Newspaper Page Text
SKMK OLD CIIAKTKKS
¦ELD BY COitPORATIONS FORMED BY
ROYAL tJUANTS BEFOKE THE AMERI
A report came last week from a Hudson River
town to the effect that Ihe Ramsdell Ferry Com
pany, of Fishkill and Newburg, had refused to
transport the merchandise of a certain well
known corporation. What makes the report
more remarkable is that the ferry Is being op
erated under a charter granted in the days of
Queen Anne. This bit of news brought out the
fact that a ferry nearer home has some claim to
antiquity. Documents show that a ferry was es
tablished between Fulton-st.. Brooklyn, and
Peek Slip by Cornelius Dirckaen, in 104*2, and
from that time until IS 14 passengers and teams
Were carried across the river by this ferry com
pany in barges and rowboats. In ISI I twin
boats, propelled by horses in a treadmill were
Substituted, and this style of boat was succeeded
by the steam ferryboat. The charter under
which the company does business is of recent
dat»\ but the original document which it dis
placed is dated ITS'.'. The first steam ferry line
Vi th(? world began business under a charter
Jnitten in 1811. The ferry was operated by
Captain Stevens had carried passengers between
k'ew-York and Hoboken.
Besides this old document there are many
•Of a similar nature in the possession of New-
York corporations. One at »he most valuable of
these is the old Trinity Church charter. It is
dated May •>. It SOT, and it covers three large
tsheetJe of parchment, written in the antique
style of that time. The seal is made of red wax
and to covered with yellow paper, it is in a fair
state of preservation ami is kept in the vaults
<f the corporation in Fult<m-st. The charter
contains many Interesting features and grants
many privileges. The men who formed the
parish called themselves the "Managers of the
Church of England." and the charter names the
Lord Bishop of London rector of th«: new pariah.
Th-? story of the old charter, written by the Rev.
Dr. Morgan Dix, relates the circumstances con
nected with the induction of the first rector,
"William Vesey, and his successor, Henry Bar
day, after Whoa two downtown Streets were
KING'S COLLEGE CHARTER.
Another of New-York's old charters is that
which was granted by George II to the founders
of King's College, or the College of the Province
of New-York, now Columbia University. The
charter is dated Octoter 1. 17.14. The charter
recites the fact that a certain sum of money
laving been raised by 'pi.i'iiek lotteries and
appropriated for the founding, enacting and es
tablishing a college in our said government for
the education and instruction of youth in the
liberal arts and sciences, and, whereas, the Rec
tor and inhabitants of the City of New-York, in
communion of the Church of England as by law
established, for the er.couragcm^nt and promot
ing the same good design, have set apart a
lari *1 of ground for that purpose of upward of
three thousand pounds value, longing to the
said corporation, on the west side of Broadway,
In the west ward of our City of New-York,
fronting easterly to Chun h-.--t., between Bar
clay and Murray sts., 4-10 feet, and from thence
running westerly between and along the said
Barclay-st. and Murray-st. to the North River;
and also a street, from the middle of the said
land, easterly to the Broadway, of ninety loot,
to be called Robinsun-st. And have declared
that they are ready anJ desirous to convey the
said land in fee, to and fur the use of a college
intended and proposed to be erected and es
tablished in ovr paid province, upon the terms
in their said declaration mentioned," etc.
THK EARLIEST CHURCHES.
Another of the old charters is the one granted
by William 111, in ltitMJ, to the Collegiate Church.
The Collegiate Reform Prote3tant Church or
ganized a congregation and erected a church
Jn Manhattan in 1028. This first house of woi
ahip was a wooden structure in Broad-st., and
N i:\V-YOKK TltimWK ILHSTUATKI) SI?ITLKMENT.
this and three other houses of worship built by
the Dutch people were the only churches on
the Island until 1«»7.
A charter granted by George 111. In 1771, gave
a number of citizens the right to organize the
New-York Hospital, and the building was
opened in 1791. The original building was on a
plot of land west of Broadway, between Duane
am! Worth sts., and the unfinished building was
occupied for a time by Hessisn and British sol
diers as a hospital and barracks.
In the commercial world the charter of the
Bank of New-York occupies first rank because
of Its antiquity. The bank was founded in 1««4,
at a time when the Bank of North America, at
By Joseph Jefferson.
Philadelphia, was the only bank existing in the
country. Alexander Hamilton wrote the con
stitution of the bank and was one of its fiist
directors. The bank's charter is dated 1754.
The charter of the Manhattan Company is the.
second in point of age of the instruments under
which banking business is done in New-York.
This was grante-l in 17W, through the efforts of
A iron 15urr. The charter was Kiven to the cor
poration for the purpose of introducing rure
water into the city, bu* a dame providing that
the surplus capital might be employed in any
transactions not inconsistent with the laws of
the Slate nave the trustees a right to conduct
a banking business, wntcil was the main object
of the incorporators.
JOSEPH JKhl i;iiso\'s PA IKTINGB.
A COLLECTION OF FIFTY -FIVE SHOWN IN
Washington, Dec. 32. — A collects -m of fifty-
Bye painting- l\v Joseph JefftrsoU has been
viewed recently by friends of the artist in the
Fischer Galleries. The exhibit was the second
display in this city of landscaj c studies
by the wileiy known and beloved actor
;¦aimer. Mr. Jefferson was present in the gal
lery whenever pouiaie, and joined frankly in
the criticisms of those who were fortunate
enough to attend on the opening day. His evi
dent pleasure in intelligent compliment and the
.i--- rneaa »vith which h»» argued for the mood of
i particular painting indicated unmistakably the
spirit of earoestneaa and affection out of which
the pictures had srown. Those of Mr. Jeffer
son's critics who have se^n him as Caleb Plum
rrit:- or Hip Van Winkle unconsciously perhaps
insisti <1 on resrardinjf his paintings as the
"asii!.'" of a great man of the stape or the
studies ->f a dilettante. They viewed Mr. Jeffer
son, the landscape painter, in the costume of
Bob Acres or through the atmosphere of "Lend
Me Five Shillings." This is not entirely a mis
fortune. A rare degree of sympathy, a mood of
kindliness, gentleness and seriousness are surely
the outcome of aa affection: so marked and
sympathy, kindliness, gentleness; and serious
ness are all requisite t<» a proper understand
ing of t-inct-re landscape painting. A distinct
ive character pervades the display. Despite
the variety of scenes, the pictures have enough
of their maker's personality to mark them as
one man's work. Hut there is in them sugges
tion of the landscape painters Mr. Jefferson ad
mires most— Constable, Corot, Daubigny, Mauve
and liuy.-dael. Several an- done broadly, as
Mauve would have painted them— "On the Isl
and of Naushon." a monochrome of sepia brown,
for example; several sungefct Rousseau, as "The
King of the Forest," a painting liiied with the
Barbiaon character; "The Mill Dans" and two
or three others smack of Constable; there is
evin one view. a. study of the White Mountains
in fine poetic colors, which suggests Moran. On
the whole, however, the pictures are not imi
MAQUIS IS SEWZEALASD PARLIAMENT.
from The London Chronicle.
The Mauri party in the New-Zealand House
of Representatives contains but four native
members, but it has great power in the Maori
Interests, which may be taken to show that its
aspirations tueet with a good deal of practical
sympathy among the whites. Tht Maoris have
been agitating lately for .1 certain measure of
Home Rule, and it is another example of. the
practical Liberal spirit which obtains In New-
Zealand that they are to be given what they,
seek. A measure has now been Introduced in
Parliament at Wellington embodying the modest
claims of th** natives in regard to the Maori
lands, and no doubt It will, after sympathetic
discussion, be placed upon the statute book or
the great progressive colony. In New-Zealand,
at any rate, the natives do not need the mis
sionaries to help them in their worldly affairs.
THE EFFECT OF GRAIN GROWINO.
SOCIETY COMPLETKL.T REVOLUTIONIZED BY
Professor Alfred C. Haddon. In Knowledge.
The cultivation of corn results In a social revo
lution. Corn, next to milk, is the most nernef
foodstuff, but the nutrim-nt is contained in a
smaller volume. This concentration of nutri
ment permits of great accumulations of people.
as it gives in a small space the means of feeding
a considerable population, while men nourish <1
on milk are obliged to disperse thenwelvea over
Two very Important characteristics of corn
are that It allows, first, great facility for stor
age. There Is no comparison between ihe rr» - -
ervatlon of corn (and other cereals) and that "f
milk, fish or game. Thus the pastor, the fish' r
and the hunter have by no m- uns the sam
facility for creating riches and for accumu'atinir
the proceeds of their special industry. No Isod
Is so readily stored as corn; wiiness the famous
granaries of Kgypt. China. Italy, ere. This facil
ity for accumulation permits provid-nt people to
possess themselves of considerable resources.
since they are not obliged to consume th> ir
harvest within a short period. They can thus
capitalize their product. Second, great facility
for exchange. Corn not only preserves easily.
but it is infinitely divisible and travels well.
The provident can utilize it for exchange, and
by commerce can become rich. It is worth while
to consider the immense effect of corn in h.s
tory, Egypt having regular harvests, thn'i^h
situated between two deserts, the growing
power of Russia and the Odessa corn mark. i.
and the enormous cornfields of North Aaassiea.
The cultivation of corn n«'» ssitaU-s a mui-h
longer and more difficult labor than that of
garden produce. What ai d nr.iiz' tape* laity re
quire good soil and manure; c-ire must be taken
to select ihe b»-st time for harvesting. !esf TIM
corn should get too ripe, and the weather must
be carefully watched. The hanisl must bfl K"t
in rapidly, consequently swtaidc help BBOSI bs
called in. All these difficulties and complications
necessitate foresight, skill and promptitude.
Corn also develops and complicates methods
of fabrication and transport. The product, like
rice, is not usually consumed in the state in
which i is gathered. . . . This mode of nfe
forces the families to be completely sedentary.
. . . Property in land tends to become more
and more permanent. . . . Trade develops.
Corn is a product easy to accumulate and ex
change. The families readily acquire the habit
of selling their surplus and of purchasing food
and other things. What a transformation has
occurred from the pastoral life? The families
content themselves less and less with what th y
produce themselves; they become partly <le
p-.Tdent upon merchants, they are subject to the
fluctuations of the market. The buying of books
and of writing materials is a sign of another im
TKSTs fO| MKJU i</.li/o.V/».
F-om The London News.
Recent arrivals from South Africa have
brought «says a eorresi>ond» j nt) the most
wondrous specimens of "diamonds'* with them,
beautiful to behctd, but. alas, they would not
scratch glass, while some of the most beautiful
of all ca.i be cut with a pocket knife. It is
tolerably simple to say whether a stone is a
diamond or not. If you can scratch a sapphire
\> ith it you want no further test, it is a diamond.
If you rub it with wool or on wood in the dark
and it phosphoresces, it is a diamond. If you
look through it at a light and only see one light
it is most probably a diamond. The X rays
have discovered that a diamond is nearly, if not
quite, translucent to those rays, whereas the
brightest "paste" contains most lead and throws
the blackest shadow. And a diamond tastes
cold, whereas a paste gem tastes warm. Major
Batters by. O. S. I>.. writing en this subject,
said that Solomon's words were very true aa
applied to persons giving information to those in
possession of "precious stones." Very often
"he that increaseth knowledge increases sor
From The Indianapolis Press.
The Office There's a guy outside dat
wants to get in the business.
Theatrical Manager— Tell him to get out. The
gall of these amateurs li — -
"He wants to back a company."
"What are you letting him stand outside for,
you putty-headed Idiot? Show the gentleman in
THE Vinc.lN'B LVLLABY.
Norah Hopper, in The Corahill Mairaslw*
Hush The*, hash Thee, little Son,
Dearest and divinest One:
Thine are all th* untamed herds
That upon the mountain go.
Thine are all the timid birds.
Thine the thunders and th» snow.
Cry not so. Husho. my dear*
Thunder shall not come Thee near
While its roar shall frighten the*.
Mother holila Thee safe and warm;
Thou shall walk upon the sea
And cry "Peace" unto the storm.
Thou shalt take the souls of men
In Thine hand, as I a wren.
But not yet. not yet. my Son.
Thou art still a babe asleep;
All Thy glories are unwon.
All mine own Thou art to keep.
Some day I shall nee Thee stand
Kins and Lord of every Land.
Now I feed Thee at my breast.
And delight to feel Thee near.
come day - Ah? this time Is best.
Hush Thee, hush Thee, Babe most dear!
THE MAKING OF JOMS.
Perhaps Jones accepted life in too serious a
spirit; perhaps he was oversensitive and over
modest; perhaps he attached an undue im
portance to certain emotions which in the
breast of ordinary men are transitory, but cer
tain it Is that the days of hi* eft; manhood
were deeply tinged with blue; that he fell hack
ward in the fight for place, and permitted bit
terness to enter his heart, although it passed.
not his lips; that he loved sincerely and with
a constancy unwavering.
Those who knew Jones in his early days found
in him a source of merriment. Poor chap!
Every shaft of cheap village wit found h:rn
vulnerable, and when he struck back, which
was not often, he did it with such gentleness
and awkwardness that he appeared quite ridicu
lous. His love affair with Mary Brown fur
nished amusement for two summers and two
winters. It was not much of a love affair. Be
yond the fact that he was smitten by the girl's
'•MASSArm'SKTTS BAY 1
l»y Jos pa Jowassom
charms, •which were many, both of mind and
body, it was not outwardly a love affair at aIL
There are reasons for thinking that had the
girl not sickened he would have asked her to
marry him.^and would have been refused. But
the sickness came while the words were yet
unnpoken, and one day he was missed. He had
gone West, his mother said vaguely to those
who inquired. She was afraid he would never
return. He was a good boy. she added, her
voice breaking slightly, but he had never seamed
able to get along with the people. He was not
understood. She had hoped to see him and
Mary Brown married, but he had spoken to the
doctor about it, and the doctor had discouraged
him. It was not right, the doctor said, for folks
with consumption to marry. She was glad he
had not proposed to the girt: it would have made
it so much more painful fur the girl, poor dear!
More than one young man left the village that
year to seek his fortune, as the saying is. It
was like other villages— a place to be born in
and to be reared in: that is all. It offered no
encouragement to the ambitious. Occasionally
one of its sons, battered and bruised by the out
side world, came back, haltingly and trembling
ly, to die; but few returned to live. Some o£
these young men went into the market placed,
some into the gold fields, some here and some
there; but two of them enlisted in th- service of
their country. And it came to pass, not
strangely at all. bat naturally, that they met at
an army post in the Far West, and accosted
each other fervently and with joyousness. Hue
of them bore the red cross on his sleeve, and the
other touched it lightly with his finger when the
long handshake was over.
"How did you come to get into it. Jones?'* he
There was the slightest of unintentional em
phasis upon the pronoun, and Jones's sensitive
lips quavered for an instant.
"I don't really know." he replied; "it just hap
pened so. "When 1 left home seven years ago I
went to work m m drus «tor« at Daveoaort. It