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title: 'New-York tribune. (New York [N.Y.]) 1866-1924, July 30, 1899, Image 25',
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SUNDAY, JULY IJO, 1S99.
A SATURDAY AFTERNOON CONCERT BY TIIE MARINE BAND.
In the rear of the White House.
MOSQUITO AND MALARIA.
rar oi.d indictmknt rkcknti.y re
BTJnr.loON MAJOR ROBfl BXCITLPATBB 0N1 QBNUI
AND OOWriWaa IJI.S CBARQB TO ANOTHKR.
The notion that the mopquito Is not mer?ly
aua aeconipanirncnt but an agent for tha lia
aemlnaUon of malaria ia far from havlng been
flBttablishcd to the aatiafactlon of medlcal men.
But it has just recelved the degree of recoght
tion whioh La Involved in the organlaatlon of
au ?'X|>editi<>n from England to Soutb Afrlca,
maJnly for Ihe purpo.se of investigating: the mat
The vaat extent of Brltlsh posaeSBlona ln hot
climatea lons ago warranted a apeclaJ Btudy y
Kr.Kiisn experta of tba maladies pecullar to
thr.so parts of the globe Hut only of !ate have
ai-ju'K>la devoted exclusively to tropical dlseaaeg
be*n opened on the other alde of the Atiantie.
It is under the attaplcefl of one of th^se institu
tiona that the inquiry Just referred to is to be
made. To b<* sure. th.re are other maladies
common ln bot climatea whlcb are more fatal
and which would aeem to deaerve more atten
tion. But it would be hard to name any that
ls more prevalent or causeB more artual dis
treas, short of death than malaria. It manlfeatg
ltself. too, in such a vari.-ty of w ays that it is
?ften a dinVult thing to recognlM and control.
When the doctrlne thit mosquitoee were
largely rcaponslble for malaria was Brat ad?
vanced it found its chlef corroboratlon in the
fart that a pamsltc that aeenriB to be pecullar
to the disoider in queatlofl had beea dlacovered
n-siding in moaqttltoea. This eircumstanre alone
would n< I prove Bcythlng, for one mlgbt imag
ine that the moaqultoea were merely vlctima
and rafferera ind nol actlve meana in the
further pr ipagation of the i>"st. Laveran, who
found the genn of malaria in tbe Btomacb >f
the moBqaito nearly twenty yeara ago. got so far
but no further
Two MEANfl OF INPBjCTION
Umg afterward i>r Patrlck Manson aug
peat.-d that the gcrma mlghl be conveyed to a
human Bttbject In two waya The Infected in
e?:t. aoon ifter havlng lald its egga la a pond.
d.ed', and its i ??!>? then llaintegrated Th*- <ur
vivinK paraaitea would eventually be llberated
and Bcattered ln the water Ifany ?f the flttld
aaa drunk by man the u-rmi would be trana
p.irted to hia i) tem Agaln, the pond mlgbt
dry up ar.d tbe eedimenl al tbe bottom mlgbt
te blown about ??. Ju^i and bahaJod by people
llvlng in the vtcintty. Major Donald Ross, an
army eurgeon in India, declared three y.-ars ago
that he had experlmented with the paraaltea
and had admlnlstered to BBtlvea wat.-r whicb
he had artitloially contamlnated with "malarial
Ixed moaqultoea." The natlvea developed ma?
larla. Of course, if such expertmenta were :on
ducted with proper care and ln aufilcient num
bers they would ahow that tbe moaqulto mlght
perform the miachlevoua functlon wlth whlch
it waa oredlted, although it would -tni remain
a queatlon how far its actlvlty eztended and
whether other agenclea were not much more In
Ruential ln dissemlnat?g the mlcrobea. Aa yet
thla pomt has not been cleared up aattafacto
i ?nc '.v ak f'Mture of the case was the discov
ery by aceptlci that malarla waa often lack
ing In o.-rtain localltiea where the m-' [ulto i
much in evldence. Major Roaa met thla fact
>nly a few weeka ago in an addreaa before the
Liverpool School of Tropical Medidne. On thin
oecaalon he ?preaaed the h.-iiof that it was
neceaaary to dlatingulah carefully between two
genera of moaqultoea, Culex and Anopheles. The
former breeda ln wella, claterna, tubs inri other
artlflclal reaervolra >f wat.-r. an.l bence mlghl
be called the domeatlc moaqulto. The latter
do?-a not breed In veaaeta >r artiti.iai oollectloaa
.,f wat.-r lt la a wllder and more rural m.-m
ber of the family.
THK INNOCKNT DOMB8TIC IN8ECT.
Major Roaa holda the genus Culex innocent
Of wiy share in distributin^ malarla, and in
dlctl only the genus Anopheles. lf he ia eorrect
in thla %i<-w of ? matter the distinction aervea
U in important guide in meBBurea f?>r the ex
termlnatloa of moaqultoea The dom.-stic v-a
ri.-ty would still be a source of annoyame, but
not of danger. And it would only be to the
breeding places of the other kind that Intelli
gent effort would be dlrected.
The pond or puddle in whlch the llseasa bear
Ing moaqulto !ays Ita <>ggs. aecording to the
Bngllab aurgeOB, must be large enough to allow
tbe larvae to mature, and yet BOl be big enough
tu f >?ter minnows, which would destroy th.
larvae before Ihey develop into mosrjuitocs. Ma
jor Roaa regardi the breeding places nf the genua
An iphelea as comparatlvely few in number
and easily dealt with. He thlnks that it would
be |Ulte practlcable to exterminate malarla by
j-.-ttini? ri 1 of these centres of Infertlon. Com
mentlng on tb.se utterances, "Nature" aaya:
lf it an be sh.-wn (by the \V-st African expe.
lition or itherwiae) that all the malarla in a
large town aris.-s from a few puddl.-s which can
be obliterated at a amall ezpenae, the value of
ti?e dieoovery could not be overestimated.'*
THE MARINB BAND CONCBRTB.
WIIKKK VTABHINOTON 'IKTH A BRBATH OF"
PREBH AIH IN BtlDBUBfMBR
Washington, July 29.?The concerta glven
every Baturday evenlng durlng the aummer Bea>
Bon by the kfarlne Band on the lawn In the rear
of the White House have for yeara been a feat
ure if Waahlngton llfe. It is here thal the peo
I>le who are eompelled to en lure the mldaummer
temperature of tbe capltal gather ?.kly for i
breath of freah air whlle listenlng to the itraina
if the band and catchlng a gllmpae if the Prea?
ldent and his famlly, who not Infrequently all
on the portlco durlng the concert, watching the
tnimal rd icene sn the lawn below.
Th-- music, aa i genei ii rule, la if the "popu .
!ar" /ariety It loea not asplre to i.luca
ticnal Dances, a medley if negro melodlea the
iri.vii.ibl.- iverture to Poel and Peaaant," here
and ihere Intersperaed by i snmewhal imbltioua I
attempl at composltlon by the leader or perhapa
a member of the band, the marchea of Sousa
theae form the stock In trade, the repertory, of
th.- '?orcheatra." The Washington publlc la not
muslcal, as a rule. it aska f jr little, and geta
eves leaa But II ls aweetly endurlng. And there
la t Busplcion ibroad thal it might reaent the
' ahelvlng of "popular" tunea to make room for
aomething a trlfle more artiatic
RODERR HPAN18B TORTi RB.
From The London Chronlcle
In vlew of tbe Inqulry which it is underatood
h.i.s i.n granted by the Bpanlah Oovernment
Into tbe 'jbargea if torturlng prlaorera In the
laaematea of Monjulch, II may be of interest to
set out some .f the items in the indlctmenl
made againal tbe uitboritlea. it la said. ln the
flrst place, that a reward of 10,000 pesetaa aaa
offered to any jail ofBclal who could extoii an
ivowal of guilt from ,i prisoner. Actlng under
this Btlmulua, tbe JaUera are itated to have
| forced tbe wretched creatures under thelr ?n
trol to run round th.-ir cella day and nlght for
eighty hours at a atretch, heavy whlpa being
used to keep the vlctima awake. The ofllciala
are alao said to have deprived them ol iil t.1
?ave aalt Btockflab and ardent Bplrits, confes
BtOB b.-ing the prlce ?f a glaaa if vval.T Not
a few pald it. ataked tic-ir thlrst, and. it ia con
tended, were aummarlly shot,
lt is further alleged that wedgea were driven
urci.-r the nalla of prlaonera alth hammei i, and
allowed to remaln until the nalla aloughed away.
Bven more horrlble mutllatlona are atated not
to have i.n uncommon. i >u<- >f the moat cruel
devlcea, borrowed from the Inqulaltlon, was. lt
is allirmed, a machirie like a divr's aelmet,
(Itted with a tube allowing tba vlctlra to br< athe,
whlle a screw compreased ilowly the aid
top, thus produclng Ineoncelvable agony. one
pi is.iiier, Moras, is itated lo bave undergone thla
tcrture mi re tha.-i once, and to bave o^cii driven
ma.d by iw i
THB KIND OF BTUFF THK BTRIKMM
ARK MADI OF.
THERE ARE BAID TO BE FH-'TKIIN TBOU8ANO IN*
"THK PROPEBaiOH" BTHICI I >F TtlS <"\1.I
INO 1'IIK UNIOM \NI) ITS OKFli'KKS.
Tiie New-Tork newaboy has for many reae_
'..n in Important and a consplcuoua fU'ir.- In
metropolitan Btreet acenee, bul he came iBto
>xtra irdlnary promlnence laat week >n account
of the atrlke, which waa managed on the aama
llnea ia thal ?f the streetcar employea, but
wlth better ludgment and leaa venom, Tle?
grlevancea >f the boya were few, but tlu-y w.-re
consldered aeiioua ei.gh for war, and when
?h.it w is leclared every boy felt hlmeelf a aol
dler, ready '? follow the command of the haatlly
appolnted leadera, and the dangera >f life and
limb and the pecuniary loaaea were nol tak.-ri
Into lonaideratlon when there appeared a
chance to gain *io-ir point Certain evenlng
papera are aold t,> them it 00 centa a hundred,
md 'h>-y wanted them for 10 centa leaa, ln
order to >>ring the publiahera to terma the
boya refuaed to aell (he papera, aad, llke other
sirik-rs, made leaperate efforta to prevent
othera from taklng thelr placee. The acale of
prlcea ; >r papera to the newaboyi has been ftxed
so thal they can make a fair profll >n th.-ir
Balea Th.-y pay two c.-iits for thr.nt pa?
p.-rs, one real for two cent papera, and most of
the one cenl papera coal them >a< 'half cent
The newapaper habll is .40 well leveloped ia
the i.ple of New-Tork that the newaboy hag
become 1 neceaalty, md there are few placel
in the clty where he can not be found durlng all
houra of tbe day and untll late it nlght. it r.>?
qulrea no ny llcenae nor permlt from the
Health DepartmeBl to become a veoder of i".
p.-rs. and hundreda of Ilttle chlldren ire aenl
.,ut wlth a few centa ?very mornlng by needy
people to buy md aell papera, and :>y thal
meana help toward the aupporl of the famlly.
But havlng the neceaaary capltal la not all that
tbe newaboy requlrea. He must hav- 1 place
II hia papera, ind If he Intrudea upon the
terrltory of aome newaboy who haa ilready
worked the ground ind eatabllshed a trade be
miisi be prepared to llght for the place or in
Bome a iv ompi tb the Ilttle merchant
who is ilready eatabllahed there, if the eorner
,,r tbe Wock la 1 paylng one tbe original newa
boy may take the new on* into bla employ at