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ITS EXT.NV.Mir I-XPKBIRNCE. ITS DIPLO
MACY. ANI» IT? I'LANTATU'N LIFE.
THK rOXFEDKRATE STATES OF AMERICA.
ISCI-'€S. A Financial and Industrial History or
th« South During the Civil War - „„' ''>'.. -John
Christopher Schwab. Octavo, pp. xi. 332. Charles
THE DIPLOMATIC HISTORY OF THE so UT . H "
ER.V OONCTEDERACV. By James Morton
Callanan (The Albert Shaw lectures on Diplo
matic History. I?™)- 12mo. pp. 3 01 - Baltimore.
The Johns Hopkins Pi*—.
CIVIL, HISTORY OF THE GOVERNMENT OF
THE CONFEDERATE STATES; with Form
IVrwnal B*mlntooeac*«. By J. M. Curry. 12mo.
l>p. M. Richmond. Va.: B. F. Johnson Hub
The economic history of the South during the
Civil War presents a peculiarly interesting sub
ject for the study of the economist. It offers
him an opportunity of observing the results
brought about by the sudden negation of normal
economic forces within certain restricted limits;
of tracing the unavoidable outcome of policies
prompted by given conditions, and of following
the relations of cause and effect with a cer
tainty not always possible in their more com
plicated Interplay In times of peace and un
interrupted Intercourse. On the other hand,
the material is scattered, fragmentary and dif
ficult of access. Professor Schwab's elaborate
study is the first that has been attempted. He
modestly disclaims originality of method, but
lie is entitled to high praise for his extensive
and accurate research and his clear presentation
of his results.
The history of the period centres about the
financial legislation of the Confederate Con
prep? and the efforts of the government to ob
tain th» means for carrying on its struggle.
As in the North during the same period, taxa
tion was relegated at first to the background
and immediate recourse was had to public loans.
The story of them is a tangled skein, though j
the Information in regard to them is more abun
dant than that relating to many other subjects.
Cotton was from the beginning a chief reliance
of the Confederate authorities as a basis for j
foreign loans, but the blockade was an insupera- j
ble obstacle to success in this direction. In fact, |
Professor Schwab repeatedly calls the blockade j
the North's most potent instrument In reducing ]
the South, by depriving her of the means of re- j
sistance. But the fiscal policy adopted by the j
Confederacy pointed almost inevitably to dis- j
aster, apart from the embarrassments of the
blockade and the final outcome of military fail- ;
ure. The easy expedient of bond issues was !
toon followed by the easier one of paper cur- .
rency issues, with provisions for enforced fund- ;
ing of treasury notes in bonds, amounting to
partial repudiation. The strict constructionists i
who founded and governed the Confederacy .
could never bring themselves to the expedient of :
making paper legal tender, though there were ;
insistent and unceasing demands that this step
be taken. Of this Professor Schwab says:
It is greatly to the credit of the Southern \
statesmen that in the stress of the conflict they .
¦were not. like the Northern Congress, swept
Into adopting this desperate financial policy, but
insisted throughout the war upon both Its un
constitutionality and futility. This credit due
the Confederate Congress is somewhat dimmed
by its having in other directions distinctly vio
lated both the letter and the spirit of the con
State governments, however, were not con
trained by the constitution, and went to great
lengths In passing legal tender laws. By the
end of the war the currency was a confused
mass of government. State, and even municipal
paper. Issues, with the paper obligations of
pretty nearly any private citizen who felt dis
posed to issue them. The phenomena always
attending inflation of the currency were con
spicuous in the Confederacy, and. as Professor
Schwab points out. nowhere else can they be
etudied to better advantage. The first of these
is the alleged scarcity of money; early In 1861
the complaint was heard that money was not to
fie had, the natural result of a redundancy that
cr'vc prices constantly upward. Cotton and
tobacco, monopolized by the South, fell in price
below the level of 1SGO; coffee, derived wholly
from abroad, reached the greatest height; meat
products and cereals stood between these ex
tremes, according to the conditions of supply.
approximated to those of the one or the other.
Food supplies avoided the markets, and to all
merchants and shopkeepers, as well as to the
farmer?, was applied the familiar epithet of
"godless Shylocks." as if they were to blame
for the high prices. Salaried and wage earning
classes suffered severely, the nominal rise in
their remuneration lagging, as In the North, far
behind the rise in commodities. Countless bills
to prevent extortion and speculation were Intro
duced in the State legislatures, but all such
outcries were quite as futile as they were under
the similar conditions of the American and
French revolutions. Speculation, as in the
North, became rife. till, as "The Richmond Ex
aminer" put it. "every man in the community
is swindling everybody else." Speculation in
gold aroused as much feeling as it did in the
North. Even blockade running-, with its great
profits for groat risks, was the subject of bitter
attacks, not to be appeased by the showing that
such importations did not Inflate but depressed
Professor Schwab's account of the meagre at
tempts of the South to establish industries dur
ing the war is Interesting. To complete the pict
ure of the disturbances caused by the paper
money inflation, he gives a few words as to the
moral decadence that accompanied it — the ex
travagance, the lowered moral tone, and a
general failure of self-restraint and social dis
Though the South never undertook a "high
diplomacy" during the Civil War, it engaged in
an active and industrious effort to secure recog
nition from foreign countries, and, failing that,
assistance in loans and war material. Mr. Cal
lahan's book is a thorough study of this ac
tivity, in which be has used the official archives
and especially the diplomatic correspondence
now in manuscript in the United States Treas
ury Department, and certain other unpublished
material. The manuscript correspondence is
that known as the "Pick'tt Papers," purchased
by the government, including a great quantity
of documents relating to the Confederate diplo
macy, and of great importance as historical ma
terial—"of far greater value," as Mr. Callahan
gays, "than any of the collections of military
papers or records."
England and France were the chief hopes of
the Confederate authorities, and commissioners
were «arly sent to both countries, who were oc
cupied In the effort to obtain loans. Cotton was
the basis upon which these were expected to
succeed, the factories of England being depend
ent upon the Southern States for their supplies
A raw material. One of Mr. Da vis's first plans
was to produce a cotton famine in England
md France that would force them to break the ,
blockade by the Federal navy and recognize the
Confederacy. Stephens opposed It, and later his
views prevailed; it was proposed to offer special
commercial advantages to seenre the same end,
and to give Napoleon 111 a large amount of cot
ton for the loan of a squadron. The difficulty
Df the Southern commissioners in accomplishing
anything in England, due largely to the zeal
and watchfulness of Mr. Adams, the American
Minister, is well known; but many details are
given by Mr. i '.-».:. showing lucidly and con
sistently the progress of the negotiations. Na
poleon hoped to regain a foothold for France in
Louisiana, and Spain's Interests in the Western '<
Hemisphere seemed to make her a promising !
possibility- as an ally. Confederate attention '
was early turned to Mexico, but that neighbor J
was friendly to the United States, suspecting
the Confederacy of a desire for a war of con
quest to .-x!. slavery.
The !aet effort to secure recognition was made '
Books ana publications.
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Stories of Old Virginia
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A Crazy Angel
By ANNETTE L.UCIL.E NOBLE. AJ'.hor of "Uncle
Jack's Executor." "Eunice Lathror." etc. 12".
A story that is filled with delicate humor and de
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The National Hero of WaJes
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A DVERTISEMBN'TS and subscriptions for The Tribune !
X\. received at their Uptown Office. No. 1,242 Broadway
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ments received nt the following branch offices at regular
office rates until 8 o'clock d. m.. viz.: 234 Mh-ave.. «. c I
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as the Southern cause was already crumhlinp.
It was realized by thf most astute men In power
that the surrender of slavery was the only basis
on which foreign powers could he brought t'i
show an active sympathy with the Confederacy.
The seizure of cotton hy the government, with
which to purchase ships, was also recognized to
be necessary. When Duncan F. Kenner was
pent as a commissioner to treat with European
governments for recognition, and with Kuropoan
capitalists for funds, armed with th'-se two new
weapons, there was very little left of "strict
construction" of the Confederate constitution.
but it was the lagt chance. The mission was to
be kept secret, for the new plans were "flnmps
t!c dynamite," and It was considered necessary
to guard against exposure till succors had been
reached In the negotiations. Kenner had no
more success than his predecessors in England,
and the Confederacy fnll soon after his arrival.
The Confederate foreign negotiators accom
plished little, but they worked under great dis
advantage. Mr. Davls's policy was at least
honest, whatever else may be said of It. H.
would not promise to pain the ends he poupht
hy what he knew he could not perform; and Mr.
f'allahan quotes as .lust the words of a prom
inent Confederate, recently spoken: "If he had
been lees honest we might have succeeded in our
Dr. Curry's book Is more than what Its titl*>
page would indicate. Jt is a presentation of the
case of the Confederacy from the Confederate
point of view, an argument In its behalf, and.
Indeed, a third of the book is included under the
heading "Legal Justification of the South in
Recession." It was written In response to reso
lutions passed by the United Confederate Vet
erans, and its claims to being history must be
considered only in view of these facts. Dr.
Curry is one of two surviving of the
Provisional Congress that first organized the
Confederate Government; and he is filled with
the conviction of the justice of the Southern
cause; of the flagrant violation by the North of
the "compact of union"; of the nullification of
the constitution and Federal laws by the North
ern State legislatures; of the inequality and in
justice of the position In which the South fonnd
herself in 18fiO. Liberty and independence, not
slavery, were what the South was fighting for,
and Dr. Curry lets no occasion pass to enforce
this view. Indeed, he feels compelled to speak
of slavery, when he speaks of it directly, with
a certain apologetic tone to his twentieth cen
Such a complete and radical transformation
has occurred In our constitution, in laws, in
social Institutions, in organized labor, in party
Fhlbboleths, in schools, in public opinion, in
literature, that one might as well strive to
transport himself to the antediluvian period us
to assume the thoughts and sympathies and
manners of the period of 1860. . . . Neither
constitution nor law nor the practice of cen
turies can be appealed to in support of what
present opinion approves. ... It is obvloas
that no justice can be done to the people of tin-
South If the acts of 1961V65 are t(j bo inter
preted by the standard of 1900.
The provisional Confederate Congress met at
Montgomery on February 4, 1R»51. with an ob
ject at once pacific and protective. Each mem
ber was a statesman of ability, courage and in
sight; their acts and those of the government
they established were of invariable wisdom; the
co-operation and harmony of all the officials and
the people of the Confederacy were at all times
perfect and disinterested. A "history" written
in this tone need not detain any serious student
long. Dr. Curry's examination of the Confed
erate constitution and of the changes from
the Federal constitution that were introduced
into it is more suggestive. Tnfortunately, his
discussion of this and of some other matters is
sometimes unduly tinged with the prejudices of
present day partisanship. He Is sure, however,
that the Confederate constitution, when preju
dices Bhall have subsided, will be regarded as a
great American contribution to the science of
government. He freely concedes, however, that
secession and slavery have been settled un
alterably against the contention of the South,
and that the cessation of African slavery is
fortunate, and rests on universal consent and
TRUTH ABOUT THE NIGHTISGALE.
Iv'lmund Selous. in "Bird Watching."
The sweet sons of the nightingale has caused
the more stress to be laid upon the sobriety of
its coloring, the natural tendency being to exag-
rats such a contrast. But now. when mm
watches for the bird in the shade of )*»nfy
thickets, the way in which it generally reveals
itself is by a sudden flash of red or chestnut
brown, a bright spot of color which is con
spicuously visible, sometimes in the centre of
thorn bush, and one may almost nay, brilliantly
so. as its wearer Hits among the trees and
urdergrowth. This brightness belongs to the
tail generally; but there must, I think, be either
upon pr Just above — on the upper tall coverts
perhaps— a specially bright and more ruddy
hucd patch, which produces the effect of which
I, speak; and ;as nightingales habitually haunt
wooded and umbrageous spots, it has sometimes
occurred to me that this has been developed as
NEW- YORK DAILY TRIBUNE. SATURDAY. SEPTEMBER 14. 1901
Dooks anb IDnblicatione.
A Friend With
By B. K. BENSON,
Author of "Who Goes There; the Story of a Spy in the Civil War."
Cloth, ittno, $r..5«
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The Eight Illustrations hy I ¥ ouis Betts
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BY THE SAME AUTHOR.
Who Goes There?
The Story of a Spy in the Civil War was Mr. Benson's first novel, and was
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WHEN THE LAND
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a guidliiK Star for one to follow another by. Just
us the white tail of the rabbit is supposed to
have been. I have often watched two pursuing
each Other through the dim h-.iflness, each ut
tering a variant of the deep croaking note of
which 1 have spoken; and which answers la
the cull, chirp or twitter among other birds.
At such times the rnddy star <>r str"ak has
always, as I say. been most conspicuous. Inde
pendently of this, the bird's general coloring is
a pleasing olive brown, which, according to
position and circumstances, has a more or less
glossy apearance, the tall having received the
I'.y virtue of all this, I feel sure that, to any
one* who h;ul watched and waited for her, the
nU: htiiiKal'- would come rather as a conHpIcVJOUS;
t.'.ii. a dull looking bird, .it least among our
smaller Hritish Mrds Tits and rhafflnrnrs. M
it seems to me, Mash less as they flit through
trees. Therefore, when 1 read the eternal re
marks about its dull coloring, which and Is the
bane of natural hi>t"i\ one writer hun.is down
from the mouth of another through the genera
tions, 1 Bay to myself that each and all of them
have either never called upon the bird and
stayed an near or two, or else th.it they have
got out of Hi.- hal.lt -which may be also a trou
ble—of seeing anything bther than "it is
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