mekarskie ?yslem which we us.,!
'' " ?f liftr atmospher->s. or about 7S4 pounds
;" thesqu .t? In, h, w? r? employ, d. if. as 1 am l< Id
"r\ -'?"" ? Ini ri - the danger
from explo?kj|i \Vhai risk? >-0u American? are
willing to run. Nothing Ilk.? thai would be tolerated
'" franc??. Even with our low pressure? we oc?
casionally have accident? There have been ex
Plosion? ol tuties, .?(.i ,ih .,? the pol ? I where ?
e? Ion was bring made between the supply pipe
' ',? tank of the ear, and m< n h ive been b?.lly
? ?thereby. There ma) be Improvement? In
'?'tails ilk. the valve? or In reheating. Hut none
of th.-m. I fear, will meet the chief objection win, h
? hai.? rais,.? t?. the whole SW> m "
"How ..hoiit ihe ?dvantagi of having each car
supplied with its own motive power entirely Inde
?? ti?i? nl of evi ry ?ther?"
"I'nder some circumstance? th ?? count? for some?
and? r other?, it t. of .n.lar; import?t.. ?
On line? running oui mt?. thlnlv populated dlatrlct?
wher? the trips and ?top? are Infrequent, the 'au?
tomobile' plan is ., good 0ne, Hut in a large and
crowded city, where the minti?? r of cars is great
und ihey ar?? run close together, the plan of sup?
plying p.?w.r from ? central ?tatIon by wir??. In?
?? hiI of ??ait ? in. powi r ?tor? ?1. I? vastly preferable
.:, tuv pidgin? nl."
'You ii ?v.? aire idy r? ferr? d to ... cidi nt ? occurring
where compi wa? used. Vou do not con
?bier electricity a dangerou? element, then?"
No. not "ti trolley rond?, when voltages of onlv
?' >r '?". ?? p us. d H t- a ver) difT.Tent matt.t
with the high potential current? required f??r arc
lighting. In I.von?. hefor<- Introducing electricity,
we tried a loi .?f expcrlm? n's t?? ? se? rt ?in the d ??? ? ?
??f ri?k attending It, These satisfied ??? that, while
a man might r. ??? t*. ? an uncomfortable shock he
could rot !,.. killed by p ? rol ley current In my
lodgment, the onlv objection to the trolley ?y??
lem is pur ;?. , ?? thetlc It I? merely ? question of
gO "1 look? ?
"Whal w is the chief drawback to the us.? of
?ti ,??? on ?tree! railway* In France?"
"The weigh) "f the machinery. W?? can make a
noiseless, smoke-consuming engine, whndi will not
prove .? nuisance nor frighten horse? Hut we .an?
noi make a? light a carriage with such an equip?
ment. There I? loo much dead weigh! per passen
g? r "
AN ABSORBING AND EXPENSIVE CRAZE
:tli: ART WILL WHIN IIK A IraT ONK A SMALL
? ?.!.'.::? ? ?? IN IVi ?RTH ?.???
.1. Torr? y Connor In The l-and ??f Bnnshlne.
\s with Ihe get hen ng of postage stamps, blue
book pi?!?- and similar bric-a-brac, the col?
lecting of Indi.? , I kets I. ndi lo di pie t Ion of opes
purse, and p no! Infrequcni trnnsgres Ion of the
tenth commandmeni. A collector, commonl) ?tyled
"? r.,t.? ' I?) tin unsympath 'lie, but known among
the faithful a? nn "enthusiast." may not he of th??
Heel unless backed h> , eollectlon numbering tit
half ? hundred line specimen* of basketry.
'lids mean? .,u oui an ti?, t?. I.''?' per basket
although, If purchased from the makers dlre.-t,
ih?- cost is much i?? An Indian woman would
sometimes s? il a l.sskei which represented the
lahor ,,f vv ? for ? ?. vv doll ,rs I put ii in the
lense advisedly, noi wishing to kindl?? ftils??
I k'foi ? ? olii ctlng I ? m? epidemic, th. re
wa? always tl.balice of picking up a real "tlnd"
of-th? ra ?pot; but the curio ?!??.? li r
A II VSKKT I "?It
ng that has < scape?! the
,?.'.? ? ? ' :l .? til ?or
.,?, . t ., . mil ?? ? \ . ? ? ?keiry
le of a col
r-l I II Ihe li i?k I ?
. ? ? ? ? ? . ,ve been h long lime
rst I ind In thi fu
le Wet | >a?ket? have t-??? ?
?,?? newly woven
? ? tt. ? m m t Mr? Jew? II
t. . - . ? orations of
. (hl VV..I k ? elghl
Is-st work Is ing done
?' ? M.mIim th? ; ?? ? Ibi l'h.' lu?!?, ni?
?: - M.Mill tr' ?? I I .?? C
Bi ? year? old.
? ; . I diiin w man ol arhom It Wa* purchased.
w eiiv. t vv.: ? it ?. "It,? t\ .
I? vv ,? no ?Impie m ?' lei ???? this I?, ir!?? in.
for o. ?. t.i im. ui an Imi ? ? ' immuni ?
Ion in the hoarding of
Hut th? lor ? > I ?' e in hi >?? .? r itlon does
? ? ? defeat, and aft? r prolong?*?! I
VVItl :? ? ? it. ,? .? nd pallen ? Ih? Indian v> om in
f tr??? i?r thi ? m? ol
? ',. Ih ,'it?. ??f II . count
G? ' III) !',.?? -? I.loin ?I?,.
: ? Hiere are,
pr.i lb?? I two I Ihe horl
I ? . ? u ?t for Infoi ?; ? ?
Hon, ? ib ?k?*i t., ? depth ol , ?? ? irier
? ! p Ighi ?? ? t- ?. . ? ? ?' ih?? ground
k The weaving
? horlxonts Tin . ? ?? inds, four ??r live
In number, u ed ? ' Mill g w. r?? bunch??! and
? ? ? round ind round ? >a ?? roa. being reIn?
for. ? ?? running I. iigth
? the bottom "f
? ? ..?. ? bow all ll ? loo ?. ? nd? were
neatly ? ? ? ' ' ' or ol!; Ibis waa
?lei ih? ' orison! il ?? nuls, each
?tin h b? Ing dovei ill? ? In the low? ? ron ??? ?lit? h?-.
? Ibi* ? hob lirmlv t.,??? |
The 1?:? 1 Klver Indians ni ? ve the doubl. , ??II. the
,? tranils liislend ?,f one. It
1? Id? nu il w Ith ? !.. J ; in. ?? w? avlng
?? ?? ,.,.? ? f,,r ihe weaver lo widen il," basket
ban io ?it in II In boi lie ?hap??.
accompli -t.'-'l by wlib ; Ing the hi P. Ii,
., m crotch??! wors while ? li. n irron ?t .? ? done
to plittli ?? ih?? stitch
r,,m ? ..? or ???| ??? the Inch ?- ? oar ?? w< iv
????. nrt.ee ill ? to ihe ?????? I? reckoned One;
ami .? p. ? in?. ?, ennt.ilnlng nriy-thr???? .-111. 11 ? t.?
ti,.h. In Ihe l'ampi? II coll? ? lion, is the lineal
weaving known No iwo basket? in ever made
dike an.? v.? oft? mim? ?: there ?? ?? similarity
,,t pattern Tins i noi tn ???? wondered nl when ft
?? ? thai ?\??? w ? ? ?. ? tak? ai .? guide the
pattern? drown lo iHime Nature, Vou can tra????
lb? lightning xlg-cng tl.? -h on Ibis basket, on thai
? design resembling ihe markings <>f the diamond
n, k ratti? ?u ?'.? Figur? ? of anim 11? dei r and
?,.-ar tir, ?ometime? copied, and ..I?., the ti?_ur. .- ,?r
? ikei rang? In ? Ix? all Ihe way from Ihe irltik'd
basket, no Idgg'T than you. Ost, 1>?.???|. .1 nnd feath
nrgenusly. In the Immense recepLicli for the
.? of grain, with .. capaclt) of half a ton, an?!
, ir) as much In '?.???? a? In si*. Ther.? Is the
pr.Mllv w??v?n nesl for the pnppoos.?; ihe large,
pi ?.-.pi? ? hap. .1 basket on which Ihe Indian? gam?
bi, vvilh dice III ol?? "f walnut ?hell?, hah?.I. tilled
wnh br. . (tari Into which wampum i? pressed; the
queer cnnli .1 Ihi kel ,a whl? h burilen? are borne
,,,,,,,, ib?, back: Ih? caps, worn to protect the head
In parrying buribns; .he bottle-neck basket, l???
loveil of conno! " ? the lailtomles? basket, which
:?t ,,?. ? ? hollow ? ? ?ton? Into which corn I? poured
and rr?.un?I with a pestle; baskets lhal serve n?
wardrobe . "pitched Ihi kets, In which water I?
carried; ?? ? ? howl ?hni?*d boskets, In which water
In heated foi cooking b) Ihe throwing In of ho!
stones; ?train sifters, toi. .touches, and .?
The coarser baskets, th.??. for rough wrvlco, are
mad?? ..f ;nht twlgi lot greater strength. The
color? it,o.?i nuil Ii "tilling In" for ihe pattern ar??
block l?r?.w!i of red To ohtnln black, th? weaver
souk ih? ?t? m m g;i.? other coloi -, In the old
bask, ??, n?? ? ir? I) regeintde,
Th.? Interweaving of f? ithers and bend? with th??
.: . u . ompara.lv ?? recen! The "Sin ?Vor
: hipp? r?' I'.isk. t" shows three kind? ??f feathers em?
ployed m decoration those ?.: the ?.?.??? duck, the
v. ili canari nnd the ,?? fest hers of the woodpeck?
er It i? further ornamented with rows ?,f wam?
pum and wampum pendants, three grid.? of shell
'?money" being used. Frequenti) Ihe feathers tha'
Uro? ??? the heads of ?piali are to he f.?uiid on
:, ithei baskets used In connection with the tiny
re?! feather? fr?'m the h-sad of the wood?.ker. \
numi'.r ??f bird? must of necessity lie slaughtered
to furni?h m.ivertng f?>r even a small basket,
Bi ? on ?? haskei <t medium ?i/.?' I counted on.?
hm ?in?I "tufts." representing Just that number of
How the w? iver managed t?. catch th?? end of
the minuti feather under the stitch, fastening It
firmly In pisce; how ,h? wove .? i.askef alike on
both ??!? ? ? m?? and out, wnh never ? loons end
ti clew t?? ihe ?ecrei how she fashioned the
Hi.? U.i.l: ?>f ??? ? ; 'hove all. how she .i,| attain
sii.-h p'-.f. ? il"ii in h?r weaving with nothing ?ave
a ru.!.? Iione need I? lo aid the lahor of her hand*
these if? ? few of Ihe thing- lhal have not yet
?., .? found -.?it.
The Modoe Indian wove the tin? ?t basket, but the
.?..??.???tor who hai noi already secured one of these
treasures will doubtles? b. ..i-iig. ?I to conten! htm
?.ii with a Tula? bo?kel and tb.mk his hn-kv
s.irs n h? ?..n gat that. Really lo appreciate a
California basket, on? has bul t<> contrast it with
ih?? work Of tl.? Italians of Arizona und New-Mexi?
co it i? ilk?? placing ? ?H?h ?>f delicate porcelain
i? iid? ni,, ??r common delf
Time wa? when Ihe Indian brave ehoae his wife
for her skill In basket-Weaving; it was, so to si?eak.
h?r dowry. Hut Ihe art thai wa? handed ?low ?
from mother le ? hti?l for centuries is in danger ??f
becoming a lost one, ?tnce the latter-day a?????p?
tions win not take tip the occupation VVhal use.
. ihey argue, when a battered tomato can will hold
' food or ?Irlnk ?pit!.? as w.ll as a basket, the shaping
f which requires ?o man?, hours of patient lahor,
Pi? n. loo, the mat?riels of whl? h the Ane baskets
were mad?? the reeds end grasses thai grow along
the ?horea ?>f stream? on unbroken ground?with
the "settling up" of the country, have been weii
nlgh rooted oui <>f ? listened. The wii?i growth?
might be coaxed back to their native ??anks. but
there ?? ??> such thing as coaxing the Indolent
young Indian of this New Woman era m emulate
? ?? ? grandsm'? hou?.wifely accomplishments
A? the onlv feasible plan?thai of having the In
.ll.iti children In th. Oovernment ?chool? taught to
weave has, I believe, been trle.l with v.tv Indif?
f?rent su?*??? s.a. chances ere thai s few years hence
good basket? will be a? unattainable as the Koh-1
OLD KING COTTOX.
HE 18 ?STILL ? GREAT BENEFACTOR OF
A CROP WHICH Ol'ENS NEW AVSXCU OV EM
11.vMi:st rOB A vast BOBOB OF HEX
Tib.-K wh . ana arrnXTBO ? it
The harvesting of a cotton crop of eight to nine
million babs (the estimate for the season of tv*'?)
sets Into motion the machinery of a .-ompli?*a?.? .1
Industry that involves th.? interests ol so many
classes that it is dun.Milt to (?rasp off-hand Its Im?
portance to th. country Many people are in
cllned to think that the Southern farmer Is the
only on?? interested in the annual yield, but h?? is.
after ail, a small part of the great army of iron
dependent upon th? cotton crop for a living.
There ?ire thousands of New-Yorkers who suffer
or prosper according to th.? fluctuation of the great
Southern product. Ity ?September 1 the cotton
grower can begin to calculate upon his proapectlve
protiis. Th.- picking ?jeason ?begins earlier than tins
in th.? warmer Itatea of the South, but the danger
from boll-worms and Inclement weather is not over
for mosi of th?? crop until later, and the grower
must I,,? :, little cautious In ??counting his chickens
1 ? for.? they are hatch, d ' During th,? early .lays
of the harvesting season, however, a (treat army of
buyers spread themselves throughout the whole
cotton belt, and every little hnmlet and village is
visited by one or mor?* of th<* trad.?. Kvery firm
engaged in the cotton business bus its agents in
the field soliciting business, anil the growers are
often pestered by tlie representations of the huy
ers, anxious to w .-uro their commlisslons. The
agents are kept In constant communication with
th? Una, who Instructs them by telegram as to the
rat.s to offer for the <*otton, and if they can mak
bargains lower than the ruling rates they receive
so much more for ? heir labor. Th?? majority of the
cotton grow >rs son?! their products to on?? firm,
whose past dealings have jiistlfled them In con?
tinuing to trust them; but It is th?* duty of every
agent to induce as many farmers as possible to
abandon old customers and take up with the new.
COMPETITION AMONO BUTER?.
Hence there is close competition among th?*
buyer-, and ri It cotton districts will be alive with
ag'tits or rival coitoti ilrms ? g.I agent will
Riake a fair salary tn buying cotton, but the ma?
jority will barely cover living expenses. In order
to t??* of valu.? to a cotton firm h>? must bo up In
th?? trad? and understand thoroughly the various
grades of cotton and its value when ready for
ab I tunen t. When the cotton comes forth ready
for market th?? buyer examines a part of It. and
if he understands his work he ran toll Instantly
it ; ?. iln.? to him So well versed is th?? agent sup?
posed to |..? that he cui tell whether tl??? COttOn
has been raised on "black land" or light soil.
When a farmer finds himself surrounded by four
or uve anxious agents, all bidding for his few I
bales of cotton, he realizes to the full extent ihe j
Importan?*?? of th- farm?-r to the country, and he |
t..u? s pot a little quiet enjoyment out of the
situation. But he r?alises that th?? agents ar??
th?re not in his interest, but In the interests of
th?lr tlrms, and lie ilo? s not intend to let his farm
| produit go until th.? highest Bgurea have been
named it may !??* remarked Incidentally that th.?
average cotton grown1 is not the ignorant and
?..1 fellow tti.t Borne would hav.? people tas?
tiere, and while h?? max not know exactly th?? con
I dit Ion of prices he hae an approximate knowledge
? ? ? value of his cotton, and li would be hard to
deceive him in driving a bargain.
There ..r?? several thousand buyers in th?? Held
! all through th?? fab months, coil.?, ting and gather
? Inn ???? products of ?!?.<? small farn?.- an.) sending
them to their firma in s.,nie neighboring 'it.\ The
pay these buyers receive is generally ;.'. cents per
l?ale, or. if on salary, from !>>'? to aeveral hundred
dollars a month, according '?> their ability and til-?
1 firms' standing. Most of the tun.rs on th?? ibid ?
a??? employed by comparatively small tlrms in th??
c.iitr.? of the cottoti region, ami they ship their '
? goods .ith.r to New-Vor h >>r to Liverpool. Firms
m Oalveston, Savannah, Charleston, New-Orleana
?? 1er ?'.:!?- mal..? it their business to supply ,
' New-York ?inns with their -...sons purchases,
while ..tiers deal directly with Liverpool buyers.
? Th.v represent the . oil. .?..rs ..( tl?.?? crop, gather
' Ing m :!.?? Isol?t??.! bales ironi farms situated far
apart, and then send them to the great distribu?
; tilg ?.oint,-?. Tii.-ir ? ?,.-liion ?.- very responsible, for
they ?? i> and sell the cotton Klely of th?lr own
tre? va.:, ?-.! ?,ci through orders from '.he ??'s- \
I trlbutlng points
WORK OF TRAMI" STEAMER?.
Aa soon as the cotton picking la well under way
; a fleet .>f trami? ateauiera head for the ?'.ulf and
Boutll Atlantic potts, and, as th, s.? st. am? is carry
? a bulk ..f the supply, tne Arms collecting tne cot?
ton from the farmers frequenti) avail themselves
,,f ihe opportunity to ship it direct to Europe b) the
.-?. iniers The trami, steamers hav. been growing
biL-n? r everj year, and man) of them are now
large ?tough to rarr) H,?M0 balea of cotton at ?
on... Their captains ar?? n,,t engaged In cotton
billing, but they take a load of cotton across the
.: cheaper than the regular liners, When
the tlrms m the South Atlantic port? have loaded
them down with the precious product of tb? Ii? Ids
Ihey -ail straight f.?r Liverpool, where most of the
consignments are made, and then return again for
another load It is during this s.asoli liai the
tramps ??.? their crews hav. st.ady employment
and full cargo? s. Th?? fleet Of tramp st. amers
engaged in carrying cotton to ?Surope In the fall
of the i.ar Is large, and In the pr- sent depr -sum
? :' business rapidly Increasing. They are making
h< ivy inroads into the busm-ss of the regular
lin.is. aa the) cui prices and reduce the coat ,?i
trnnsportatton to the lowest poaslble ligure. Sa
v.untali. Charleston, Sea Orleans and all the
cast cli\ harbors ar. full of ti,.-.? Rut-opean
tramps al this season of th?e year, and their item?
ing and going gi\?? ,m appearance ol greal ae
Uvlt) to the harbor.
In addition to th?? ,,rmy of original purchasers
In the tbl I and tin? tlrms employing them there
ar?? tb.? captalna .md crews of the tramp steamers,
th?? loaders and carters along th?? wharves, and
th.? clerks and general employes required to keep
tr.i.-W .,f tli?- stuff, wh?. ..r.? all benefited by th??
great crop. Before th.? cotton haa reached this
stag?? of Its lourney three times aa many men as
tie? farmer? who hav raised It get wages, salaries
? r ? omnilttslon? from ih.? croi?. In all of the oast
I .nies there ar?? thousands of men almost entirely
' sustain? d by ttie ? otton crop for ut least six months
I of the year. Wharves, warehouses and stock eg
', change? that hav?? been dull and .Insert-*.1 for half
? a \.?.??? "iidd. niy become s.-cues of gnat activity.
New York ?'Ity is. aft.r all. th. great centring
place for th?? cotton crop, and it moves toward
I this City from all parts of the South as steadily
I as Iron tilings are attracted to magnets. If It
were not for th.- fb-ct of tramp steamers engaged
, In ocan ctton carrying nearly all of the annual
.top would com.? to New-York, ?s in former years.
' Most ..f ib?? cotton is brought here by the regular
' coasting steamers, and is then shipped Immedi?
ate!) to Liverpool, New-England .?r elsewh? r??
N? w Voik do.s not consume the product, but
'. m. rl?. acts as th?? great distributing centre for tho
? cotintrx and Kurope. Th?? cotton wharves of N'ew
Vork are extensive affairs, and Jus? sa BOOH as
' the harvesting season opens a greal arm) of men
is Bel at work on then t.? bandi.? the fleec)
produci of th?? South.
I.tiAHlN?; TIIK ?T?MELA.
In the Southern cltl-s negroos load tb?? v.>s, |s
! with the bales of ?otton to the ton.? of old Southern
melodica, but in New-York white 'longshoremen
lake their places, and It is rarely that a negro is
found among them Th?? ctton 'lonsshorenvn
? hang around in groups at th'? different street cor?
? nera, am! When a vessel Is ready for unloading
I a shrill Whistle calls them to their ?luty. ?very
man Is a strong, Strapping follow, for the biles
of cotton weigh Sen pounds and mor??. Th?? 'long?
shoremen are not on salary, nor ar.? they regularly
engaged by th?? ?lay or season, but most of t?iem
Und Btead) work from certain llrnts th?? year round.
Th? )? receive from ii to 8 cents an hour, and they
generally make mur.? In a week in th,? cotton sea?
son than most freight bandltrs
A greal dtral of the ?otton consigned to New
York Is sold bofore It Lidies the city, and upon
Its arrival It to Immediately transferred and shipped
to Minn? other part of the worbl. Some goes Into
storage, to wait for customers, but most of It is
qulcku sent to th?? consumer There Is conso
quentl) a groat ?leal of transferring from wharf
t.. wharf, and In this work th?? truckmen and
w.rkm.n on the lighters und employment. An?
other entirely new class of emploies numbering
thousand? thus tin?! that the cotton harvesting
soa-on brings them money ami stead) work for an?
other seas,tn Th?? truckmen take the cotton that
is transferred fnon one wharf to another near by,
bin the lighters ar?? employed when the liabs are
s?nt any .listan??.?. The trucks generally carry.
about twelve to fifteen bales at once, while the
lighters are capable of transferring in each loud
from l.gM to l.MO bales The prie Is 1.', cents u
balk In either cas.?, or. aft.r the cost of loading
and unloading Is deducted, it amounts to 13 cents.
Some of th. largo cotton dealers have their own
truckmen and lighters, and they relue?? the cost to
a smaller figure In this way Other owners of
lighters and tru. ks charter their plants to the
large romp, nies for the season, or a boss truck
in.m owning a dosen trucks will mak-? some con
t act with the companies ? transfer their cotton
at a f1xe?l sum for the season. The amount of
handling the cotton receive* In New-Torn Is great,
?tnd fully 30,000 men are employed In the various
line? of the work. The regular cotton carrying
ships have m??!ilnery for loading and unloading
the heavy hale?, and they save a great deal of
labor The heavy derrick? pick the bales up from
th?? ship's hold and swing them to the pier, where
the trucks ?ir?? reads to load and carry them away.
The staple product of the South con?d be followed
further In its progress, showing how at each step
It brings work io a new army of men. but enough
has been sai.l to make it clear that the cotton
farmer Is only ?. small part of th?? ma ? ? affected
t>y the crop. From New-York the hales go to
th?? Liverpool or N? w-Knglan.l factories. whe?e
they ir?? wovm into .loth Her?? the employes are
numbered i>> th.? Jiundreds of thousands. Incl
dentally, employment Is given also to the men
engaged In manufacturing jute Lagging. Iron hoops
an?! farm Implements and machinery, OB the va?
rious exchange? there are hundreds of men who
mak.? th.ir living |n speculating in cotton, and
they must h?? class. ?I among the great numbers
who ar?? dependent wholly or In part upon the cot?
ton yield f?r (heir hr. a?l an?! hinter.
BOMB KXTKRTAlNINi! PKTAILS OF THEIR
UVM AMI WAYS
TIkr?? were some Interesting details concerning
elephants la s ?nmvaraatloa hei.i in London the
other day l.y a repr.s. utatn .? ot "!!!,,,k an?! White"
with Mr. t'tirinah. one ,.f the directors of the Lon
?lon and Hurm.ih Merchandise Company. Tho
COmpaay had import.?.! a troop of the great beasts.
and they were rocking themselves to and fro ln
their open she,|. i?.|Mg fe,i with c.ikes hy children
?is tb? two men talked
"V.s," sal?! Mr. I'unnah. "that see-saw movement
is odd. I U'lleve it an exhibition of contentment. I
know, tho ich. that this habit nearly capsized the
??ss. I wh.-ciu ?c h rough! two of th?m ?!?wn the
Irrawaddy. There ams a good sea on a?, we ap
proa. he.l Hangoon, ?in?! this appeared to please the
? hphants. for they began to See-MW so violently
that the ship s. ?m? ?l hk? l> to a? thrown on her
"To what purpos, s ar?? rktphanU put in India and
"The native prince? require them to enhance their
pageantry. Europeans use them chiefly in piling
Umber, dragging ordnance and hunting the tiger.
I?o no? mippOM that In moving logs an elephant
??lupini, s his trunk; he is far too chary of injuring
that sensitive organ. In point of fact he lues his
tusks, curling his trunk aroutnl th?? l?ur?len, which
often weighs half a ton. to steady it. In turning
over a heavy pi.?., h" ? ? ? varia lily take? the cord at?
tached to it between his te.'th, am!, passing the
rope over one of his tusks, obtains the benefit of
leverage. <?n the shores of all the big rivers bor
dered by teak forests be appears to b? working in
an Intelligent manner, hut In reality he is merely
obeying the Instructions of the mahout seated on
his neck, Th?? Inatructloda are conveyed by the
voice and the pressure of knees and feet It la
generally admitted thai th?? elephant Is not nearly
so Intelligent as the hors.? or dog. lie has a small
brain, though no animal excels him in ObedtSDCg
and genti ?ness, Th?? former is eseapUSsd in tiger
hunting, ami the latter is shown hi th?? excltessasst
an?! th?? s, rimmag" of hobbling wild elephants aft<*r
capture in a kheddah, where the tame mi*? display
great ?'ar?? In avoiding a dismounted native."
"Thes.? animals IK of Hi" Asiatic variety""
"T( -, there in? hut two aperte?, the African and
the AslaM'?. and both, according to the naturalist,
belong to the same genus. PouillS, ?1 p mains, how?
ever, show that once upon .1 time U*en were as
many as f.,urt.en species. It is curious that in
Ceylon males and female? alla? an generally tusk
].-- indeed, not one In M has tu-ks- while in India
quite 7'. per cent of the males are thus adorned.
Th.? tusks are ?perceptible at hlrth. and when broken
or Iniur.'l they are never reprodu.I. I ?oublies*':
you have noticed that the two malea here have
brasa curbs at th?? point ?>f their tusks; tinse arc
designed to prevent splitting or other injury.
??On j '?; elephant? have a wholesome tear of tho
tusks' and ihe one with the Uggest in a herd is
greatly reaiiected by Ins fellows, lie light? witu
th.ni 'curling the trunk carefully oui M th?? way
when h?? attack? ? tiger, for Inatance *n??,*n
elephant ha? b?een known to pitch a tig.r full tnirtj
feet dometlmei au elephant Is horn with a single
tusk; h?? i- then called <;un?V?h. an.i if the task be
the rlght-hsnd on. he Is mu--h n-vr? tu-? ?1 by the
native? It la not true mat the ?o-calleil white
elephant is an object of worship la Stem' or any?
where els.- He Is merci), valued us a tr.ak ot
nature, and kept by native princes on that ac
""Th.? elephant seems to move al a fair pace," 1
r. mark..1, u one, laden with visitors, passed us.
?Ves h. usually go.s along Bl about Hve RUMS aA
hour, bul when he likes he can get up s ?weed of
nulle fifteen miles an hour ?OU IWtlC? that his
gut ?- a -on ?f shuffle; hecannoi gallop, nor ?san?
ier nor jump, yet his agility In ?toss? tig .rough.
mountainous country I? aatonlshiog- In distri?ts
where hla food renatati of r??'ts ami the branches.
o? tn?.?- lus tuska ar?? Invaluable for digging, and
h.? commonly use? one tusk In particular, which the
, itlves call the elhsdam. or the servent In Ceylon
ills food is grass and berlmge; snd, since h?? does
not require tusks ;?? procun >uatensnce, these have
disappeared In proceea of Unse. It is said that in
the Kar North the young elephant is found with
unite a woolly hl'i??."
"The weight of a pair of line tusks must be enor?
\ m ,.r.? right; they have be? ? known to weigh a?
much si WO poua'.s. but thai Is unusual, about
?eventy-four pounds being far m??r.mmon. ThO
length from the gum Is som?? the teet, an.l the cir?
cumference at that point ?sixteen Inches. To get an
elephant's luight you have but to pass the ?ape
twice around his foot and you have hi.- height at
the ?hOUlder, Th? height of the elephant ha? be.'ii
gn?.ith exaggerated There is not an elephant
which ris.s to ten feet: eight ?????? live Inchea Is a
fair height. The native? divide elephant? Into three
classe? the Koomerlah, ilgnlfytng royal or prince?
ly; th?? Murga, a lighter animal, with longer lega,
good for last travelling, and the Pwasala. the com?
mon kind generally found In herd?
"How ar? elephants taken altv??""
"Oh, ki several way? Pitfall? represent s cruel
mode p?a. t??? -1 onl) b) natives; many ar?? thus hurt
ui falling "?? upon the other, Noosing, which is 1 f
I'.-ct.'.i by driving tarn? elephant? among th?? wild.
th. mahouts cronceallng themselrea under ?Tottis
till they hav?? an opportunity of slipping down and
passing nooses around the legs, Is ? favorite
method in some plans. Tti? Oovernmenl adopts
the kheddah principle. A large tract of country la
surrounded with a paiiaade, having a funnel
shaped opening. Where a her?! ?- ?spici a great
commotion Is produci! b) discharging guns, light?
ing tires and shouting; and the animals ar? gradu?
al!) driven toward thi entran?ce Once the ele?
phants ar.? inside the kheddah, th?? aperture Is
? ???,?? ?f. and men ar? station? ? ? hundred yards
apart to frustrate any attempi t., ??-tap. The
Leasts arc then hobbled and fast, tied b\ ropc?. to
stout I rece. U is marvellous how *oon elepttaata
,.r? tamed lu a couple of months tlicy become
do. lie laough to be ?? ? iwa) "
"What about an elephant'? keep?"
"Working, he consume? as much aa two hundred?
weight of gre.11 stuff and half ? bushel ?>i grain.
Th?? exp?ense of his keep snd hi- llablllt) to ?lisiase
in captivity ar.? diminishing bis us.? to a great ex?
tent. Still. 111 districts where logs hav.? to be
brought from Insccesalble pia??*?, he is Invaluable
"How long does the elephant live?"
"Well, that ?s ,1 disputed point Some say eighty
\. irv. others go as far as a hund?'? ?1 arci thirty.
Ir is a curlOtia fact that you neve?? rome across a
dead elephant in the forests it is mid he betakaa
himself to som?? Itmccvsaible spot t.? die It follows
that you n*ver come ?>n his skeleton unless, of
cours??, he has been wounded or accidentally hurt."
DES l'I. I \ TE8.
RUIN or THE l IRDIN
'From Tie? i^ondon Standard
Lamentation? are arising from the .lar.lin den
' Plantes, and if they ai?,? not heeo>d the decline and
fall ?if the Zoological Oardena of Pari? Will s.ion bo
eome a matter of hlstor? Valuable trees are ?iea?i,
or are .hing from lack of attention. The monkey
hou -s are in a bad wa\ ; the cages k -ft for the wild
, !.. .-ts which happen stia to be in the land of th?
; living leave much t?> be deotred, from the
point of view both of comfort and security
and the animals general!) ar?? tiuoughout the
twelve months strici otiservers ol 1 s?irt of
1 !.. nt? ? ?ll-t Five v.?ars ago th.? last survivor
..f the rhinoceros -?,, tea wenl over to the ma
lonty. and the poor beast's pia??.? ha? not
sine.? been tilled Lately there was a Kare because
the solitary hippopotamus, ag? ?l forty-one. betrayed
symptom? of a break-up, The prospect of th?? gar
?lens being left without a single representative of
thai kmil of animal provi ?I too much for the worthy
?llrei'tor. M Milne ?Edwards, who. with gnat dlf
Acuity, contrived m ?scrape torgetner 10,0s) franca,
with which be purchiaed a Juvenile member of the
trll>e, which is now on Its road to this metropoli?.
Lack of futi'ls. It scarcely need be added, is at the
bottom of this melancholy collapse The allowance
grant???! by Parliament has been cut down, ,uid
there is every likelihood of its being further cur?
tailed, if. however matter? ar?? suffered to go on
much longer at this rat.?, the only alternative will
!??? 10 shut up the sh IW .M'.it. while It Is certainly
dtttreesing to be ?omp? lieti to exhibit so-called wild
leasts In a condition of semi-starvation, with all
the courage knocked out of them and not a roar
left In them, consumptive monkeys, long Innocent
of the mischievous tricks so characteristic of the
race, snd bird? of erstwhile gay plumage which
have not the henrt to warble
"Why, are you a ?Socialist r-fTruth,