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I 'IKS IN MTKRARY HISTORY BY PRO
SHAKESPEARE AS A DRAMATIC ARTIST.
WITH AN ACCOUNT OF HIS REPUTA
TION AT VARIOUS PERIOD& By Thomas
U. Lounsbury, L H. D.. LL. D.. Professor
of English in Vale University. Octavo, pp.
xx. 449. Charles Scrlbner's Sons.
SHAKESPEARE AND VOLTAIRE. By
Thomas R. Lounsbury. L. H. D.. LL. D..
Professor of English in Yale University.
Octavo, pp. xii, 4G3. Charles Scribner's
In the series of volumes to which Professor
1/ounsbury fives th<= general title of "Shake
tip^artan Warp." he has undertaken to trace the
history of several old critical controversies
through an enormous mass of critical and so
called "creative" literature, much of It com
paratively forgotten, or else never heard of.
not merely by the ereneral reader, but hy schol
ars The subject in his second volume, to wit,
th» relations of Voltaire and Shakespeare, has
indeed been more Than once investigated, for
example, by M. Jusperand. our new French
Ambassador, but not before with such patient
thoroughness and such acumen. With respect
to the first volume. It may fairly he said of
Professor Lounsbury that, for latter day Eng
lish and American readers at least, he has both
created and exhausted his subject.
Perhaps some shrewd reader may detect In
the above paragraph the basis for a question, if
not for a complaint with regard to these vol
ume?. Why, he may ask, should ancient lit
erary quarrels and controversies be presented
with euch fulness to a generation that has for
gotten them? Is it not unnecessary to slay the
slain? Is It not uncharitable both to them and
to us to do it by slow degrees— that is to say,
in nine hundred pages? Such a question seems
plausible, and in view of the fact that Profes
sor Lounsbury has still two volumes to give us
before his series will be complete, it seems
almost inevitable. Yet he might legitimately
reply that the larger part of all history, whether
political or literary* or social, consists of an
elaborate slaying of the slain, and that when
the s!ain have been intimately connected with
causes, institutions, or reputations that are still
alive. It is often instructive as well as interest
ing to do once more in words what time has
done, in deeds. Moreover, of all human reputa
tions that of Shakespeare is probably the most
truly alive at the present day, and few who
care for this reputation can fail to take inter
est in the oppositions it has encountered, in the
triumphs it has won. It is these oppositions,
th^se. triumphs, that Professor Lounsbury re
counts in his "Shakespearian Wars." In other
word?, to imagine that he is primarily con
cerned with slaying already slain critics is to
ignore the positive side of his work. To im
agine that he performs his task in a heavy or
a ferocious manner is to be Ignorant of his un
flagging humor, his shrewd yet genial philoso
phy., his urbane culture.
This is not to say. however, that the critic of
these books is compelled for once to abandon
completely that role of faultfinder which in the
eyes of many persons constitutes his chief rea
son for existing. Professor Lounsbury is, we
think, fairly open to the charge of diffusiveness.
He is so full of his subject and he writes so
easily that he writes too much. Had he chosen
to analyze more succinctly the crass critical
opinions which it was necessary for him to
present, his readers would have trusted both his
reports and his judgments. They could have
dispensed with many of the sentences in which
he makes the purpose of his book so clear that
a child could scarcely misunderstand it. They
could even have spared some of the humorous
comments which, delightful in themselves, are
so abundant as almost to give the impression
that Professor Lounsbury takes a feline pleas
ure in playing with his victim before dealing
him a death blow. But these are trifling com
ments that one hesitates to make when one,
recalls the fact that a critical treatise that does
not contain a dull page is an almost unknown
phenomenon in the history of literature. It is
due also to our author to remember that his
materials were enormous, and in large part
they determined the scale of his books. No
on« who is not familiar with the bypaths of
eighteenth century literature can have an ade
quate idea of Professor I»unsbury's knowl
edge of that prolific period. He has read its
worthless drama, its superlatively minor poets,
its arrogant criticisms, its pamphlets, its cor
respondence, its magazines, with a thoroughness
that excites almost as much commiseration as
admiration. When he conu a to deal with Vol
taire- — a volume which he had Intended to
make only a chapter he seems to be scarcely
less thorough in his -researches. If. then, we
charge him with a slight diffuseness in the mere
matter of style, we must credit him with self
control in view of tbe great mass of details he
might easily hay» persuaded himself to give us.
The first volume, to which the author has
sfFixed a title unfortunately pre-empted by
Professor Moulton, opens with a thorough dis
cusiUon in three chapters of the battle long
■waged over the famous dramatic unities. Apart
from their Interest to students of Shakespeare
these chapters are valuable as furnishing an
•xcellent brief account of the rise, culmination
and decline of one of the most remarkable lit
erary delusions that ever took possession of the
human mmd — delusion to which readers and
students constantly hav° their attention drawn,
and the history of which they will here find
recorded in a most convenient and interesting
fashion. The lesson t«» be drawn from the dis
cussion is that "writ large" in both of Pro
fessor Lounsbury's volumes, namely, the utter
futility of literary dogmatism. The ancient and
not entirely defunct controversy with regard
to the propriety of intermingling the comic
and the tragic within the limits of a single
play Is next discussed, and this chapter is fol
lowed by one dealing with the charge so often
made against the English stage, that it was too
hospitable to representations of violence and
bloodshed. Then comes a chapter on minor
dramatic conventions which is chiefly notable,
at least to any reader not preternaturally ten
der hearted, because it contains an Inimitable
dissection of the character and criticism of the
fatuous Rymer. The treatment of Dennis, Gil
don and other critical worthies in the chapter
entitled "Late Seventeenth Century Controver
sies About Shakespeare" is mild in comparison ;
with the discussion of Rymer. but the absurdities
of that transplanted American. Mrs. Charlotte
Lennox, in her "Shakespeare Illustrated." draw
from our author one of his most characteristic
ally humorous utterances. Had she "become
Mrs. Rymer. the conjunction of these two stars,
shooting madly from their spheres in the
Shakesperian firmament, would have attracted |
the attention of observers for all time." Mrs. I
Lennox might, with no great impropriety, have '
married almost any of the gentlemen discussed
m the eighth chapter, which deals with the
unspeakable alterers of Shakespeare's plays to
suit the requirements of an age of "taste," or in
the ninth, which deals with the conflicting eigh- >
th-nth century views about the dramatist. We '
forget all these foolish people, however, when i
we come face to face with Professor Louns- '
bury*» best self in the concluding: chapter. In !
which he discusses Shakespeare as a dramatist i
and moralist and shows that it in the latter '
role that has been chiefly instrumental in giving
him his unique position aftnong writers.
The volume entitled "Shakespeare and Vol
taire,- which is unfortunately not made uni
form in size with its companion, is naturally
more readable than the latter. It la as much
an episode in the life of Voltaire as a chapter In
a. history of Shakespearian Wars," and de
rives Interest and brilliancy from Its connection
with one of the wittiest, most versatile, and
most influential of men. It Is Impossible even
to mention cursorily all its chapters, or to give
an adequate idea of the sleuthlike way in which
Professor Lounsbury follows Voltaire's igno
rant, unjust, yet remarkably consistent manoeu
vres to resist Shakespeare's invasion of France,
and t<. maintain the prestige of CorneiUe and
Racine and. especially, of himself. It is curi
ous to notice how comparatively seldom the
great name of Moliere is brought into question
in this exacerbated controversy that extended
over BO many years, and to remember that
Moliere is now looked upon as being almost as
completely lord of his own dramatic province
as Shakespeare is of his wider realm. In other
words, here, as elsewhere, time has set at
naught the dogmatism of men. It is needless to
say that in exposing the futility of this special
exhibition of dogmatism the author is as hu
morous and philosophical as one could well de
sire him to be. although it is permissible to feel
that he has not brought out fully the higher
side of Voltaire's devotion to the orderly, sub
tle, dignified drama of France, which, as a
national form of art. has had a length , of
creative life denied to the drama of which
Shakespeare is the crowning ornament. It is
also perhaps permissible to feel that occa
sionally, in attributing dishonest motives to
Voltaire Professor Lounsbury suggests the
prosecuting attorney rather than the dispas
sionate critic. Prejudice and ignorance are
such blinding forces, and human nature is capa
ble of such infinite self-deception, that we are
by no means sure that Voltaire was conscious
of moral obliquity in some of the actions that
cause Professor Lounsbury deliberately to bring
this heavy charge against him. Still it is a
hard not to say herculean, task, for even the
most charitable interpreter of Voltaire's ex
traordinary procedures in behalf of the French
drama and himself to discover how the old war
rior could have persuaded himself that he could,
with any honesty, assert the literal faithfulness
of his atrocious translation of "Julius Cspsar.
It seems necessary in this particular instance
either to believe that he was temporarily crazed
with anger and fear or to assent to the charge
that he wilfully and most successfully misrep
ON THE SCOTTISH BORDER
RAMRLES IN THE COUNTRY OF THE
AT-THOR OF "WAVERLET."
THF BCOTT COUNTRY. By W. S Crockett. Min
ister of Tweedsmulr. Author of "In Pratee of
Tweed" etc. Illustrated. 12mo. pp. x^. 810.
The Macmillan Company.
The history and legends relating to the region
comprising such places along the Tweod, on the
Sottish border, as Sandyknowe. Kelso, Ashe
stiel. Abbotsford, Melrose. Dryburgh, Traquair.
Tweed and Yarrow, are collected in this volume
by a clergyman, who. born in the district and
always a resident there, has for years cherished
the ambition, as he says in his preface, of as
sembling "in brief compass a plain record of
practically all the salient features in the hist-.ry
of the border." It is, of course, the scene of the
Waverley novels, and full of associations with
the life of Sir Walter Scott.
As the author observes, "the Scott country
may be said to be synonymous with the Vale
of Tweed," and this being his own native cam
try, it has been his delight to refer a compila
tion of its eventful history to the life and works
of the great novelist. His method has been to
take up town by town, describing their feat
ures, tracing references thereto In the works of
Scottish writers, and reciting the chronicles of
settlement, wars and growth or decay from the
ancient Christian abbots down to the days of
authors still living. Other poets and authors
contemporaneous with Scott are given special
attention, such as John Leyden and Hogg, and
of course the biographer of the romancer, Lock
hart. Such an array of information makes the
volume' a sort of literary guidebook to the re
gion, and as such It well fulnlle its purpose;
while the many photographs, drawings and old
cuts used in illustration make it the more read
able in iteelf. The author 1b Inclined to employ
unassigned quotation, especially in venturing
literary judgments, as if assuming that the
reader will at once recognize the source, or that
its authority is unquestionable. He approaches
his subject with dignified reverence and handles
it with Judgment.
At Sandyknowe. where this tour for a 'Scott
student" begins, perhaps the most interesting
character is the Rev. Dr. Alexander Duncan,
afterward drawn in "St. Ronan's Well" as the
Rev. Josiah Cargill, who was driven by the
young Scott's recitation of "Hardyknute" to the
exclamation that "one may as well speak ln
the mouth of a cannon as where that child is!"
This Dr. Duncan. Scott said, was "almost our
only visitor." Scott suffered from an overplus
of visitors ln his later days at Abbotsford, to
nu<-h a degree that, as Lady Scott remarked, it
was almost a hotel. An Instance of the Inti
mate adoption of Scott's fiction Into the life of
the; places from which he drew hie material is
.supplied by the case of "Edie Ochiltree," the
beggar in "The Antiquary." Andrew GemmelS
wats his own name, but under it on his tomb
fctone in Roxburgh i^ cut "alias Edie Ochiltree."
On the back of the stone he is represented in
the attitude of undoing all the eloquence of a
recruiting sergeant at St. Boswell's Fair by
holding aloft his meal pocks and crying in de
rision, "Behold, the end o' it!" This caustic ex
dragoon attracted Scott, and in not to be forgot
ten by readers. The gypsy town of Yet holm
was the birthplace of Jean (Jordon, the proto
type of Mf-g Merrilies in character and action,
though her granddaughter Madge is said to
have furnished the model for Megs appearance.
Vetholm is still the royal seat of the gypsy
kingdom. Charles 11. crowned with great cere
mony three years ago, being the ruling poten
tate. Mr. Crockett thinks that such a corona
tion is not likely to occur again, for "Scottish
gypsydom is doomed." Even in Scotland such
things are passing rapidly; and though the
memories of public acts and private lives are
h'ld tenac-iously :n the border country, and all
associations with th.<> "Mighty Minstrel" are
sacredly conserved, secondary facts, of which
this volume has many, are apt to escape record
through this very sense of safety. It ie always
pleasant to have them given the currency of
THE BLUSHERS OF AUTHORS.
From The London Star.
The most Interesting errors of authors are
those which do not appear in the books of ref
erence. Among these one may place that of a
minor historical novelist who lately made his
mediaeval hero draw his trusty horn book from
his pocket in order to Jot down a few momoran
da. As bad a slip was made by Macaulay when
he spoke of those readers who, few and weary,
are in at the death of the Blatant Beast." It
is curious that the critics who above all others
loved to reprove the unfortunate author who
blundered in fact should himself more than
once have shown how easy It is to blunder on a
gigantic scale. We all remember Sir George
Trevelyan's humorous account of Macaulay's
agony when he opened the "Edinburgh Review"
and discovered that, by a slip of the pen, he had
declared that it would be unfair to estimate
Goldsmith's powers by such a mere "pot boiler"
as "The Vicar of Wakefield." His horror at
having to "pose before the world for three mor
tal months in the character of a critic who
thought 'The Vicar of Wakefleld' a bad book"
was so great that he wanted Napier to publish
a special edition of the "Review" to put him
rlKht. although he had finally to be content
with a prominent entry in the next number's
list of errata.
a In spite of such a warning, Macaulay took
••t!! B A ln 01 " 110 * ou t the blunders into which
poor dear Goldy" fell when he tried to write
t,.r£^i Ural or clvl1 ' Hl9 "Animated Na-
Me wh P L y BWa , rms wlth " a " the most absurd
Linntin pi\ c OU d nnd ln boOk- of travel about
mo a « »nn al f onlanß - monkeys that preach ser
rations " nlßhtln sales that repeat long conver-
NEW- YORK DAILY TKIBnNE. SATURDAY. NOVEMBEB 22. 1002.
NEW STORES OF ROMANCE AND REAL
ITY FOR BOTS AND GIRLP
The largest of those groups into which the
holiday books are apt to form themselves is al
ways the one which is dedicated to the chil
dren. Is it, indeed, a group? Rather are we
inclined to regard it as a thing independent and
apart, so very numerous are the examples of
this form of literature which we are called upon
every year to sift and to appraise. That the
task has been growing steadily more inspiriting
these last two or three seasons has been due to
the raising of the average which has been going
on, and to the ever increasing willingness of
some of the most gifted writers of the day to
turn aside from their labors for mature readers
in order to produce books for the children. One
of the good results of this willingness, we may
note in passing. i« that grave and reverend
seniors may often find their account in the lit
erature of the playroom. Take, for example.
Mr. Kipling's latest masterpiece, the "Just So
Stories." !f that is an unmixed joy for the
youngsters, it is also a source of delight and
solace for their elders. Another book which we
owe this year to a brilliant writer is Mr. An
drew Lang's collection of <;ome fifteen or twenty
enchanting tales. 'The Book of Romance"
(Longmans, Green & Co.). The stories in this
are written by Mrs. Lang from the material
provided by the Arthurian legend, the French
epic of Roland and similar sources. The flavor
of literature Is In them, that flavor which can
never be too generously Introduced into juvenilia.
But Mr. and Mrs. Lang know that for the read
ers they have particularly in mind it would
never do to be literary in the bookish sense.
These pages are spontaneously romantic, blithe
and sunny as a fairy tale told by some one with
genuine sympathy for the mental processes and
imaginative gifts of children to a circle of curly
headed listeners by a winter fire. Mr. H. J.
Ford has provided a quantity of most engaging
illustrations, some of them printed in colors.
Altogether, "The Book of Romance" promises
to be. like all its predecessors, a success.
In his preface which contains, by the way,
a negro version of the Orpheus tale which no
student of such matters should miss—Mr. Latin
alludes to the manner in which the old profes
sional minstrels and tellers of tales took the
adventures of legendary characters and at
tributed them to historical persons "like Charle
magne and his family." The Rev. A. J. Church
has profited by their activities in his volume of
"Stories of Charlemagne and the Twelve Peers
of France" (The Macmillan Company). In this
he relates for young readers some of the most
fascinating episodes in all literature. The verj
chapter headings revive an atmosphere of legend
and faery— "On the Craft of Mawgis," "Of What
Befel at Montalban." "How Ralph Entertained
the King." "The Treason of Canelon." "Of the
End of the False Duke Macalre." and "How
Huon, Having Slain a Giant, Came to Babylon."
The author knows well how to write In the key
set by th-se symbols of old French romance.
He. too, has his lllust rations, pit turesque de
signs drawn by Mr. Cn'orge Morrow, and daintily
reproduced in colors; and he, too. has made
what we are sure will be a popular book. A
book adhering far more closely to history, but
none the less romantic. Is "The Story of Joan
of Are f lir Boys and <;irls as Aunt Kate Told
It" (Boston: Lee & Shepard), by Kate E. Car
penter. The author makes that most beguiling
of all appeals to young readers, the appeal of
the true story. She is so careful, moreover, about
fixing her historical facts In the mind, that she
includes a map of France in the time of Joan of
Arc among her Illustrations. Hut while sh.»
brings the three children who gather around
her supposititious narrator back to this map
more than one", she tells them the thrilling story
with perfect naturalness and simplicity. She in
instructive, hut even m^re In she entertaining
Children who read this book will be prepared to
come, when they are older, to more serious
books on the great French heroine, but thej will
remember h^r the more vlvdly for having first
made her acquaintance In the sunlit Belds of
Thf re are other i>'>oks of Old World charm
before us, but for the present we may relinquish
this line of exploration in the mass of holiday
juvenilia, ami turn !<• S'.tnr- of the stories bas<^d
on modern motives There la Mr w. I' How -
ells's new book, "The Plight <>r Pony Baker"
(Harper A Bros.), In many respects an absorbing
production. The small boj who is its hero Is
drawn to the life a true boy with all his
naughtiness, resentments, hardnesses, soft son
nesses, cruelty and sentiment. His life In a
Western river town gives opportunity for much
mirth provoking narrative Perhaps the note ,it
reminiscence is it, these chapters we like to
think so. Pony's grievances, his burning resolve
to run away to the Indians, or with the circus,
when not sufficiently appreciated or understood
at home, are dealt with by the author in ; . vein
of affectionate irony thai la captivating The
ghost story which fills one chaptei *« would
liK** to have niiiili <i in future • ■rliiiniis
Robert Leigh ton's story of English school life,
"The Boys of Waveney" '<:. P. Putnam's Sons),
is healthy and vivacious, marked b> agreeable
suspense ami poetic Justice. The Buffering hero
who is a model >>r manliness and nobleness,
emerges triumphantly from his trials, the b< If
indulgent villain receives hit deserts The
American boy millionaire, who is a leading fig
ure in the school, might be a little less Of a X'"i
from the machine than the author makes hint
he Is something of a youthful Sherlock Holmes;
but we are not disposed to quarrel with .1 stor;
bo entertaining. "The Secret of the Everglades"
(Charles Bcrlbner's Sonsi. i>> Bessie Marchant,
resembles Mr. Leighton'S story in that it deals
with crime and Impresses the lesson thai 1 in
justice in certain, it describes the struggles of
a group of young people who have lost nearly
all their natural protectors to make a living
among the Florida swamps, and i! is. on the
whole, a cheerful tale, even the murder motive
fails to make it glomy.
The story of a dog's heaven few people would
believe that »u< h a story <c>uld be told simply,
naturally and successfully. Vet this may truth
fully lie said or Marshall Saunders'S l> ook.
"Beautiful .lot's Paradise" (L. C Page & Co.).
Her first don story, "Beautiful Joe," went to the
hearts of all who love n loving and faithful
friend, and this sequel, showing the happiness,
the goodness and helpfulness of old Joe in a
clod's heaven, will be as heartily enjoyed. There
i.s a widespread notion in these <ia>s that true
hearted animals do Indeed have an immortality
of their own Bayard Taylor, by the way, was
one of the earlier believers in th« theory, and,
true or not true, there is much that is touching
appealing and reasonable in this development
of that pleasant theory by Marshall Baunders.
A set of particularly .-nuaKinp volumes holds
reprints of popular long stories which originally
appeared in the pages of "Si. Nicholas." The
Century Company i« bringing out these reprints
us "St. Nicholas Books," and giving them mani
fold attractions of Illustration and binding. H.
S. Canfield's "Boys of the Rincon Ranch" has
not a dull page anywhere within its covers. Its
details of animal life in Texas are more than
commonly entertaining. Burton E. Stevenson'B
story of "Tommy Remington's Battle" shows
how a coal mine boy reached that finest hero
ism that means devotion to duty. In "Sir Mar
rok" Allen French tells a tale of knightly valor
and wicked magic— a tale set in the days of the
Round Table. Equally romantic but historically
possible Is Adeline Knapp's story, "The Boy and
the Baron." The robber barons of mediaeval
Germany enliven its pages with evil deeds and
much fighting; and Wulf, the humble hero, turns
out himself to be a long lost noble of most ad
mirahie character and assured courage. The
story is very well told, with no more anachro
nisms than are necessary to please the modern
young reader. "The Cruise of the Dazsler" is
the stirring recital by Jack London of a run
away boy's adventures on a vessel sailed by
criminals along the California coast. The
youth abandons study for the enchantment of a
free life — and hitter is the slavery into which
he falls and sore are the trials he undergoes
before they end in a tableau- jf joyous home
coming. "The Last Cruise of the Electra" (The
Saalfield Publishing Company), by C. P. Chip
man, is an Impossible story of a mysterious
submarine boat run by pirates. The two boys
of the book go through adventures of terrific
danger, but all ends happily. It is all as false
to life as a boy's book can well be.
Emmy Lou, Her Book and Heart" (McClure.
Phillips & Co.). by George Madden Martin, is
perhaps addressed more directly to grownups
than to children of any age. The child's heart
the author assuredly knows and interprets to
us with surprising subtlety, and the "book" —
otherwise the educational system under which
little Emmy Lou sometimes groans. Is shown
forth with humor and wisdom. There is many a
neat moral for teachers, parents and guardians
in these lovable stories. Mr. C. L. Hintons illus
trations, so daintily expressive of child charac
ter, deserve high praise. A sprightly story is
Mrs. Ifyra R. Hamlln's "Catharine's Proxy"
(Little, Brown & Co.). Catharine is the in
dulged, fun loving, heedless American girl who
hatee to be bound hy the limitations of school
life; her "proxy" — who takes with Joy the edu
cation Catharine refuses— is a beautiful creat
ure, whose foreign training makes her the an
tithesis of her friend. Each is an agreeable fig
ure in her way, and their story is an animated
one— and not without useful suggestion. Miss
Nora Archibald Smiths book. "Three Little
Marys" (Houghton, Mifflin & Co.). deals with a
trio of good children, Scotch, English and Irish.
These are simple little stories, but nice, refined
Mrs. Margaret K. Sangster tells tn "Janet
Ward" (Fleming H. Revell Company) the story
of a minister*! daughter who spends her girl
hood between the conflicting claims of home,
college and a career among the world's work
ers. The book is interesting and full of woman
ly good sense, and Is wisest in its Inculcation °f
th»- <>I>l fashioned doctrine that home furnishes
an admirable field for a woman's noblest qual
ities and aptitudes. It is a doctrine which too
many American Kirls with ambitious yearnings
seem to forget. Miss Helen L. Reed, who la a
graduate of the woman's annex of Harvard, has
described in "Brenda's Cousin at Radcllffe"
(Little. Brown & Co.), the ordinary course of
life In that college. It will no doubt interest
girls who are anticipating undergraduate ex
periences of their ou n looked at from that
point of View we may give the story a word of
praise. As a literary performance it is common -
place. We mas note that the author insists
upon the triumphant retention by college girls
of all their charmingly feminine qualities and
ways; and also points out that the studies which
fail to make them masculine are exactly the
same as those pursued by their brothers of
A pleusunt ytury of oldtlnie New-England-
the time when little grlrls wore pantalets and
pigtails— is Harriet A. Nash's 'Tolly's Secret"
(Little, Brown & Co.). The little maid who kept
hT w..rd through much tribulation to a dyin*
stranger In an attractive character so deftly
ted th.it she really lives for us. There Is
mm li humor in the lightly touched in sketches
of the village people who surround her. An
other pretty Xew-Eigland story Is Mary
Catherine Lee's "Lois Mallet's Dangerous Gift*
(Houghton, Mitllin & Co.). That gift, of course.
Is a beauty of which the sweet Cape Cod Qua
keress is cjulte unconscious, until a visit to New-
Bedford revealed it to her. Some of the dan-
K'trs which lie in that knowledge the gentle
girl experiences, and the punishment for her
littl.- vanities in certainly unduly severe. Th«s
book ta. a delicate charm. "Little Miss Sun
shin»-" i.i. F. Taylor & Cot, by Gabrielle K.
Jackson, Is a pretty and obvious story. The
berates is a winsome girl, who sheds love, kiud
ness and Joy all about b«r path, and the story
turns upon the fashion In Which all this sweet
ness is received by those about her. The chief
contrast Is provided by a penurious old country
man, who ronlM* h*r charm until he saves her
Mfo. in "Nathalie's chum" (Little. Brown A
!*<■ i Anna t'haptn Hay introduces anew some
Of the p.»«,j,li» met in her "Teddy" books. Again
we meet impulsive Theodora and her musical
husband, and other k<»><l company they bring
with them. The comradeship between Nathalie
and her big brother It is pleasant to read of. and
equally winning i.« the love with which they
cherish the little brother, naughty "Fntsuma."
JOl /.'\ kLISM IN JAPA \
Prom The London Standard.
The twelfth session or the Japan Societj wai
opened on Tuesdaj ni^hi at No. "Jo Hanover
Mr M Zumoro, the Editor of ■ - Th»- Japan
Times." and late private secretary to the Mai
quls ito. r»-ad a papei ..n "Journalism In
Japan " He -s.ild that m gauging t h<- degree of
progress in civilization attained by a people
there .\;is no guide so sure and reliable as us
pubin ens'. The Chinese could boast ..f th*>
possession -if the oldest existing newspaper
"The Metropolitan •Jaz.-tte. 1 ' it was still pub
lidhed In Peking, and was nearly four hundred
years old The origin of Japanese journalism
dated back as far as the early p;irt of the
seventeenth cental*} They then published news
nheetfl which were printed on wooden blocks
hastily prepared The oldest of these sheets
which have been preserved bear dates at the
beginning of tb*> seventeenth century, and «lye
vivid Illustrations of some of the tragic scenes
of the fall of the renowned Castle of Asaka. In
a war which consummated the establishment
<>f the Bhogumats Dynasty of Toku^awa The
publication of th«»a< pages uhs confined to the
<;i|iital city of those <lii\s. and other places only
received the news when it «;is verj old
After the country was open for foreign Inter
course about thirty newspapers, or, rather, peri
odical journals, w. ■<,••■ started. According to
official returns, the total number of newspapers
ami magazines m Japan at the end of is'.t'.i was
tiTs. of which about half were devoted to scl
ence, literature and religion, and the other half
were concerned with politics and genera] news.
Tokio was th« principal centre of journalism
In Japan. Between thlrtj and forty dailj news
papers were produced there, and trie publication
of stories in them was regarded as one of the
Indispensable attractions. In IN! to one ..f the
first questions discussed by Parliament was the
llbertj of the press. A new law was passed
and approved, and now practicall] all newspa
pers had entire freedom. They could saj any
thing about a minister or any one else, provided
thej guarded again*! libel. In the time of war
the government let the editors of the papers
know what they should avoid publishing, and
no patriotic Japanese would think of infringing
the command thus given. Women were taking
an active part In journalism in .Japan, and peri
odicals devoted to matters relating to women
were published Women were also found on the
edit. .rial staffs ••( many Journals. The newspa
pen of .Japan had always been animated DJ a
deep feeling of friendship and admiration for
England. Votes of thanks to the lecturer and
chairman ended the proceedings.
THE VODER* HOTEL.
From The World's Work.
A novel of no (serious merit may or may not
become popular. There is no certainty about it
Only one in a thousand has the quality that
carries it into favor, and the other nine hundred
and ninety-nine represent wasted labor and
false hopes of author and publisher alike.
The writer who sets out deliberately to pro
duce a book that shall achieve an unusual popu
larity is not as likely to succeed as the writer
who goes forward and honestly does the work
that is in him. Nor is the publisher as likely
to succeed who works with a set purpose to
force a particular novel on the public. He will
fail twice or thrice or a dozen times for every
time that he succeeds. Both writer and pub
lisher too. will be likely to forget real literary
values^and they will soon find themselves on
the level of the composers and publishers of
popular songs whose value is of th» slightest
and whose vogue is but ephemeral
Cooks ana Publications.
SOCIAL NEW YORK UNDER
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In the years 1714 to 1776. the three cities of the country ranking foreman
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Boston. This period in the social history of North America has not heretofore
found an historian. Miss Singleton has combined the hard facts of history with
minor things in social and domestic life in a singularly happy and effective manner
ANIMALS BEFORE MAN
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By Dr. F. A. LUCAS
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