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meaning becomes degraded. As "chambre"
came into use the dialect word for room,
••paile." came to mean "garret." In Savoy
they use "pere" and "mere" now for parents;
the oil words "pare" anl "mare" are relegated
to the cattle. Between "esteem," "respect" and
"veneration" there is nt» difference of degree
Imposed by the etymology of the words; the dif
ferences have been established by a slow process
of fllaTi v atlatinsj
Another class of changes comes about in the
restriction, extension or transference of the
meanings of words. The "tendencies" in words
|o take on better or worse significations that
many pMMstfSta nave believed to exist M.
Breal denies. The facts <»re a result of human
disposition to veil the disagreeable, making
words without any disagreeable meaning do
duty for disagreeable things; and. conversely,
turning unfavorable meanings into favorable
ones. Thus, "periculum" in Latin means danger;
but oaee it meant simply "experience"; the
German List," cunning, originally meant
knowledge merely, and was specialized to de
ncte a certain low kind of knowledge. So "silly"
is the same word etymologically as the German
•sclig." and. like it. meant happy. We may
trace with the author the causes of restriction
or expansion of meaning; the influence of meta
phor; the multiplication of meanings in a single
word, sometimes accompanied by a change of
spelling, sometimes not. More complicated and
far reaching forces are discussed in the chapters
on the formation of syntax— the parts of speech,
their origin and differentiation; the transitive
force resident in certain words; the order of
words; the logic of language; the subjective ele
ment, the most ancient side of language, and.
finally, the part played by language as an edu
cator of the human race. The last named in
volves an old and much discussed question, in
which M. Breal maintains that the human In
tellect obtains from language for its daily opera
tion the same services that it obtains from
numbers for its calculations:
The idea certainly had to come first, but this
idea is vacillating, fugitive, difficult to trans
mit; oaee incoroorated ir a sign, we are more
sure of possessing it. of handling it at will and of
communicating it to others. Such Is the ser
vice rendered by language: It makes thought ob
There is a long preface — unnecessarily long, it
seems— by Professor Postgate, of University
College, London, who enlarges on the lack of
information in England about the subject of the
book, and adds a somewhat elaborate study of
his own on the matter. At the end of the vol
ume there are several other essays, by M. Breal
on cognate philological matters— "Purity of Lan
guage." "The History of Words" and "The
Science of Meaning."
A YEW QUEEN ELIZABETH.
THE GERMAN GARDEN WHICH SHE
ELIZABETH AND HER GERMAN GARDEN.
With Twelve Photogravure Illustrations from
I/holographs. Octavo, pp. 225. The Macmillan
THE SOLITARY SUMMER. By the Author of
Elisabeth and Her German Garden. With
Twelve Photogravure Illustrations from Photo
graphs. Octavo, pp. 190. The Macmillan Com
THE APRIL BABY'S BOOK OF TUNES With
the Story of How They Came to Be Written.
By the Author of Elizabeth and Her German
Garden. Illustrated by Kate Greenaway. Small
Quarto, pp. 77. The Macmillan Company.
To very few authors is it given to become
classical while they are still living. How many
thus fortunate can be counted among the writers
of to-day? We refrain from attempting to esti
mate the size of the group; to mention names
•night land us in an appearance of invidious
ness. Hut the author of "Elizabeth and Her
German Garden" will not divulge her name,
and, accordingly, we treat her without further
apology as a classic. From the excellent little
summary of reprints and new editions which the
publishers of her first book print on the back
of its title page, we learn that it was first set
up so recently as September. 1888. It was re
printed in November and December of the same
year; once in March, once in May and twice in
July. 1SI»!>. In August of the same year it was
reprinted again, and twice in the following Octo-
Imt. A new edition, with additions, appeared in
July. 1900; this was reprinted last September,
and now we have the book in still another form.
beautifully printed and illustrated, and alto
gether worthier of the author than were any of
its predecessors. "The Solitary Summer." first
printed in April, 1899, has enjoyed the same
popularity. We feel confident that both books
will pass through many more editions.
We hope that all the new editions of the future
will include the illustrations given for the first
time in the present volumes. Elizabeth needs
.no adventitious aids in placing her German en
vironment before us in all its qualntness and
charm. Hut it would be idle to deny that the
pictures in these volumes add a more than wel
come touch. We are shown the picturesque ex
terior of the old manor; the simple brick en
trance gateway, and the leafy avenue which
stretches from it; the hall, with its numerous
mounted antlers; the sitting room "filled with
Mowers for one woman by herself." and wearing
precisely the air which we would expect Eliza
beth to give to any room which she touched. In
"The Solitary Summer" there is a plate showing
"the farthest recesses of my garden." and there
is an adorable picture o f "the babies on the
buttercups." in which April, May and June
somehow manage to make us feel their individu
M:\V-VOKK TIMI.rXK ILLUSTRATED SriTLKMKNT.
allty even though their backs are turned to us.
But we need particularize no fur her; we say
no more of text or of picture than this: That
they belong among the most cherished treasures
of those who really care for beautiful books.
No one has written more delightfully of her
home than has Elizabeth. And surely no
mother has ever written so wlnnlngly of her
children as Elizabeth has written of hers in
"The April Baby's Book of Tunes." The humor
of these pages is sweet and wholesome, like the
wisdom of then« and their maternal pride and
tenderness. The little girls are not super
naturally angelic, neither are they of the new
story book kind, fantastic in wicked Inventions
and flippant audacity. They are Just attrac
tively naughty, merry and loving young creat
ures, the possessors of loud and emphatic moral
Ideas, and of a queer and most engaging Ger
man-English vocabulary. Deep snows lay about
the old German home, though Easter was draw
ing neai; the three babies couldn't get out of
doors, and grew obstreperous. They reached
the grim and vindictive point of chopping up
and boiling their dells. June drank more than
her share of the tea pa.-ty tea, and became ex
tremely full and unpopular; she even asserted
that she did not believe in the time honored
Easter hare. "I doesn't believe there ever did
was any, either." was her exact expression.
What could Elizabeth do to amuse these storm
bound infants? She made a number of pretty
little tunes for good old Mother Goose verses,
and here they are, word 3 and music, too, as
sung and acted by these small maidens. Miss
Greenaway's dainty pictures, though not par
ticularly expressive of character, are otherwise
in harmony with the text.
PREHERVISG BOOKS FROM ISSKVTs.
From The London Chronicle.
The preservation of books from insects formed
the subject of a most animated discussion at
the International Congress of Librarians re
cently held in Paris Most of the members had
something to say on the question, each con
tributing the result of his own dismal experi
ence. One recommended the disuse of wooden
shelving, or, if this were impossible, that the
y ood should he coated with sulphate of copper.
Another advised the similar use of naphthol. A
tr ird preferred fumigation, while a fourth sug
gested that in binding books the paste or glue
—the chief attraction to many bookish insects
—should always be treated with a little corro
sive sublimate by way of discouraging their
taste. M. liiriart, of the Bayonne Library, in
veighed passionately against the "anablum,"
which of all insicts he has found to be animated
with the most implacable ha'red of books.
In the end. it had to be sorrowfully admitted
that no real means of defence existed, and that
once the aggressor had obtained a footing no
remedy was certain. Fortunately, some one
pointed out that librarians were not usually en
tomologists, and tbat entomologists were rarely
In the habit of collecting anything but insects.
Chemists, on the other hand. were, as a rule,
neither librarians nor naturalists. Why not ob
tain the collective wisdom of all three with a
view to destroying the enemy? The proposal
was eagerly adopted, and bookbinders, paper
mailers, and leather workers are to be asked to
follow the recommendations of the joint com
mission in their several Kbheres.
THE POLITICAL. NOVEL. IW MR, 2AMO
THE MANTLE OF ELIJAH. A Novel^T 1.
KnngwiU. Illustrated by Louis Loss, mmo. pp.
Ml Harper * Bros.
PEOCAVI. By R. W. Hornung. Ito* pp. w*.
Charles Stribnefs Boas.
DR NORTH AND HIB FRIENDS. By a WWT
Mitchell. M. D. 12mo. pp. 4». The Century
1 IUB| any.
TIIK GOLDEN BOOK OF VENICE. A Historical
Romance of the Sixteenth Cent ur y.
Lawrence Turnbui!. 12mo, pp. 359. The Century
THE IMAGE BREAKERS. By Gertrude Wj.
12mo. pp. 388. The Frederick A. Stokes Com
THE EAGLE'S HEART. By Hamtta Garland.
12mo, pp. 38. D. Applet on * Co.
The earlier chapters of Mr. Zangwill's novel
are a little discouraging. They introduce an
English Cabinet Minister with his shrewish
wife, and both are but half realised. Mr.
ELIZABETH'S OWN HO KM.
Marshmont wants the dignity and force which
we expect a man of his stamp to possess. The
beautiful, hysterical and quite unreasonable
mistress of his home is too crudely drawn; we
refuse to believe in a character so fantastic.
But the patient reader who resolves to ignore
these defects, and some others which come later,
will be well rewarded. "The Mant'.e of Elijah"
has certain qualities, running through the fabric
of a not altogether satisfactory plot, which lift
it above anything which Mr. Zangwill has
hitherto produced; we find him interesting
where we have usually found him artificial, life
less and dull. It is a political novel abounding
in tacit criticism of English public life. The
Cabinet Minister aforesaid -the Elijah of the
book's title -is a man of noble family, but has
radical beliefs which he nurses with passionate
devotion. He thinks that when his peaceful
ideas are discarded by a government eager for
war his mantle may be worn proudly, and his
principles ma> be advocated effectively, by the
commoner. "Fighting Bob Broser." whose polit
ical career he starts and to whom he gives his
cleverest daughter. The story is one of dis
illusionment for the old statesman and for Al
legra, who have to watch Broser's abandon
ment of everything that they hold dear. He
triumphs at one point and loses elsewhere. The
interest centres around him and Allegra, involv
ing questions of political practice and of a wom
an's happiness. There is some resemblance be
tween this book and Anthony Hope's "Quisante"
—which Mr. Zangwill has just named as one of
the two books which most interested him in
1900— but if we are inclined to praise "The
Mantle of Elijah" it is because it has. in the
main, freshness, vitality, a strength of Its own.
In "Peccavl" Mr. Hornung has forsaken
Australia and London, and has wandered
through country lanes to discover ruin, death,
fire, following one another with deplorable rapidi
ty. Unlike Master Dimmesdale. whom he re
calls In some ways, the clergyman who h.i»
sinned In this story does not carry m* secret
through a term of years. He Is accused, eoa
tnr"iil?n » term "i / -ir>< «' r '"
f eases, and to punished all in the early chapters.
Ills church Is burned to the ground. He to sus
pended from the ministry for five years- Slow
ly climate* out of the depths, however, he re
builds hl3 beloved church stone by stone with
the efforts of his own hands. He fulfils every
law of obligation that repentance might exact,
the church is finished, the five years pass, and
then conus Mr. Hornung with a lurid finale
as cheap as the calcium lights of a melodrama.
Just missing the writing of a good story.
la "Dr. North and His FrleaeV the author
of "Hugh Wynne" portrays a "merry bowl of
souls." some of whom might have graced the
Autocrat's breakfast table, and others who would
not have been disconcerted had they found
themselves in the midst of the "Concord Circle."
Dr. Mitchell in his latest work suggests that ho
may have been active as his own Boswell. Tiler's
to a strong likelihood that the experiences and
associations of the poet, novelist and physician
have been on a similar plane with those that
surround Dr. North; but as he disclaims any at
tempt at being autobiographical, it is unneces
sary to pursue the psychology of the subject.
Th love story that forma the connecting link
In the many conversations held by the exclusive
and cultivated circle of this book leaves much to
the imagination of the reader. No one really
knows— least of all the persons most concerned—
whether St. Clalr and Sybil are In love with
each other or not. The development of this
romance, however. is secondary In importance.
Dr. North and bis friends find much to discuss
in matters of social and artistic import. Through,
the medium of dialogue many embryo essays.
which la turn are witty, philosophical and
enlightening, are set forth. The interest of the
work depends entirely upon these conversations,
which reflect the mature mind of the author and
make his book readable.
The pages of Mrs. Turnbull's romance are
dedicated to extolling the beauties of Venice,
the Venice of several hundred years ago, in the
height of a magnificence now only traditional.
The thread of the story which holds the brilliant
passages of description together tells of the mar
riage of the hero Marcantonio Oiuatiniani. a
grandee, to the daugnter of Glrolamo Maga
gnatl, of the people. So beautiful is Marina that
Paul Veronese takes her as a model for a paint
ing of the Madonna, and so devout is she that in
spite of her loyalty to her husband she takes the
side of Pope Paul V as against the Republic.
The struggle between the Pope and the Govern
ment for supremacy and Paul's edict against
Venice give historical Interest to the story, and
the strenuous efforts of Marina to cement the
differences give some vitality to the plot, which
to otherwise rather unwieldy. Mrs. Turnbui!
has studied her Venice very carefully. In her
preface she admits her Indebtedness to various
standard works on the City of the Sea. In pre
paring her portrait of Fra Paolo Sarpl she has
read and pondered over his collected works.
The result is a volume that may be read for its
vivid word painting.
A quixotic young girl, a distraught mar:
woman, and some immature, rather stereotyped
socialists are the main characters in "The Imase
Breakers." a novel communistic in theory and
hysterical in quality. Miss Dix is a new writer
with a laudable aim. but her endeavor to display
the difference between dross and gold is not
very inspiring, and aesthetic looking Anarchists
are wearisome creatures at best. There is some
flesh and blood about Leslie Ardent and Red
gold, her lover; they eventually came to the
"right understanding between men and women."
and found nothing very original in their philoso
phy after all. The experiences of Rosalind and
Perrar are not so sane, but are what might
have been expected from their endeavor to force
a new creed in place of an old. tried and more
or less successful one. Miss Dixs iconoclasts
fall somehow to excite either admiration, sym
pathy or interest.
"The Eagle's Heart" is a character study, dis
closing the evolution of a boy who was a most
unruly urchin— in fact, it ia extremely difficult
to find the stuff that heroes are made of in the
following ideal Mr Garland presents:
"You touch me and I'll kill you." he sail in a
low voice to the fat boy whose leg he hud
jabbed, and his bloodless face and biaxial eyes
caused the boy to leap frenziedly away. He
carried a big knife, his playmates discovere-l.
and no one. not tven youths grown to man's
stature, cared to attempt violence with him.
One lad. struck with a stone from hid cunning
right hand, was carried home in a carriage.
Another, being thrown by one convulsive effort.
fell upon his arm. breaking it at the elbow. In
less than a week every boy in Rock River knew
something of Harold BacesTa furious te mper. and
had learned that it was. safer to be friend than
enemy to him.
Later, young Mr Excel! does us.- the knife.
though in self-defence, and is sent. : 1 t» same
months* Imprisonment. Through all them, Mr
Garland wishes the reader to understand. vases
runs an undaunted, courageous and admirable
spirit. His punishments do not disconcert the*
"Young Eagle." He patiently serves hi* term.
knowing that at its expiration he will accom
plish the desire of his life and fly West. And
With the spreading of bis wings his temperature
cools and he beco.nes a fairly rational human
Mr. J. M. Barrle to hard at work upon a new
novel, one not quite as long aa hi* last. it to
to appear as a serial in ' Scribner V during the}