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New-York tribune. (New York [N.Y.]) 1866-1924, December 23, 1900, Image 19

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THE COMING SESSION.
LEGISLATION TO BE CONSIDERED AT
ALBANY.
OPPOSITION TO FRANCHISE TAX LAW
EFFORTS IN BEHALF OF PRIZE
FIGHTING.
Albany. Dec. 3.— The political and legislative year
9 the State under a new administration is to be
opened on Tuesday. January 1. with the inaugura
te of Benjamin B. Odell. Jr.. as Governor, and on
Wednesday. January 2, with the assembling of the
c cw Legislature. The. political complexion of the
gtate i* to be unchanged. The Republican party
*r.l control the State office* and legislature. The
ic!litar>- aid civic display at Governor Qdell's tnau
raration is to be the largest seen In Albany since
David B. Hill's seoond inauguration. it Is to com
prise about seven hundred National Guardsmen
ir>6 bs many civilians. in addition to several bands.
Governor-Roosevelt and Governor-elect Odell will
I*, escorted to the Capitol, where the Governor
elect will for a short time be the guest of Governor
Itoosevelt. At 12 o'clock the formal inauguration
ceremonies are to be held in the Assembly Cham
ber. After the outgoing and incoming Governors
deliver *h<Tt addresses. Governor Odell will go to
tbs Kxeeutive Chamber and hold his first recep
tion of Slate officers, attaches of the State de
partments and citizens generally. The Capitol is
,* be thrown open for that purpose. At 4 p. m. the
Governor and Mrs. Odell will hold a reception in
tie Executive Mansion.
The newly elected legislature .-.sscmiiles at noon
en Wednesday. January i. The Senate of 60 members
1* composed of 35 Republicans and 15 Democrats, and
of the**- is are newly elected, the other 3* having
served In the last body. Last year there were only
treaty-seven Republicans to twenty-three Demo
crat?. Lieutenant-Governor T. L. Woodrufl. re-elect
ed, 'will b*- the BMsMtass officer of the body, while
Senator T. K. Ellsworth will be the president pro
tern. tease* F. \V hippie, of Catt&raugus. will be
the clerk of the body, and Charles A. Ball and
Lafayette B. Gleason will be the assistant clerks.
Tne committees are appointed by President pro
teja. Ellsworth, and the chairmanships of the most
important will not be changed from those of th»
>a«t few years. Senator Hlgglns will head the
pißaiire Committee. Senator Bracken the Judici
ary Senator Krum the Taxation. Senator Strana
har the Cities. Senator Raines the Railroads. Sen
ator Davis the <"anals. Senator Parsons the Insur
er* snd Senator Ambler The Agriculture.
It te understood that Senator White, of Onon
itca. will be on prominent committees this year.
ted that hr xvi'l head Miscellaneous Corporations.
Thomas F. Grady. of New-York, will lead the
minority or the floor of the Senate.
In the Assembly, of the 150 members Mi are Re
publicans and only 43 are Democrats. Of the total
number only V. are new members, the unusual
number of 303 members having been re-elected. S.
Fn>d Nixon, of Chautsuqua. who has presided over
the body for the last two years, will again be
Speaker, and J. P. Allds, of Chenango. who led the
majority lasi year, will be the Republican leader
on the floor again. John McKeown. of Kings, who
but served for six years In the House, will lead
the minority on the Boor. Colonel Archie K. Bax-'
t*r of Chemung. will be the Clerk of the House;
Ray S. Smith, of Onondaga. will be the assistant
clerk, and John Glover, of Chenango. the reading
clerfei
As ir the Senate, the chairmanships will be head
ed by the same men who h*-ld them last year.
*llds will head the Ways and Means Committee,
Kelsey. of Livingston. Cities; De Gram-, of Klnfis.
Taxation; Bedell, of Orange. Railroads; Fish, of
Madison General Laws: Morgan, of Kings. Com
merce and Navigation: Treat, of Cayuga. Banks;
irgar of Westchester. is liable to get Gas and
Electricity, and Burnett, of Ontario. Canals.
The two parties In both houses hold caucuses
,• Tuesday night, January 1. to select officers.
Th» only business to be transacted on January 2
will be that of organization and listening to Gov
ernor's OdelVs first annual message.
A LONG SESSION.
The indications are that the legislative session
will be a long one. for very important measures
c! general interest are likely to come up.
So well has the second class city charter worked
that it may be in modified form applied to third
cites cities, so as to force regularity, particularly
in regard to finances. The amendments to the
)gew-Tork City Charter proposed by the Commis
sion will necessarily cause much discussion, and
the proposed single headed, or bl-partlsan. police
hill for the same city will undoubtedly be a trouble
tome bill to pase.
The newly elected Governor, it is known, favors
rome method by which, in equity, the burden of
real estate taxation- can be relieved, and a modified
bill tor the taxation of mortgages and possibly of
esvitiitrs banks accounts will undoubtedly be the
outcome of suggestions of his. Several amend
¦i MM* to the Constitution are pending and to be
ror«J on. They have been passed on favorably ny
the people and it wait Indorsement by the Legis-
Uture before again being sent to the people for
final Indorsement. They are:
First— An amendment to Article VI. providing for
the election of three additional Supreme Court
Justices In the Second District, comprising Kings
County. r .
Second— An amendment to Article 111. Section 11.
detailing the. Instances of prohibition of the Legis
lature in passing private or local bills by providing
that they shall not grant to any person, associa
tion, firm or corporation an exemption from taxa
tion on real or personal property.
That would seem to forbid further exemption of
church or asylum property.
It is pretty well understood that attempts will be
nsade to destroy the Franchise Tax law. but careful
scrutiny will be given corporation bills, and it is
possible that the legislature will be. asked to per
fect a bill In a way so that at least one of the ex
cuses raised by the corporations will not b<» valid.
As the law 'stands ordering the State Board to
assess in a certain manner, i' gives a chance for
discrepancies between the State Board's assess
ment and that of local assessors. It is proposed to
remedy the law so as to either compel the local
boards to assess at full value in a certain manner
rr else allow th« Etate Board some latitude in the
matter. One thing i? certain, the Legislature will
rot take the law from the statute "books.
ANTI-DIVORCE BILL.
A- anti-divorce scandal bill, which will be vigor
ously pressed by the clergy of the State, particu
larly of the Roman Catholic a»d Episcopal faiths.
Is promiM-d. It ie to provide for a public defender
In all cases where" courts now have authority to
iesijrnat* an attorney to defend the accused. The.
public defender will also appear In divorce fas'--.
The <""o<3e now permits the Court to assign an at
torney to defend murderers, ant! the county has to
pay im M The ft* in such instances frequently
runs- as high an y "¦"¦' A public defender would v
c»fve that sum for his annual salary, and would
thereby rave the county « considerable sum. It is
urxed that while the bill would not stop divorces
altogether, i' would stop the fraud and collusion to
a great extent now apparent.
Hf-natnr Elsberg promises to continue the liveiv
tiror-s of last winter over New-York City school
affairs. M' ha» a bill for centralizing control of
*rhr,ol affairs. Ii will substitute for the present
system a central board of education, composed of
• < ¦¦••. or more members appointed directly by
the Mayor and will give the city Superintendent
«f Schools increased power, creating a board of
whi^h he will be the head and the borough super
intendents his subordinates. At present all the
W'-urh superintendent* ir* independent of the
ciry Superintendent. The city Superintendents
t">+,f-r* now are limited. The boroueh boards will
be w!r*d out. One of the chief objections to the
biJI last year was that it gave to Manhattan too
much power. Its new purpose will be to give
Brnoklvn equal representation 'in the Central
*»<->ard.' The I*lll will be presented early in Janu
ary. T»ie chances are thai the bill will be strongly
orpoiw-d by a majority of th" representatives or
all ... boroughs except Manhattan and The Bronx.
Brooklyn. Queens and Richmond all favor more
horn* rule and leas centralization.
"With the ides that strikes may possibly be pre
vented, or at least minimized. AlieisiMywn < os
t«l!o, of Oswe«n County, will Introduce a bill to
cr#at* a court of arbitration, composed of one
T«-f.r*f~m^tive of the labor organization wpicn nas
trouble* on its hands one representative of capi
tal and a ju«lce of the Supreme Court, who is
to h* the- president of the court. The decisions
of the court «re to h*> final. The bill is drawn
along the same lines as the New-Zealand law. it
will jr.- that the labor organizations name
a man for a court of arbitration, and that em
ployers do likewise, and if these men are satis
factory IS) the <;.-v<rri..r he t.UI appoint them. But
the Governor will select a justice of the Supreme
' ourt. who will be- president of the court. All
differences arising between an employer and his
men are to be submitted to this court, and while
these differences are under consideration the men
to continue at work. The court will have full
powtr to subpoena witnesses and examine them,
and to jjiinipn them for contempt if they fail to
obey the summons. The action of the court will
b«- final, and th*- men or the employers will be
bound to accept the result The men may quit if
th««v do not wieh t< work in the factory or shops.
but" they will be dealt with severely if they at
tempt to interfere with others who go to work in
tiie same factory after the court has decided that
they arc in the wrong.
TO AID CREDITORS.
The merchants' associations in the Stair are out
tor a number of Jaws to aid them In collection from
their debtors, Hem if »*•! they propose to ask:
First-The repeal of Chapter HI of the Laws of
TO* which took effect on September 1. ISSS, and
prohibit* suing a debtor who is a resident .if an
Incorporated city In any town In the county outside ,
«jf the city. __ , ._ .
Seccnd-The repeal of Chapter 1-3 cf the !«i»> of
¦X, and amending Section 2.66* of the Code of Civil
Procedure, which require* a non-resident to sue In i
the town where the defendant resides.
Third— To have i«ubßt;tuted therefor a law per
mitting accounts to be sued in any town in the
county, as the ia«v formerly was before this leg|«
lattoa.
Fourth— Tfce repeal of that part of Section 1.819
the Code of Civil Procedure which gives a debtor
•SO exemption from levy and sale under execution
L* *** of what was formerly exempt.
Fifth— The enactment of an adequate "farnifJi
•J*t>t law" to reach the wages of a debtor under
Jl^Per condition* and to reach money*, good*.
•yRa ar»«S property in the hands of third parties.
*~*tbr-Th» eaacuncot cf • law making the wife
v » »> liable, with, the husband for all household
necessities, ** ter execution against the husband
Er«,J^" 1 " r *, tor n*d unsatisfied, and the, wife baa
property assigned to her by her husband.
th- V n . Tho enactment of a law reconstructing
laborers 0 * ° 38 to 'P rot "* ct material men and
oZ he .iT*. port of th * State Engineer on the canals
•nd 1 their enlargements will not be ready until
¦ISi!!!?!. ..f"/ of January.. but when it is com
pleted it will be sent to the Legislature with a spe
cial message by Governor Odell. It will. it Is
understood recommend the construction of a barge
canal, with the route cnangied from the present
i.rje route, so a( ' to make its construction cheaper.
Electricity will be suggested as the motive power.
the .supply ¦• to be maintained from great power
££* .£, fa & ara £*"" and the Genesee River. It
is computed that the cost for transportation after
mmS7r e mll" eCamplet (!wllJ be only *>*" a
An amendment to the primary law is suggested
££820* th * * lee " on district organization plaY It
P fZ «\i eS •iilJfjrW 011 « Ilstrlct association In each
election district in the city of New- York to be
formed immediately after the June enrolment of
primary voters. Each association must meet at
least four times a year, and its elected president
must ( be recognised as the leader or the repre
sentative of the district • .p ™
The Superintendent of State Prisons. C. V Col
lins: State Commissioner of Prisons and the f fiends
lof prison reform will make- earnest effort this
winter: to secure .the passage of an appropriation
by the- next Legislature for the erection of a sepa
rate prison for criminals under sentence of death
between $».«* and $40,000. a bUUdIn * * P |aced at
It is said that a bill to centralise the <?tat«
prisons, possibly al Albany, will also be introduced
Both Sing Sing and Auburn prisons are old build
ings and antiquated as far as modern improve
ments are concerned, and Sing Sing is generally
overcrowded the year round, which necessitates the
convicts doubling up in their cells a "*ie 3 me
Another reason for the centralization scheme
Is that it would tend to simplify the industrial"!
terprises at these prisons and materially reduce
the tost of shipping. * ™ ule
In the event of the passage of such a bill Clinton
Prison which is practically a new structure will
be utilized for the reception of insane and con
sumptive criminals. *•""
Assemblyman Stevens, of Franklin County, will
introduce the Pure Bfer bill. It was this bill that
was the cause of an all night session of the Senate
and which lacked only two votes of being passed
The bill provides for the elimination of glucose in
the manufacture of beer, and specifies" that pure
water, pure malt and pure hops shall be used
Senator Armstrong will introduce a bill to pre
vent corporations from becoming incorporated with
capital stock largely in excess of the company's
assets when the concern applies for incorporation
under the State laws. Such a law has worked well
in Massachusetts).
A bill will be introduced licensing architects, so
that they may be held responsible for the faulty
construction of . buildings.
It is said thai a bill will be introduced to re
vive boxing and sparring by placing it under
jurisdiction of a commission.
AMMALB FOR ADVERTISING.
THE« SPREAD OF THE USE OF BEASTS YO INDI
CATE A BUSINESS
The furrier is not the only business man who
finds use for animals in an advertising way. Ever
pin^e stores became stores the stuffed bear on a
sidewaik stand has been the sign of a fur store,
and a window full of crouching, fierce looking for
est cats a sure indication that a taxidermist lurked
somewhere behind.
It is more than likely that the other lines of
business took the idea from this. It has spread to
such an extent tha' a drygoods merchant In a
neighboring city has a monster black bear dis
played in front of the main entrance to his store.
The bear giv«e no idea of the sort of goods dis
played within, except on rainy days, when it is
decorated with a ninckintos»h specially constructed
to cover his brwad shoulders.
(Jlovemakers have for some time been using long
hairt-d goats for window advertising. Many a meat
market has the stuffed head of an ox or a cow
hung behind the chopping blocks. Stuffed dogs have
become common in sporting goods stores, and dis
play the most elaborate collars to advantage. Shoe
dealers flnd in the stuffed kangaroo a potent draw
ing card to attract attention to their neavleT foot
wear. The makers of pocket 1 ooks i<nd other fancy
notions in which alligator hide is ,ised have taken
pre;'t trouble to import stuffed alligators, big and
little, for window display. One enterprising com
pany has an exhibit of alligators, which it lets out
to merchants for a week at a time.
It is ftils sort of advertising that eives to a
menagerie salvage on the death of any of its bigger
animals. There is a good demand for tiger? anJ
lions, which majie startling window displays when
artistically mounted.
RUSSIAN XOTEB OF ESTEREST.
PLAN TO GIVE THE VOLGA AN OUTLET TO THE
I BLACK SEA.
St. Petersburg:, Dec. ? — Fwjlglan- capitalists' are"
planning a canal between the Volga and the Don
rivers at the point where they are separated by,
only about sixty miles. The chain of hills on the
right bank of the Volga offers a considerable ob
stacle, but one which is not . considered unsur
mountable. The cist is estimated at J35.000.000 or
Ht,eOß,<Me. Representatives of the Belgian capi
talists will arrive here within a few weeks to ne
gotiate with the Ministries of Finance and Ways
of Communication. This canal will, if constructed,
give the Volga, the greatest river in Europe, an
outlet to the Black Sea and connect the Caspian
an.l the Black seas.
The Minister of Ways of Communication, Prince
Xhilkoff. will ask for appropriations to the amount
of M,4H > , a W rubles for the approaching year, as
against P9.«00/¥X> rubles last year. Half of this
amount will be for new rolling stock and half for
construction. Five millions will be asked for to
continue the railroad line from Wltepsk to
Jlobln on the right bank of the Dnieper, the total
cost of which will be 16,000.000 rubles, ;,000,000
for a belt line hi Moscow. 7.7"0.0nn to continue
the line from Kieff to Kovel. 2,000,000 for the pro
longation of the Tiflis-Kars road. 5,3W,0n0 for
the Transbaikalia and 3,500,000 additional for the
< taenburg-Taehkend
The Metallurgical <"ongress of South Russia took
steps to found a mining bank at Kharkoff, with a
capital of 5,000.000 rubles.
The Volga Ri\er Commission will recommend the
expenditure of •0,000,000 rubles in the regulation of
this stream It is estimated that 4,010.000 rubles
annually will be required to maintain the works.
The sale of 40/«yi,iH«i pood of Krivorosk ores to
Bllesian iron interests is reported at the price of
seven kopecks a pood.
The Government will make exhaustive trials of
the Popoff system of wireless telegraphy during
this winter.
SEW YORK STATE HOI' MARKET.
S. iMi: A<Tl\-ITY PHOWX. WITH PMCEB RATHBB
ABOVE THE NORMAL
L'Uca, N. V.. Dec. .'2 (Special). -The hop market
In the central part of the State shows some ac
tivity with figures ruling at from U to 1« cents.
The bracers are. as a rule, indifferent over the
market.' for BO far they have been able to obtain
about all the hops they want at prices which they
consider nominal for this time ef year. An ad
rance took place early in the season, which was
said to have been caused by the anticipation of
England's requirements. The dealers and the
f. r ,, W frs appeared to lose sight of the fact that
there was a large quantity of old hops carried by
the Knglish l.rewer«. which made them indifferent
trayerg at the time, and they have continued to be
so throughout the season. It appears that prices
have reached their highest notch for this year.
Dealer* do not look for an advance, expecting that
the market will remain about as it is until the new
crop appears.
Some of the best growths of Central New-York
are yet in the hands of the growers. They are held
at firm figures, being of fancy grades. Some recent
sales of Inferior grades have been at 14 cents.
Many brewers have a full stock, preferring to wait
before placing their orders, and they will take
chances on the market's advancing. Early in the
season the growers said they would have only
about half a crop, and the dealers and sack manu
facturers, taking them at their word, made prepa
rations for this emergency. The sack manufactur
ers made sacks for half a crop, but when harvested
it was discovered that the crop in this State was
considerably larger than last year, and the supply
of sacks was not large enough.
SA LVA 77O.V ARMY'S AX XI A L REPORT.
The annual report of the Salvation Army in
America has been published in an illuminated and
Illustrated pamphlet, Issued from the headquarter*
In West Fourteenth-st.. and the balance sheet
BhSWa that on September 30 the Army had »f>eets
amounting to t^L'I.CT-S. The expenses for the mainten
ance of the National headquarters of the Army
for the year ending on that date amounted to fM 1,
$1271. The income and expenditure for social and
relief branches were each $59,<33 90. The income and
expenditure of the property section amounted to
jls.M4 &>. The "self-denial" income and expenditure
ieucli«i fH.Stt 17. The Income of the Army's "har
v.M festival" In lt» was $2f1.*72 CO. The winter re
lief fund was $9,179 2*. The Oalveston Relief Fund
of the Army was $^.32SJa. The Indian Mission snd
Famine Fund amounted to HJHB, and the disabled
officers' fund wan 114.437 54.
MQLADBOX A SBOOTJSa.
Squadron A will hold a shooting <-ompetition for
the Carbine Challenge Cup at the armory on Satur
day evening. January 12. Arrangements to hold a
mounted tournament will shortly he made
THE REAL THING
In bargains may be found in the little advertise
ments of the people in the narrow columns of to
day* paper. . _ „. — ... ____
NEW-YORK DAILY TRIBUNE. SUNDAY. DECEMBER 2a 1000.
INDUSTRIAL, COMMISSION.
COLONEL, CLARKE TALKS OF WHAT HAS
BEEN DONE IN REGARD TO TRI'STS.
LABOR AND OTHER SUBJECTS
OF INVESTIGATION.
Philadelphia. Dec. 22 (Special).— The following
statement was made to-day tn this city by Colonel
Albert Clarke, of Boston, chairman of the Sub-
Commission of the United Slates Industrial Com
mission on Conditions of Labor and Capital Fm
ployed in Manufacturing and General Business:
The inquiry into the trusts is only a part of the
duty imposed upon the I'nlted States Industrial
Commission by law, but it is an Important part,
and we have given it early and prominent place on
account of the public Interest In the topic. The
preliminary report upon the trusts was the first of
our reports upon the trusts to be sent to Congress.
We have since continued investigations of this
subject, with others, and we shall continue until
we have exhausted the cjuestioD or our time. Our
THE I'FOri.KS BATHS. XO. 9 CENTRE MARKET PLACE.
first conclusions will be reported to Congress,, and
possibly to t the several State Legislatures some
time within a year. ..¦..".
Although the Commission has especially reserved
the subject of trusts for fuller treatment, it has
made several recommendations on this important
topic ; It has recommended uniform corporation
law.«. publicity, public supervision to prevent stock
offering and fraud and more power. to the Inter
state Commission and to the courts for the stop
ping of. discrimination and favoritism among ship
pers,- which many regard as the. chief danger and
evil incident to great combinations. ¦
It will be premature now to give the results of
the inquiry Into the trusts of Kurope. The report
of our special agont who went abroad has not
yet been submitted, r>ut in urief it may be said
that nil the chief industries In Great Britain and
the Continental countries are as much syndicated
as similar industries here are. This. lias been the
case in Austria for some thirty years. I dp not
know what the Commission will say. Inn for my
self I do not believe that the trusts in 'Europe or
in the United States are dependent upon tariffs.
Great Britain lists free trade. All th- other coun
tries have varying degrees of protection, and there,
as here, some of the largest trusts arc found in In
dustries which have no protection.- ,
Labor questions have entered extensively into
the Investigations : of the Commission". Nearly all
the great labor loaders. National ami- local.- have
testified in extenso, and when the large employers
of labor have been before the Commission its
labor members have questi->sawl them thoroughly
and In detail. Only once hav<**l heard of. any feel
ing in labor circles that the Commission has not
given sufficient attention to -labor or has not treat
ed it fairly. And ore of the Labor Commission
ers said this fe»Mitiß was ere.-.tod by one or two
men who had failed to he appointed to the body.
The Commission has already reported on the sub
ject of labor, recommending the advanced labor
'laws of New-York :tnd Massachusetts, shorter
days, prohibition of child labor in factories and
stores, compulsory education, factory Instead of
tenement production, restriction of convict made
goods and the protection of States imposing these
limits in Interstate commerce in such goods.
The Commission has reported asainst injunctions
upon masses of unnamed defendants, against
abuses of process for con tempi of court and against
"Pinkertonism."
It lias taken a step toward compulsory arbitra
tion by recommending that whoever begins a strike
or lockout without first trying in good faith to ar
bitrate shall be subjected to an appropriate pen
alty.
The name of "Industrial Commission was con
ferred upon the body by the law of Congress
which created it and charged it with the duty of
inquiring into the condition and the methods of
the great industries of the country and of report
ing to Congress and the State legislatures as to
the need of any changes in the law?. In existence
since October. 1896, the Commission has sent to
Congress five volumes of reports and others are
in press. The reports already presented include
one. which is preliminary, upon trusts and corpora
tions; a second, which covers the trust incorpora
tion laws and digests of the decisions of the
courts; a third devoted to prison labor; another on
transportation, and finally one which covers labor
legislation, together with court decisions on this
vital subject. The reports now being printed givs
one volume to the Chicago labor difficulty an
other to agricultural conditions, especially in re
lation to the transportation and marketing of
product*., and at ill another on agrlcultur^ which
relatt-s to the prices realized by the farmer. th»
cost of tbeVame articles to the consumer, and the
profit of the middle man.
There is in band also a volume on manufactures
and general business, which Involves tariff trans
portation and labor .luestloiw and the problem of
deuLrtmei,i item. Three other volumes now in
the handM of the printer embrace Immigration.
mining and industrial education. The lnveßtlga
tlon of the Commission which la now in proem*
rllateVto arbitration, domestic service-sometimes
t ',l"ed the "servant- girl oue9tion >> -taxation of
Corporations the anthracite coal and transporta
tion ties*, trusts and combinations in Europe,
KhIDS and subsidies, the sweating "Vat"™, dis
tribution of Immigrant* and further Inquiries Into
consolidation and railroad discrimination If there
, time enough the telegraph and telephone will
»f« looked into, and there is already considerable
evidence as to corporations which give public ser
vice and as to natural monopolies.
There has been considerable uncertainty in the
public mind hi. to the form In which this testimony
Fs i to be presented. I may »ay tint It will be given
in better form than the world has ever before «en.
First an abstract or digest Is carefully prepared.
usually about one-quarter the length or the testi
mony itself. The digest has references to the n«rn-i
of the witness and the pace of the teeuruon. . with
cross references to other testimony pro and MM on
the same subject. A review of the testlmom. isU
ing its general purport, is then written, the lenstfa
being one-quarter the length of the digest. Finally,
a topical and alphabetical index is made, whi- h
affords quick reference to the testimony both by
the subject and the name of the witness Coatrasi
this for a moment with the voluminous report of
the British Royal Commission on the Depression of
Industries, issued about a dozen years ago. which
was so valuable that American economists gener
ally studied it. but of which I had to make an in
dex of my own before I could flnd anything with
out a long search. The busy legislator or writer
or student who wishes to quickly find anything tn
our reports will be able to turn to it instantly; or.
If he wishes a comprehensive knowledge of what is
treated in any volume which he picks up he can.
within half an hour or ar. hour read the review.
If he can devote a little more time and desires to
know the purport of the evidence, he can look un
der Its appropriate heading In the digest or ab
stract: ana if he has leisure or has occasion to
particularize he can read in full the evidence given
by each witness, revised and corrected by him^eir
I speak of this so fully in order to show that the
Commission's work is not going to fall flat, or be
buried; and thus speedily become worthless. On
the contrary, owing to the convenience of consult
ing the reports and to the live interest in the many
important subjects investigated, the work will pos
f«-ss Immediate and historic value and will be more
consulted and referred to than any similar number
of volumes ever issued by the Government.
The Commission has employed a number of ex
perts, not only in prosecuting the investigations,
but in helping in the preparation of a volume. Sev
eral of the experts are still at work, hut all are now
under a time limit for making their reports. Bob
commissions have visited different parts of the
country, and a special commission is now sitting
in Philadelphia.
MORE THAN' ONE HUNDRED AND THIRTY THOU
BAND WERE GIVEN LAST TEA II FOR
. . FIVE : CENTS EACH.
Public attention has been directed anew to the
People's BathS at No. 9 Centre Market Place, be
cause, of the extravagant demand made by Com
missioner Kearney of the Department of Public
Buildings, ' Lighting and Supplies, for $35,000 with
which to maintain for one year, the new public
baths In . Rlvington-st. . Almost every taxpayer
knows to his sorrow that the estimates made by
Tammany Commissioners are invariably needlessly
large, but seldom is a standard with which to
compare them presented so aptly as In this case.
Exactly the same kind of work as Kearney de
mands $".1,000 for wns done by the New-York Asso
ciation for Improving the Condition of the Poor
last year for $.1. 775 35. The society has managed
for eight years the People's Baths at No. 9 Centre
Market Place. The plant represents an expendi
ture of about JSO.O 111 ). It. Is erected upon land be
longing to a kindred organization, for which no
ground rent is charged. Its only revenue is derived
from the charge of five cents made to each bather
for soap and towel. The city furnishes the water
free of charge. In the first year the expenses
amounted to $5,077 75, and the receipts from 59,440
bathers amounted to $2,794. I*»st year the expenses
amounted to $5.775 35 anil the receipts from 130,477
bathers to $6.203 05.
THE XEW BTEAMBBIP AVERICAX.
ONE OF SEVEN TO DE PLACED IN THE HAWAIIAN
TRADE.
The new steamship American, of the American-
Hawaiian Company, represents the progressiveness
of the freight carrying interests of this port, as it
is one of seven steamers to be devoted to the carry
ing of freight between here and San Francisco and
the Hawaiian Islands, giving a monthly service be
—___—. tir _
THE AMERICAN.
New steamer of the American-Hawaiian Company.
tween these points, and taking tha place of sailing
packets, which heretofore have had the trade.
These steamers are the first to be built In this
country for this purpose. They are classed under
British Lloyds, four of them being of B.SOO tons and
three of 12.000' tons. The latter will be equipped
with twin screws, having a speed of twelve knots.
The company has also contracted for two other
steamers of 5.000 tons with twin screws, having a
speed of thirteen knots. They will also have large
cold storage capacity for the trade between San
Francisco «nd Hawaii.
A - LOXG ; ELECTRIC ... POWER CIRCIIT.
From The Iron Age. ; •
A press dispatch from Seattle. Wash., states that
the Snoqualmle Falls Power Company, of that city,
recently performed a novel 'feat In the driving of
an electric motor. 163 miles -distant from the gen
erator. ¦ All the transmission lines of the company
were connected in one continuous circuit, com
mencing at Snoqualmie Falls, "running; to Seattle,
back to the fall*, then to Tacoma and back again
to the fall*. The regular transmission is thirty-two
miles to Seattle and forty-four miles to Tacoma.
The tent* »»re conducted for experimental pur
pose* only and to show that electric transmission
of power can be made commercially practical at
much greater distances than hat heretofore been
contemplated. . -:r- : '- .. . _
PATHS AT VIXIMCM COST.
HOLIDAYS AT LAKEWOOD.
Mlsicai. l'i:u«;i;.\MMr:s AND SOCIAL
i:\K\TS-ARRIVALSOFTHK W Kfk
Lakewood. X. J., Dec. 22 (Special).— The holiday
festivities of Lakewood, beginning with the read
ings by Miss Ethel Henry, of London, at the Uaurel
in-the-Pines last evening, will extend well Into
the new year, and with the participation of all ho
tels, the two clubs of the place, and house parties
among cottages, will make up a very full and inter
esting programme. Miss Henry's entertainment,
given under the patronage of Mrs. Gould, attracted
a large audience, and the reader's part <fl the pro
gramme was supplemented by some pleasing num
bers by Percy L. Smith, barytone. Other events
at the Laurel-in-the-Plnes during the coming week
will include special music on Sunday evening pre
ceding Christmas, special dally programmes by the
orchestra, an afternoon musical, and the New
Tear's ball on Monday evening.
At the Laurel House special attention will be paid
to the musical programme on Sunday evening and
at the daily concerts. A children's dancing party,
under the direction of Miss Dwight. of New-York,
will fill one afternoon of next week. The sophomore
students of Columbia College will present the farce
"Professor Whimsical. " by Leonidas Westervelt, re
cently given at Carnegie Hall, on Friday evening,
and the holiday ball will occur on Tuesday evening.
January 1.
At the Lakewood Hotel special music will be
given on Sunday evening and at the daily concerts
A play entitled '•Cinderella" is being prepared by
the school children, under direction of Miss O'Xeil.
and a vaudeville entertainnent by the "Review
Comedy Four" is set down for Saturday evening.
December 29. The latter attraction Includes the en
tertaining service of George W. Day, with Messrs.
Johnson and Alto, all of whom are "top liners." in
the parlance of the continuous houses. Following
the comedy the floor will be cleared for dancing.
The date of the New Year's ball, always elaborate
at this house, has not yet been definitely an
nounced, but It will occur on Monday or Tuesday.
In the village the social events of the season in
clude an elaborate "coming out" party at the home
of Mrs. William B. Leeds, when Miss Bessie Leeds
will be introduced to society, and the affair will
have the attendance of many people socially prom
inent in New-York and Brooklyn. The usual Sun
day school Christmas festivities' at the several
churches are In process of preparation, and early
In January a tea and musical for the benefit of the
V.' omen's Auxiliary' of All Saints' Episcopal Church
is to be given at Georgian Court. On this cccasion
tea and chocolate tables will be in charge of Mrs.
Kingdon and >lrs. Gould. Cake, candy and fruit
tables will have the care of Mr 3. William A. Ham
ilton, Mrs. Walter Rush Bynner and Mrs. H. Lloyd
Herbert respectively, all to be assisted by members
of the society and church. The musical programme
Is In charge of Mrs. Albert M. Bradshaw and Mrs.
David B. Plumer. A "rummage sale" for the bene
fit of the Lakewood public library is also to be
given at the residence of Mrs. O'Leary in the first
week of Jar.vary, those in charge being Mrs. W. B.
Leeds. Mrs. M. V. Willis and Miss C. Van Note.
A NEW SPEEDWAY.
In the line of sporting attractions, the week's in
terest centres about a new speedway, which will
be opened on Christmas Day by local owners of
harness horses. The track is owned by P. S. P.
Randolph, president of the Point Judith Country
•Club, who spent last season here with his family.
Being particularly interested in running horses,
Mr. Randolph thought Lakewood a favorable point
for winter work, and bought a tract of 140 acres
about two milea outside the village, where he has
constructed a three-quarter mile track 60 feet In
width and of oval form, with a handsome cot
tage for his trainer, boxstall accommodations for
twelve horses, sheds and hostlers' quarters. Mr.
Randolph's horses are at present in Washington,
and will be brought here soon by the trainer. In
the mean time he extends the use of the track to
the horsemen of Lakewood. who have made up an
interesting programme of events for Christmas
Day. At the Country Club bird traps a special
Christmas event of a twenty-five bird handicap rise
for a handsome prize presented by George J. Gould,
president of the club, will attract many well
known wine: shots, while the golf fixtures of the
week will be carried through on regular dates. At
the Lakewood Club the regular Saturday handicap
begins to-day, and will continue as a fixture until
spring.
Christmas music ;it All Saints' Memorial Church
will be suited to the occasion as usual, and in the
morning progromme a Venite and Kyrie Eleison
will be used, composed by Mrs. Charles EL Burn
ham. At the Church of St. Mary of the Lake a
quartet from New-York will come down for the
Christmas Day services as usual.
Mrs. Henry T. Frost and Miss Gladys Frost, of
Hrooklyn. are at Miss Rnyilfr's. Mips Mary K. Root
is at homo from Northampton. Mass.. for the holl
riays. Pr. Tr.»-i<- Hull Plaft. of New-York, was In
town for several days of the week. George W.
Btookly has rented his Flfth-st. cottage to Felix. M.
Warburg, of New-York. *nd Mr*. Stockly and th«
children will spend the winter in the South. Her
man Schwartz is home for the holiday?.
HOTEL ARRIVALS.
A> th« Lakewood- -Sheriff Dunn, the R^v. Fathers
J Henly and T. M. Wallare, Mrs. A. Reinhardt,
Mrs. S. Mlchaelis. Mr?. M. Baar. Mis." Marlon Baar.
¦Mrs. <;. Putz- 1 !. Mr. and Mrs. J. H. Solomon and
maid, the Misses Webbs. M. Wineburgh. George J.
¦eabury, Mrs. E. Chapman. S. J. Hart. Henry
Cohen. 11. F. Kder. V. Ascheman. William Snow.
Mrs. Agnes Lynch. Miss Lyn^h. Mr. and Mrs.
Philip Lewisohn. Miss May Lewisohn. Master Ran
dolph Lewisohn. A. Ros<=nsbein. Leonard I.ewisohn,
Our HI" I.ewisohn, Frp.l Lewisohn. Sam Rosenbanm,
K. Dorrs!, Mr. and Mrs. Wolf and child. P. G.
RadKv. Osc?r M. Warburg. Master Joseph L.
Seligman. .1. M. Moore. Mr. and Mrs. Charles
Austen Bates, ff. Keenr. Mr. and Mrs. D. ion d"er
Lam-hen Mr. and Mrs. George S. Politz. Howard
Lanshurgh. Robert Rossman. Mr. an-i Mr*. K. W.
Robinson. Mr. and Mrs. Randolph Gusgenheimer.
A. R. Wood. Robert Samstai. W. H. Clark. Mr.
and Mrs. Julius Gutman. Philip Gompff-cht, W.
Gompre~ht. Mr. rind Mrs. Thomas. Mr. and Mrs.
Felix M. Warburg. Miss Charlotte P. Beane. M. M.
Wood worth. A. I>. Dice. Mr.;. Mark Aronaon, Miss
Cyrelle Aronson. all of New- York; George M. Tren
holm, o' Charleston. S. C.; H. I>es Vreux. of Lon
don.
L-i:irel House registrations- Thorns* A. Phelan.
David Keane. Mr. and Mrs. George C. Keep. Mr.
and Mrs. Charles H. Davis. Miss Queenie Hall.
Miss L. H. Flshel. Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Appleton.
Miss 3. K. Thomas. Ml?? E. Burns, Miss Stokes.
Miss C Phelps Stokes. Mi«s V. Mitchell. Miss L.
Johnson. Mr. and Mrs. Edward Lauterbach. Mrs.
A T Compton. A. T. Compton. jr.. W. A. H. Staf
ford ' W S. Stafford, Mr. and Mrs. W. S. Lawson.
Mr and Mm. P. H. Richardson. Mrs. Edward B.
Mowbray. Mr. and Mrs. Charles A. Perry, all of
New-York; Mr. and Mrs. H. N. Matthews. John
E Baxter Mr. and Mrs. William K. Bird, Mrs. A.
T* White C Delano Wood. jr.. Nell Macdonald and
A H Scoville. of Brooklyn: Mrs Thomas M.
Montgomery. Joseph A. Lynch. John C. Haddock,
of Philadelphia; Mr. and Mrs. Clifford I>. Beehe.
of Syracuse, and Mrs. Thomas Hunt, of Albany.
* Latirel-in-the-Pines arrivals— Cornelius N. Bliss.
Miss Bliss. John Tetreau. Mr. and Mrs. George H.
Macy and infant. Kingsland Mary. Miss Ktta Pugh.
H B. Rathbone. John T. Sill. George Griswoid. 2d,
Horatio Loomis. Everett L. Crawford. Thomas I~
Watson Mr. and Mrs. Howard Tracy Connell. Mr.
and Mrs. George S. Renault, Charles Gilbert Spross.
Oliver C. Macy, all of New-York; William D. Reea
and Mrs. C. O* Scqtt. of Cleveland: Andrew Dough
erty of Brooklyn: Mr. and Mrs. W. S. C. Wiley, of
Catskill; Sherman R. Miller, of Detroit; C A.
Whitnev of Albany; Eugene S. Kimball and Mls«
Helen Kimhall. of Chicago: Mr. and Mrs. F. S.
Snyder, of Boston: Mrs. Alfred Bishop Mason, of
Mexico; Miss Alice Smith, of Cambridge, Mass..
and Mr and Mrs. Sullivan, of Toronto.
Piney Top Towers— Mrs. Tlttman. Harold Titt
mah "Mlaa Dlckman. William J. Whiteside. Mr.
Bedell Miss F. Pinnegan, Edward Kipman. all of
New- York: Mr. Daggett and Dr. S. S. Clark, of
Philadelphia, and Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Welngart
and family, of Brooklyn
At the Lexington— E. R. Case. W. H. McKinley.
Alexander McConne'.l, Mrs. M. J. Dickinson. John
A. RunseU. all of New-York; K. A. Gearon. Ed
ward B. Smith, Mrs. C. Knapp and C. C. duff, of
Brooklyn.
A few Palmer House people— Miss Julia Edmann.
Mr. and Mrs. H. Hasberg. Charles H. Plump. Miss
A. Flump. W. H. Kenael. all of New- York; Mr.
and Mrs. H. N. Matthews. E. A. Gearon. Mrs. J.
A. Medina and son. C. W. Fash and Mr. and Mrs.
R. J. Owen, of Brooklyn.
MCARAUI AS KITES FOR THE DYING.
From Harper's Weekly.
Among the many old customs of Nicaragua
those relating to the dead are the weirdest to trie
stranger. Some of these have been handed down
by tradition from the Indians, others were brought
ever by the conquerors and the two are so blended
that it i* difficult to tell which predominates. As
soon as the medico pronounce* one's illness fatal,
word Is sent to the village padre, who prepares to
administer the last sacraments of the Church to the
dying person. Placing the consecrated water In
the custodia— a vessel of solid gold or silver, often
resplendent with rare Jewels— a procession is
formed and marches through the street. A small
boy. ringing a bell, rushes ahead to announce the
approach of the sacred presence, and after him
follows a band of music, often a single violin, play
ing a dirge. If it be possible to secure any sol
diers, they surround the padre, who. dressed In
b-illiant vestments, Li generally carried in a chair,
over which four men hold a purple canopy. As
the little cortege moves down the. silent streets.
every one bares his head and kneels, making the
sign of the cross until the last soldier has passed.
Woe. to the sacrilegious stranger who fall* to show
this mark of respect, and many have been the In
stance* where foreigner* were pulled from their
horses ami even stoned for neglecting to follow this
time honored custom. . .
THE WEEK \T iTLAS'TIC CITY.
MANY VISITORS ARRIVINO-IMFBOVKMEN.3
AT THE HOTEIA
Atlantic City. V. J.. Dec E (Bp-»clai>.— Tba Mats!
Isleworth opened on Thursday for the year. sJNr
having been closed for repairs. An entire leaawa
tlon of the building, both Inside and out. has takes)
place. The hotel for the coming year will be under
the management of I^ouis B. Scull, who. with Mr.
Hale, conducted the popular hostlery last seasoav
Charles l*|pe. proprietor of the Grand Atlantic
Hotel. Is making a number of Improvements for
the coming season, among them being the aMfeafj
of hot ami cold salt water baths. He to also en
larging his dining room and making other altera
tions that will add to the comfort of the Kuests.
Several changes are being made at the Hotel
Luray. which will open for business in a Hear
week«K Twenty-Hve new rooms are being added.
The Hotel Ponce de I-con i* undergoing «xt»nst»e
Improvements. 3ome sixty rooms being added, each
to be provided with a bath. This will make this
well known hotel rank with the best in the city. It
is under the personal supervision of the owner aa4
manarer. Mrs. S. K. Sweeny.
K. W. Irvlni;. of New- York, is a guest »t Hadrt—
Hall, where he will remain until after the basja
ning of the new year.
Mrs. 1.. Josephthal. of New-York, is passing *
few weeks at the Hotel Traymore.
Mr. and Mrs. B. Moore, of New -York, are at tha
De Ville.
A party of New-Yorkers registered during th*
week at Haddon Hall Included S. S. Dicks. T. SL
CVBrien. S. J. Berrill. B. Homer and E. K. Homer.
Mrs. K. I. Mirich. accompanied by her daughter.
Miss F. Mlrlch. of New-York, are guest* at tha
Hotflsharat
Mrs. Robert McCoHoug and her daughter. Miss
MiM'olloug. of New- York, who were guests at the
Traymore. have returned home. They will agara
visit th«» shore after the holi.Ja.is.
Mrs. 1,. C. Bruce fe registered at the Archdal*
from New-York.
J. c. Atkip.«on in * guest at the Belmont. where*
he joined a number of his New- York friends, and
will make his stay an indefinite one.
A colony of Brooklynites gathered at Haddon
Hall this w~ek. Among them are Mr. and Mrs. F.
Babbath. Master K. 1.. Babhath. Mrs. 1.. Thomp
son and Miss Thompson, nurse and chiW; Mrs. M.
G. Praht and nurse, avd William Cook. Among tha
other New-York «rriva!s at this hostlery are Mrs.
P. S. Taggarr. Mr. and Mrs. H. M Adams C 8.
Douglas and YV. E. Bullock. Jr.
INDIANA'S ABCBE OF THE SEGRO.
GOVERNOR MOUNT WILL ASK THE ENACT
MENT OF A LAW TO PREVENT
LYNCHINGS.
Indianapolis. Dec. 22 (Special).— Governor Mount
and his fellow State officers are greatly exercised
over conditions in Southern Indiana, and do not
conceal the fact that they fear the race troubles)
which have existed so long in certain Ohio River
counties are to be followed by other outrages aa
disgraceful to the State as that at Rockport.
Spencer County, on Sunday night, and at Boon
vllle. on Monday night, In which three colored me*
suffered death at the hands of mobs. That the
people of the counties in which such drastic reme
dies were invoked are in sympathy with the lynch
ers was demonstrated by their refusal to assist
the Sheriff in protecting his prisoners, but this Is a
condition ¦ that has long existed, and which has)
been demonstrated, not only in cases of mob vio
lence before, but in studied efforts to prevent ne
groes from settling in the southern counties.
The prejudice dates back to the close of the CMI
War. and had its origin in the coming of negroes to
Indiana and competing In farm work. This compe
tition led to strong feeling against the negroes, and]
also against the men who gave them employment.
The former were often driven away, and the lat
ter had their barns and hayricks burned, their ma
chinery broken and notices posted on their fences)
warning them against further employment of col
ored labor. The result of these tactics soon de
prived the negroes of farm work, and many aC
them were forced Into the smaller towns and ill lea
Robberies soon became a nightly occurrence, and
every man who suffered loss by such depredations
charged it to the negroes. In Perry. Pike. Spencer,
Warrlck. Dubois and other counties the people rose
against the negroes and drove them from the coun
ties. Many of them were whipped, some of them
simply ordered away, but all terrorized, and when
ever a negro appeared he was waited upon by a
committee of citizens and ordered to leave. So
great was the fear these methods engendered that
negroes gave the counties a wide berth, and for
many years there was only one negro In Perry
County, and he was blind and deaf from old age.
In Pike County a few families were permitted to
remain, but in Harrison not a negro escaped the
order to go, while in Crawford only one remained.
after the cleaning out, as it is jocularly referred
to. In time, however, the negroes began to return;
in Spencer County a better disposition was shown,
and a number settled around Rockport, Grand I lew.
Troy and other towns and secured employment
without molestation.
The people of Crawford County never relented,
and to this day the advent of a negro in th*> counts
is followed at once by a summary order to go.
Within recent years only one colored man has
dared to test the earnestness of the people la this
regard. This was a young man who came to
Leavenworth and opened a barber shop. He was a
mulatto, intelligent and industrious, and there was
nothing about him to excite distrust or awaken
new prejudice. Some of th« citizens of the town
appeared to favor the young negro and indicated a
kindly feeling by patronizing his shop. But the.
majority were determined, and the barber was
waited upon and ordered to go. He did not go, and
the order was repeated and twenty-four hours
named as the time after which his presence In the
town would not be tolerated. He remained In spite
of the order, and one night his shop was entered
his fixtures thrown into the river and he was tied
In a skiff and turned adrift in midstream and left
to the. mercy of the current. Nothing" was ever
heard of him afterward.
The lynching of the two negroes at Rockport and
of the third at Boonvllle was the culmination of
this prejudice, and the State authorities do not
know where it will end. The lvnchings have been
followed by other acts that may well raise a doubt
as to the safety of colored people in the Ohio River
counties. On Monday the citizens of Troy, Enter
prise and Grandview. all villages of Spencer County.
held meetings and formally determined to rid the
places of their colored population. The history of
the last four or five years was reviewed, and .ill th«
petty thieving and the more pronounced stealing
was laid at the negro's door. From the town halls
committees went to the negro settlements and save
the orders to move. Many. terrorized by the lytich
ings and the open threats against the race, had al
ready fled, and on Monday there were skiffloads
of negroes constantly passing over to the Kentucky
shore to escape the supposed wrath to come. A*
the day wore away the exodus became more pro
nounced, and many did not dare remain in the!?
homes over night for fear that they would be
taken out and hanged before morning. Of course
these fears were groundless, but they evidence th«
terror felt by the negroes, and it is possible that 12
the order to leave the county is not complied with
many will he severely handled.
Governor Mount has the subject under considera
tion and will discuss It in his annual message- to
the State Legislature, which will convene here early
next month. He ha.? found that th- people of th»
counties where violence is reported to ar*» either
generally in sympathy with th* mobs or are afraid
to appear against them and testify in court, and
he does not believe that in-- law which «<eks
merely to ferret out th* guilty will he effective.
With this understanding of the situation. !¦•<• has
been trying to devise something in the way of legis
lation that would reach the people of a county,
and, if the extreme element could not he held tit
check, make It Incumbent upon the conservative
to see that the law is not violated. His plan is. to
ask the Legislature to enact a law that will maka
a county, as a municipal organization, responsible
to the friends of victims of mob violence In dam
ages to be assessed by a jury. This law. the Gov
ernor argues, would touch men where they arei
most sensitive, fcr it would appeal to every tax
payer, and when it was mandatory (assessing dam
ages for lynching regardless of the crime of which
the victim was accused) the conservative sentiment
of the people would be against lynching* and tha
extremists would be held in check. He will recom
mend that the Legislature pass such a law. and the
Attorney-General will draft the bill and have it
ready when the Legislature meets.
BIRDS A\l> DfSOSACRS AKl\~.
From Nature.
In "The American Naturalist" Professor H. P.
Osborn reccnsldfers the evidence in favor of th*
existence in the Permian of a common ancestral
stem from which have diverged dinosaurs and birds
It Is argued that many of the resemblances be
tween these 'groups are adaptive rather than
genetic, while the apparent close- correspondence
in the structure of the pelvis between adult birds
and the herbivorous dinosaurs (which are special
ized types) is due In a considerable degree to a.
misinterpretation of the homology of some of their
elements. Nevertheless, the resemblances between
the two groups are so numerous as to justify the
belief of kinship. Ana special Importance attaches
to the opinion that some sort of bipedalism was a
common character el all dinosaur*, the. suggestion
being countenanced that certain forma. like St»
assmamA have reverted from a bipedal to a Quad
rupedal mode of progression. Our present knowledge
therefore justifies us In saying that "in this bipedal
transition, with Its tendency to form the ttbiotarsos.
the avlan phylum may have been given off from th*
dinosaurl in. This form of the Huxleyan hypothesis
seems more probable than that the avlan phylum
should have originated quite independently from a
quadrupedal prosano«aurlan reptile, because tha
numerou* parallelisms and ie«onihl »n?** In dinosaur
and bird structure, anMe quite independently
evolved, could thus be traced back to * potentially
•imiUr Inheritance."
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