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LOWELL MASS IS PASSING THROUGH DEEP WATERS, BUT HER STRIKE TROUBLES HAVE THEIR PICTURESQUE SIDE
FALLS OF THE MERRIMAC
View taker, at the, spot where the water Is diverted for mill use.
LOWELL'S LABOR BOYCOTT OF COTTON MILLS.
MANY WHEELS STOPPED ON THE MERRIMAC GREAT
STRIKE IN HANDS OF YOUTHFUL LEADERS.
Lowell. Mass.. April 4 (Special).— Paxalyrls has
succeeded activity in this manufacturing city. Fif
teen thousand operatives are. idle; forty thousand
men. women and children are suddenly without
means of support. Silence has settled over the
huge factories, set beside an Intricate maze of wind
ing canals, recalling some Dutch city. The strike
lias stopped th- BSUI wheels, whose vibrations reg
istered the activity of the community. The bells
that for BO many years have summoned thousands
©i men and -women to their daily toil are also
rilent. Up and down the streets, as idle and as
useless as the water in the canals, flow great tides
of humanity. A look of wonder and apprehension
Is writ!'-, on their faces; the new freedom they
have attained brings with it too many troubles to
cause pleasure. Determined to fight once and for
all the great battle to secure higher wages— battle
that has been Impending for years— the operatives,
following the guidance of their leaders and —
ported by the national organizations above them,
have entered upon a great conflict. They abhor
violence, avoid even the semblance of demonstra
tion. do not indulge In parades or mass meetings,
but in quiet, orderly fashion have entered the bat
tle. Only few of them yet realize the misery and
suffering that it entails; they are confident of suc
cess, but a little awed by the actual outbreak of
the strike. They have presented their demands to
the mill agents; that for a 10 per cent in
crease has been refused, and now. without bitter
ness they have entered a light of principle, not of
personalities. It Is a great, passive, orderly demon
stration. Contrasted with the turbulence of the
great coal ttrike in Pennsylvania. it is the differ
ence between battle and parade.
A brief survey of the field, however, is enough to
demonstrate that It is no mean contest that has
completely prostrated this city and promises to
bring financial ruin and actual starvation to thou
sands. Lowell claims a population of J*5.000: of this
number neariy 30.«00 work In the mills, and over
17,000 are employed In the seven great cotton mills.
now shut down. The largest of these mills employs
S.WO hands, the smallest BOO: the combined weekly
payroll aggregates J120.0C0. making the average
wages *7 50. There are, however, many boys and
girls in the mills, and the average wages of the men
Is somewhat above this figure The women out
number the men at a ratio of 10 to T. Of this great
army over 14.000 are now In the strike: about 3,000
employes In one mill are, with the consent of the
ctrikers. BtS at work, but there are 'evidences that
they -will also be drawn bafts the strike before many
days. Back of these 17.000 operatives are 30.0 M
woinea nr.d children, their families dependent upon
their earnings for their food and their existence.
Xext In line are the boarding house keepers, no
•mail dement In this city of boarders. Almost the
first result of the strike will be the demoralization
Of th« boarding house. Then come the stores, many
Of trhich exist solely. by trade with operatives; all
of them have outstanding accounts that cannot be
liquidated now. Their trade has already contracted
to a cash basis; credit has gone. Department stores
tav* Informed their clerks to prepare for a long,
enforced vacation if the strike continues. Mer
chants are countermanding their orders, and those
v.ho have purchased their spring stock are estimat
ing their loss already. The butcher, the baker, the
candlestick maker— all these are direct beneficiaries
of the mill wage: all these must face a cessation
of business; all are facing a prostration, which In
many cases will mean ruin If long continued, for
the margin of profit in a mill town Is narrow. In
a ■■ least sixty thousand persons read ruin,
some of them actual starvation, in the shutdown
I of the mills. A terse summary of the existing
situation was furnished the other day by three
little kindergarten girls, who were skipping down a
"My papa ain't workin'." announced the first.
proudly. "He's a striker."
•Mine ain't neither; he's In th© strike, too. He
ain't doin* nothin' but stayin' at home," declared
•■1 don't care, nothin' about the strike," affirmed
the third, placidly. "My papa's working." This is
th division of sentiment in the city to-day.
THE LEADERS YOUNG.
The first thought, in beholding this great army
of men and women engaged in a great struggle, is
naturally cf their leaders. What manner of men
are they who are essaying to direct the fortunes
end th.j happiness of ■■- ■•> men. women and chil
dren. The first feeling on me.-ting these leaders is
astonishment at their youth. There are many
of them in their early twenties, these -men who
axe directing the great contest, in the regular
em.. Ihey would command companies, at the most;
here they marshal thousands. They show the buoy
ancy of j-outb.; they discuss methods without anxi
ety. The commissariat of an army corps would
be taxed to provide for so great a macs of help
less people; yet these young men assemble, discuss
ways and means gravely, but without apparent
fear. In the opernr-p moments of the battle, when
the great deiinite step had been taken and the
etrikc was on, there was no shrinking from the la
sue. They seem scarcely to comprehend what the
suffering sure to follow means. They refill their
pipes and go on to discuss new phases, but they
show no Mgn of stagrerirsg under the burden of
their responsibilities. They are not reckless In
manner, but one cannot fail to be impressed with
the youthfulness of their appearance. They nave
natural ability, that is appaient: they are born
*- - lea of the thoughts at least of their comrades.
They evince keenness and shrewdness; many of
them hiive delved into the socialistic doctrines
Which have obtained such wide hearing in other
manufacturing cities of Massachusetts. There are
women, too. pra\e laced delegates from women's
unions, who attend the meetings of the Textile
Council, the governing body of the strikers. They
ere less buoyant, more visibly worried by the strug-
But the youth at the leaders is not so great a
handicap as it might seem. The battle is not local
in its issue, if it is local in the hardest of its af-
Jlictior.s. Lowt-Il has become the battleground of
a.. New-England. There will be no sympathetic
strife in Lawrence or Fall River, but already 20,000
operatives in those cities have pledged their sup
port In the shape of II a week from their scanty
*-arr.:rif:s to ht-iv the Lowell strikers. For Lowe
>is fighting the fight of a dozen cities. For years It
has U-sn the one blot on the labor map of New-
Eng!and. Its spsamUMsl have accented their wages.
however small, and have prospered. There has been
no great industrial struggle since 1575. and then it
X7BS a EScirmifh compered to thU battle. In the
opinion of the operatives of other manufacturing
assßsttaa Lowell has been a hopelessly passive
city. Ur:!one aw**) been weak litre, have attalnei
j strength in or.3y a few lines. When th« operatives
of Fall River. Lawrence or Haver hill demanded
more «i:«t their employers called to their atten
tion tbe fact that LowelL the premier cotton dty
of the country, paid its operatives less than they
were now receiving.
"Raise the scale In Lowell, atid you will raise
It all Along th« line," has been tha war cry, and
eot? the Lowell operatives are calm In tho face of
tt*ir.«reet Matt tor they know that other cJtfe«
have much at stake, and other forces, stronger In
counsel and in resources, are behind them.
This explains, In a measure, at least, the perfect
pood feeling so far preserved by the strikers toward
their employers. The men demanded a 10 per cent
increase; It was refused absolutely. They declared
that unless it v.-ere granted by a certain date they
would strike. Th« agents answered by refusing
again, and announced that they would close the
mills. The men filed out in perfect order; there
was no temper, no passion. The agents announced
that they would like to close up their stock in a
few mills, and asked that a few men be allowed
to work for a short time. Their request was grant
ed. The entente cordials was preserved through
out. On the question of increase there exists an
absolute deadlock, otherwise there is no friction.
Each acknowledges the right of the other to the
position taken; there Is plenty of criticism but
little billingsgate. As a demonstration of a law
abiding boycott the strike, so far. at least, has
been a perfect success.
THE BABEL OF RACES.
Twenty-six different races are represented in the
crowd that passes on the crowded streets. From
the uttermost parts of the earth are gathered to
gether a marvellous assortment of men. The Far
East, Asia Minor. Africa, Greece, Italy. Poland,
France and the. British Kingdom are all represent
ed. On opposite sides of the street Napoleon Bldeau
and Alexander Sophios keep store. Cfpsar Romana
has a fruit stand at the corner, and George Wash
ington, colored, but proud of his sovereign-defying
name, lives down the alley. Representatives of the
ancient royal families of Cohen and Sullivan do
business In the neighborhood, and Ah Sin, the de
scendant of history only knows how many princely
houses, destroys the clothing of Christian and He
brew with the same bland readiness. There are
Armenians, wearing gayly colored sweaters, to be
noted in the passers, and Portugal has a large rep
resentation. These are the people of the mills;
these are the bulk of that great mass of laborers
through whom runs the scant leaven of education,
acquired by effort rather than advantage; this Is
the material out of which is to be constructed a
victorious army of strikers. Unionism is to bring
economic salvation, so the leaders claim.
It is a strange sight, this motley throng wan
dering up and down the streets. They are like
children Just out from school. They stop at the
corners and chat. The women wave their hands at
their male acquaintances. Trie men smoke in
cessantly; they laugh and Joke; a holiday to many
of them is an untasted joy. It is too new. too
pleasurable, to be appreciated in its gravest phase
yet. There is no boisterousne-ss. On the first day
of the strike people came from far and wide to view
the scenes, and went away disappointed. They
saw nothing but a number of decently dressed men
I and women, walking In orderly fashion on the
; street. There were no great crowds— the police
' had no difficulty. Not even the saloons overflowed.
i Occasionally a drunken man was seen, but It was
doubtful if he could be charged up to the strikers.
In front of the bulletin boards of the local papers
the greatest crowds assembled. Men watched each
j new scare announcement with amusement. They
\ permed to regard themselves as spectators rather
! than participants. They scanned the evening- papers
j eagerly, as if proud of the stir they were making
In the world. They shook their heads over the
stories, grumbled at editorials and expressed un
] complimentary opinions of certain of the more
' conservative opinions decrying the strike. But they
were pood natured. self-restrained; there was no
marching, no turbulence; everything was pleasant
and harmonious; it was a holiday crowd pure and
I simple. Wherever one went there was always the
! same crowd, the same pipes, the Fame good natured
Joking. Of sollennesa or of bitterness there was
not a suggestion. Doubtless the long, hard strain
of the fight will bring these, but never was there
a more perfect absence of them at the outset.
MILL AGENTS REFUSE COMPROMISE.
The position of the mill agents, the employers, the
[ representatives of capital In this struggle is also
noteworthy. Instead of persisting In running their
: mills In the face of the growing strike sentiment,
they decided, the moment they became convinced,
or alleged that they became convinced, that a ma
' jority of the operatives -were against them, to avoid
! all danger of conflict and close the mills until the
! operatives were ready to work on their terms. To
the present and previous demands for higher wages
! they have always made the same reply.
! "We can better afford to shut down our mills
and go out of business than accede to this unrea
sonable demand. We are paying our operatives
I all we can afford under the present conditions of
trade and the existing high pries of raw cotton."
, Indeed, some of them are quoted as paying that it
is cheaper to *ell their cotton stock at the present
market price than to make it up. Last year, when
a strike was impending, the operatives were per
suaded by ■ committee of prominent citizens to
rest their case with them and go back to work.
This committee conferred with the agents, and
were politely but firmly informed that the agents
could not consent to a compromise. The State
Board of Arbitration essayed a similar task this
veer, and met a similar answer. After last year's
fiasco the operatives have been shy of arbitration,
and there is not the slightest evidence that either
side desires to settle the matter other than by di
rect conflict. The fight has long been coming, and
the general belief is that the mill agents are ready
to fight it to a finish now, and that when it is over
there will be an end of strikes for some years
A perplexing feature of the* great strike is the
weakness of the labor organizations. A week be
fore the strike began not 20 per cent of the oper
atives were union members. ' The ignorant foreign
class, representing the lowest scale In the economic
ladder, did not in the slightest degree grasp the
Idea of the trade union doctrine. It is alleged
that a number of Greeks joined the union and put
up their money under the Impression that they
■ were paying for work. But no sooner was the
strike Imminent th.m hundreds of non-union oper
atives declared their intention of sharing the fight.
Then began a process of unionizing, conducted on
the most wholesale fashion. Hundreds, perhaps
thousands, -were received Into the various organiza
tions, and it Is prophesied that a strike of any
duration will result in driving the greater portion
.cf the operatives Into the union. Of course, it ia
possible to scent a motive In this sudden step.
Union members will receive funds for their support
from similar unions throughout the country, prob
ably from organised labor In every branch. Since
the mills are definitely closed. it is easy to under
stand why it seems better to many to "get aboard
ths lunch wagon," as the phrase goes. But, on
the other hand, th-j new members are not eligible
for support for three months, and by that time
they will have been strong!] Joined to the onions.
Th* hope of the strikers of course, is to form a
Etrons union body of mill operatives In Lowell and
an organization similar In strength to that existing-
In Fall River. If they attain this they will have
•won an Important victory In any event. But
whether th* Dewlv formod connection* would bold
NEW-YORK DAILY TRIBUNE, SUNDAY, AFRTC 5, 1903
In the face of want and hunger, If the mill agents
should decide in a few weeks to open their mills.
may be questioned. If this should occur the really
serious phase of tho strike would be precipitated
and tho passion, happily absent now, would quickly
be felt. At present the operatives are busily
strengthening their unions, and their ranks are
swelling daily. At present a few thousand, possibly
three or four, arc at work in a large hosiery mill.
For several days presawe hap been exerted to
brinsr these out also and make iho tieup complete.
So far it has not succeeded, but there is every
reason for expecting it will. Then the paralysis
will bo complete, and all seven of the preat mills
will bo idle.
LITTLE CANADA AND THE FRENCH.
Two of the races joined in the strike, the French
and the Greek, are worthy of more th.in a passing
plane. They are potent factors in the flpht. one
making for peace, the other for war. For thiee-
Quarters of a century the prolific French-Can;, iian
stocit has been overflowing into New-England.
Following the self-same lines thit their ancestors
took in the great predatory raids of the French
and Indian Wars, these Canadians— "Canucks." as
they are contemptuously nicknamed— have, poured
down the Connecticut and Merrimac river valleys
and filled the manufacturing cities along the line.
To-day there are more than twenty thousand of
them in one quarter of Ix>well alone. "little <an
ada" Is the name given to their habitat, and its
streets, despite their American location, suggest
those of old Quebec. Even the ugly five story tene
ment houses, close relatives of those across the
Bowery, have an Inexpressibly foreign aspect.
"Purifier votre sangr en prennant Le Sarsaparilla,"
declaims a blank wall, where the advertiser has
Been his chance.
"Icl on parle anglais," sets forth another, caus
ing the visitor to rub his eyes and wonder If he is
in Dieppe or Boulogne, or some other French town,
rather than in an American city.
"Maison de. pension." Insinuates a sign In nearly
every window. Here Is the home of the French
Canadian, as mlerratory ns the spring robin, paus
ing for a moment to snatr-h a few loose American
dollars and then fly back to his snug Canadian
nest. The men, svho stand before the houses, smok
ing long clay pipes and waving them over their
phoulders airily, wear jaunty caps at an angle,
have high cheek bones and flashing dark eyes, and
they walk with an Indianlike tread.
"Nous somnes plus francals que les francaise."
declares one old Canadlenne mere, tossing her head
proudly. This is France, the ancient forgotten
perished France of Louis XIV, while across the
alley the übiquitous Murphy Is feeding the goat
and an overwhelmed Yankee Is sniffing his con
Already the Canadian is beginning to fit. Across
the frontier he has a snug farm t> where he will
abide until the good times return. He Is accus
tomed to make a visit, almost a pilgrimage, there
annually, and the railroad station furnishes a clear
evidence that the migration has begun. Of the
strike, the Frenchman has, for the most part, lit
tle understanding. He understands vaguely that
it means more wages.
"We strike, we hah more of dollars and less of
work; enfin. mes enfants. we strike, voila." But
the Frenchman will rot suffer greatly. He Is as
frugal an.l thrifty as his European race brother.
He has dollars in his stocking, and ho can draw
on this reserve If the storm continues. Ha is a
jrreat hip harmless child In many respects, peace
ful, industrious, good natured, harmless, voluble,
sentimental, but if there is riot and violence it will
come from him only indirectly; his instincts are
NEW ATHENS AND THE GREEK.
But across the canal, through which the brown
! water of the Merrimac, still at its spring flood,
chafes and frets uneasily at the inactivity, across
this boundary is a new and different world— in truth,
an ancient and wonderful world. In the shop win
dows are signs printed in ancient Hellenic charac
ters. in tbe alphabet of Homer. The classic alpha
bet adorns the tottering windows of a Merrimac
River mill town. The New Athens Cafe is in a
stone's throw from the French saloon, in which
they sin? the merry "Chansons de Bois" of the old
Canadian voyageurs. In the soft speech of the resi
dents of this quarter one may recognize words
strangely suggestive of others learned with diffi
culty in school vocabularies. There are four thou
sand of these Greeks In Lowell, and the number Is
rapidly Increasing. They have already stamped their
individuality upon a nondescript street. Flamboyant
views of modern Athens, huge, brilliant crayons of
' Baslleus George adorn the windows of the shops.
There are cafes filled with swarthy men. smoking,
gambling, fighting, for the Greek, whether In Mace
donia or Lowell, is not a man of peace.
It is from these selfsame Greeks that the first
trouble is expected in the present strike. The Greek
lives better than the Frenchman, and saves less. He
is ignorant of the meaning of the sacred principles
of labor unionism, and the fear Is that when he gets
hungry he will either work or fight. At the outset
of the strike he started a row by hooting the em
ployes of the hosiery mill on their way to work,
acting under the impression that they were taking
his place. When hunger follows idleness, as it is
pure to, operative and mill agent are alike afraid
lest this Grecian stranger resort to his ancient
weapons and his ancient century honored custom of
Besides the French and the Greek?, there is the
Polander. who dominates a quarter of his own. He
Is distinguished primarily for his wedding festivals,
grand ceremonies at which the entire colony at
tends, and the festivities in the end overflow Into
the police court and the tale of a stabbing affray is
aired. Then there is the Armenian and Syrian, scat
tered over the city in little shops, fewer but note
worthy. Hundreds of Portuguese have selected
Lowell -is a convenient home, and in former days
used to monopolize the work in one mill. The omni
present Hebrew plies a rag trade or does mill work
here. England, Ireland and Scotland have sturdy
representatives, who. with a few of the more intel
ligent French-Canadians and the Yankees, are the
leaders among the operatives. There are other
races, many of them, but the important ones are
WOMEN IN THE STRIKE.
No glimpse of the conflict would be complete
without at least a passing reference to the women
of the strike. There are ten thousand of these
women in the number of the operatives, and they
have their own organizations, their own leaders,
their own representatives in the governing body
of the strike. Theirs is not a gentle life, and the
faces show the strain.
"Eighteen years I have worked In one mill and
in one room." said one. "To-day I earn 56 a week;
I live— that Is about all." Many of these women
are enjoying the first long holiday they have ever
known. Numbers of them can count years of ser
vice withe 9' the loss of a week, sometimes of a
day. They are neatly dressed, intelligent, but
their facets are prematurely wrinkled and care
worn. They show* the evident traces of their con
tinual struggle for supremacy with the machine,
the struggle that always ends the same way— the
machine goes an; the woman wears oi;t. Day after
day. year after year, for ten hours a day, they have
answered the movements of the machine. Hun
dreds of these women, now In the ranks of th«
strikers, are already worn out. They are listless
or garrulous, active or slow, but always and evi
dently weary. The very freedom they are testing
now is a gift they do not understand the use of.
They wander aimlessly, just as the men do; meet
friends on the street, stop and chat, and then go
Such are ■ few glimpses of the great Industrial
conflict. The operatives are orderly. Determined
but without enthusiasm, they are acting as me
chanically as they would answer the needs of the
machine they have worked beside tor so many
years. Their leaders are young, buoyant, hopeful.
They lack experience, but are not unintelligent.
The great question la can they carry the burden of
"the long ciego" they prophesy bo confidently.
Th* various conflicting rt-~** and nationalities <*£•
for a complicating condition. From som* disorder
is to be expected, when f»«aS b'lS been exhausted;
from the leaders and the ar^at mass of the op
eratives order and peace aw to be expected. Hut
beyond these details one great fact Is horn* 1 home
to the visitor in Lowell— a tremendous paralysis
has seized the city. Its busy mills are stopped;
Its stre.t are filled with thousands of the idle and
unemployed; its business houses nre equally par
alyzed. Men and women and children have only
one thought, one topic of conversation, and that
"the great strike."
LOWELL'S CANAL SYSTEM.
The system of canal? and locks for supplying
water power to the cotton mills and other factories
at Lowell, Mass.. is said to be the oldest of Us
kind in the United States. The Canal and Ix>clt
Company, of Lowell, a corporation composed of
persona tacgety interested In the manufacture- of
cotton goods, was organized more than ten years
before the incorporation of the City of Lowell, pre
viously known as the village of Chelmsford. in
In 1525 mur-h of the canal system had been com
pleted, and was In use. The canals at first, how
ever, weie mere ditches with earth banks. Now
they are walled throughout their length with stone
masonry of the must durable materials, and tha
locks and bridges are of the best construction.
Millions were spent In these Improvements, and
they are so well built that for many years the
cost of maintenance has been small.
The waters of tho Merrimac River, which are so
important to the industrials interests of Lowell,
come down, unwearied with the great work they
have performed at Manchester. Nashua and other
factory towns nearer their source, to the Paw
tuck, t-ave. bridge, twenty feet above the level of
the mill wheels. They are held back by a low
dam, extending diagonally across the stream. A
deep channel, blasted in the solid rock. Is sep
arated from the higher level by the enormous flood
gates of tho lirst lock, which are closed only from
Saturday noon until Monday morning. All tne rest
of the week the canal runs bank full, turning the
machinery of all the big cotton and woollen mills
and many other factori**, the flood passing silent
ly hut swiftly through the labyrinth of canals
that reaches all parts of the manufacturing dis
trict. There is no noise, except where the flood
flows through locks or tha whcelplts of the mills,
and at the blow-off gates in the Booth mill, where
the water returns to the Merrimac, to run the fac
tories at litttrcnce and Newburyport.
Tin: stranger to Lowell, passing through the
streets, is surprired here and there by hollow
sounds, produced by the rumble of wheels. There
ere business buildings bordering the street without
a break in the line, and it is not easy to believe
that, beneath buildings and streets alike, the power
that has made the city one or the busiest in New-
England Is silently flowing. There are many places,
however, where the streets cross the open canals
on steel bridges and where the great depth and
breadth of the channel and the intakes to the mill
whe.-is are visible on Sundays, when the upper lock
Occasional dry seasons have left the mills without
sufficient power, and all have installed adequate
steam plants for such emergencies, but the cost
of coal in Lowell Is so great that as much of the
work as possible is done with the water power
supplied through this wonderful canal system.
Many years ago a sandbar formed in the Merrimac
below the city and so dammed the waters that
freshets in the spring caused the canals and river
to overflow and stop the machinery everywhere.
The Canal and I.ock Company removed this bar
at an expense of hundreds of thousands of dollars
and since then the mills have been immune from
DELEGATES FROM THE GREEK UNIONS TO THE LOWELL TEXTILE! COFNCIL.
Th© council is directing the cotton mill strike.
THE DOUAY BIBLE IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS.
SOME OF THE POINTS OF DIFFERENCE BETWEEN
IT AND THE KING JAMES VERSION.
Flnce It became known that by resolution of the
rity school superintendents the Douay Bible would
be included In the list of supplies for the public
schools of this city and that teachers who desired
to do so were at liberty to use it in the schools
with Which they are connected, much Interest has
been manifested in the Roman '"atholic version of
tho Fncred book. Xo attempt will be made here
to give all the differences between this version
and that of Kin^ James, but the first point which
strikes the person who compares the two Is the
statement in tho Douay version commonly sold in
this city is that it Is "published with the appro
bation of His Eminence James Cardinal Gibbons,
Archbishop of Baltimore." This is attested on
the second page by the following card surmounted
by the Archbishop's crest :
In the preface to this issue It is stated that the
book has been published at the earnest solicitation
of "large numbers of religious bodies and laity."
Among the "remarks to the readers" this is also
said in the preface:
As the book about to be once more presented to
the public in a new -form claims for itself an
origin exclusively divine, we deem It not out of
place to furnish, in outline at least, the grounds
of that claim.
The work is divided unequally into two parts,
viz.. the Old and New Testaments. The Old
Testament is a record of God's relations with
man antecedently to the adventv of the incarnate
Son of God, our Lord Jesus Gfirist. The New
Testament contains a compendium of the lives of
our Saviour and His Apostles, a« recorded by tha
evangelists and other apostles.
As to the first part, or Old Testament, the ver
sion always recognised by the church contains
many more bonks than that used by other than
Catholics. The reason of this discrepancy is that
the Church's version, the Septuaglnt, »he Greek
translation from the original Hebrew, and which
contained all the writings now found In the Douay
version, as it la called, was the version used by
the Saviour and His Apostles and by the Church
from her infancy, and translated into Latin, known
under the title of Latin Vulgate, and ever recog
nized as the true version of th.- written word of
Hence the Old Testament, containing? as it does
all embraced in the Septuagint. is not only genuine
and authentic, but having the approbation of our
Saviour and Apostles, who quoted it exclusively
while on earth, has superadded to it the supreme
character of divine inspiration, which It possesses
to the exclusion of all other versions. It stands,
therefore, before the world as the sole claimant
for Integrity, genuineness, authenticity and inspira
tion; in a word, as the possessor of every attribute
necessary to constitute what no other work can
lay claim to, viz., a divinely inspired volume.
Of the genuineness and authenticity of the more
recent part of this sacred book. viz.. the New
Testament, there exists no doubt: out as to its in
spiration, the gravest doubts may exist unless an
infallible witness thereof can be produced. What
ever grounds may exist vouching for the inspira
tion of the Apostles as writers, no security what
soevec can be forthcoming for me inspiration of
the quotas furnished by Saints Mark and Luke;
the former the writer of a Gospel: the latter also
the writer of a Gospel and of the Acts of the
Apostles: those quotas, forming a prominent part
in the composition of the New Testament, remain
uninspired, their authors not being Apostles. The
only solution to this difficulty Is to be found in the
testimony of the Church of Christ, which He com
mands us to "hear," and against which He pledges
Himself "that the gates of hell cannot prevail."
Her decision, by virtue of the guarantee of her
Founder, exalts the New Testament to the dignity
of a divinely inspired production, and as she
vouches also for the divine character of the Old
Testament, we submit to our readers a work that,
alone of all publications, comprises, with all the
evidences of infallible certitude, the only divine
production on earth. The Church of Jesus Christ.
by virtue, of her divinely endowed infallibility,
vouches for the divine origin of the Sacred Script
ure.?, and us such we respectfully, but confidently,
submit them to the public "
Under the head "The Names and Order of All th«
Hooks of the Old Testament" there are many
noticeable differences between the "authorized" ver
■ion, and the Douaj bibles. "Joshua" In the old Is
"Josuc" In the new Bible The new Bible has. no
"Sara • in the list, and Instead of "I Kliirs" and
"II Kings** has four books under the head of
"Kings'." lusted of "Chronicles" the Douay
Bible has "Paralipomenon," "Kara" is "Esdras" and
"II Ksdras, aliiiH Nt hernias." In th« St. James
verslfa' the book of Esther follows Nehcmiab*
HIS EMINENCE JAMES CARDINAL GIBBONS,
Archbishop of Baltimore.
We hereby approve of the publication of the
Catholic Hible, which is :i:i accurate r.'prlnt of
tli" Khetms anl l>ouay edition, witli ] >r. Chal
The sacred volume Is printri In an attractive
style. J. CARDINAL. GIBBONS.
Baltimore, S<r>t. I, l^:i:»
WALK BESIDD A LOWELL POWER CANAL,
A PRE-REVOLUTIONARY RELIC.
On a rocky eminence *■ the city of ■"■"■*"*
Mass.. and forming the centrepiece of a beautiful
public park, stands a quaint old wayside mill, bet
ter known to the present generation as the Oia
Powder House. *
"This remarkable relic of Pr'-R« v«v «> 1 "»j2 ns VT lohn
was built two centuries ago (about 1704) by John
Mallet, who used it as a windmill. Here *£• ' ar 7 ne ™
for many miles around brought their corn to be
ground The old mill stands about thirty feet In
height, and Is capped by a conical roof. Its £alls
are about two feet In thickness, with an inner HnlnjT
of brick, while the outside casement la flfMue
stone. Within are three low lofts, which are sup-
P< For many'years thta unique structure remained In
the Mallet family. In 1717 it was^sold to the Prov
ince of Massachusetts Bay by Michael Mallet,' a
grandson of the builder. From this time until after
the Revolution it was used as a. storehouse for
powder and other munitions of war.
It was from this place, in the year 1774. that the
British troops, by order of General (rage. seized two
hundred and fifty half-barrels of powder belonging
to the province: which act caused a mustering in
arms on Cambridge Common of several thousand
Indignant provincials.— (Four-Track News.
DEMAND FOR FREIGHT CARS.
At the annual meeting of the Pressed Steel Car
Company. President Hoffstot said that It Is esti
mated that there are In this country to-day over
1.500.000 freight cars on wheels, and that 10 per
cent are replaced yearly, besides the new equip
ment.—(lron Trade Review.
while In the Catholic Bible the books of Tobias
and Judith, from the Apocrypha, are inserted. In
the Kin? James version there are eighteen books
in the Old Testament after Ecclesiastes. There are
Song of Solomon, I Otwdlah,
Jeremiah. ! Mlcah.
Lamentations. I Narutn.
There are. twenty-three books in the Catholic
bible, arranged in this order:
Canticle at Canticles. • AMb«
Kcclesiastlcus, BUch< as.
Osce. Machahees I.
Joel, ! Machabees 11.
The variation in phraseology between the two
Bibles becomes apparent in the first chapter of
Genesis. "The earth was without form anil void"
reads "The earth was void anil empty." and the
third verse, "And God said. Let there be light."
reads, "And God said. Be light made." In the
next chapter, "And the Lord c..-d caused a deep
sleep to fall upon Adam" reads. "Then the Lord
God cast a deep sleep upon Adam." In the fourth
chapter. "And the serpent said to th*' woman. No.
you shall not die the death.* 1 is the Dooay version
for "And the serpent said unto the woman. Ye
shall not surely die."
Similar differences in phraseology occur through
out the book.
In the Douay Bible the twentieth chapter of
Exodus which contains the Ten Commandments
differs slightly from that of the King James version.
KING JAMES VERSION*. I THE DOUAI VISION".
I— And God spoke all th«-?ej I— And the Lard *pok« all
words, savin*: i th*"w» words:
— I am the 1.-.r.| thy tlod! 2—l am tho I-ord thy God,
which have brought ' who broiisht th»e «>nt
thee .-it of the land of the land of Egypt.
of Egypt, out of the; out of th« hous<? of
house of bondage. : bondage.
3 — Th.m -■■lit have no 3 — Thou .... hay«
other (tods before me. j Btraagf" coda befnre m*.
— Thou shall not main 4 — Thou «hait not make to
unto the* any graven i thyself i graven thin«.
Imafie, or any Ilk"-! nor the Itkanm of any
ness of anything tnAt. tninu that Is In heaven
Is in bean ■• n above, or! above, or In th«» earth
that is In the earth! beneath, nor of th ■-.
beneath, or that ts in j thln<« that are in ;h«
the water Bade* the! waters under the earth,
6 — Thou shalt not bom s— Tbon that! not ■■1.->r»
down thyself to them.! them, nor serve th>-m:
nor serve them; for li I am the I^vrd thy ■ ;••,!
the Lord thy Go am! mlKhty. Jealous, vtslt
a Jealous Ood visiting' Inc the Inl.jultv of th*
the Iniquity of thej fathers upon the rhll
father upon the chll '• dren. unto the th!r.t
dren unto th« third! an.l fourth generation
and fourth Reneratt >n| of them that hata me.
of them that hate me. '
6 — And shewing mercy unto: ©—And shewing merry untr»
thousands of them! thousands of them that
that love me and keep! love nie. and krep rr.y
my commandments. ! commandments.
7 — Thou shalt not take the! 7 — Thou .»hnlt not take th«
name of the Lord thy 1 name of the Lord thy
flod in vain: for the «;«»i in vain; tor »h«
Lord will not hold, I>.rd will not hold him
him guiltless th.it gui.tlf^s that shall tnk«
taketh his name it- : the name of the Lord
■vain ! his Otxl In >»:n
B—Remember8 — Remember the Sabbattl 1 B—Remember8 — Remember that th<>u
day. to Weep it holy, j keep holy the sabbath
o— Six days •) all thou 9— Sl* days shalt tho u
labor. and do ail thy! labour, and shult do
work. all thy works.
10 — But the seventh day Is 10 — Rut on the seventh d»y
the Sabbath of the! is •• ■ tabtath of th*
Lor | tby God, In it! Lori thy ««>d; thou
thou •bail not do any, nh.ilt do no wurk en it.
work. thou. nor thy! th. v nor tliv »on. n<>r
win. nor thy daughter. ' thy daughter, n>>r thy
thy manservant, new] raanser\ art. n>T thy
thy m.il'lservant. n-.r maldsertnx.t. nor »h>
thy <aitl". nor the. br»st. nor the. wtrarm-r
UrotH'T that Is with- that la utthln thy
In thy gates. Kates.
11— For In six days the 11— For in *l* (lav* tho I-irl
Lir.i made hraven and ina.le h«av*n ami
earth, the sea. and all earth, an.l the sea and
that In th. Is. and all things that are in
rested the seventh them, and rrstrd a
duy: wherefore the the seventh day: there-
Loin] bleised the Sab ' fore the Lfird 1.1— •■.. I
bath duy and hul \ the •..-..••■ day. anJ
lowed It. sanctified It
I?— Honor thy father and 12 — Honour thy father an.l
thy mother that thy| they mother, that th<-t»
days may i..- lung itmxest be !.<n«lt\e.|
upon tha land whl.-li upon the land which
the Lord thy Uol th» I^.nJ thy iin,l will
rivet.) thee. «lye thee.
The IStb. 14th, l.">th ..nl]
With verses are Iden
1. — Thou »halt n(.t covet 17— Thou »hn!t rot o«>vet
thy iv .s-hl.,,r' * h.mse. Jr.v neighbor** h.>u«<*;
thcu shalt not tnvetl retther ihnlt thou ile
thy neighbor' a wife.' »tre his v>i(*. n..r his
nor his manservant. servant, nor his han.l
t>"i' his maidservant. maid, nor hts .•» n-r
I nor hta ox, nor hla] M* ass. nor any l;>n|
•si. nor anjthinic that! that Is his.
6rW«iii»fi, 1 .. —
nc"s« Sf the tnVm^r of lbs trvm**. mA
*mo~rnV- and wh« •** «*** «"£* ■*
removed and stood «004 afar ofT.
Th* New Testament In the Douay T"r>!«n also
bears the "approbation'- of Cardinal Gibbon* Th*
names and the order of the books of the New Testa
ment an, practically the same In both versions.
Ther* ar« several differences In the Sermon en
the Mount, which reads in part as follows In th*
THE KINO J.AME3 VER I THE DOIT-VY VERSION*.
■ « "?" 3 -' ' ;
s— ldentical. 1 *- B |plr)t . for th , irs tM
kinstfom «f h»av»n.
4— Bl«!s<-^ ar» t**T that *— B
sm: fb* OM9 shaß » haU o«^« «■»
r^Bi^r^. —■?.■-« . r «2 «
for they shall Inherit j^mfoS^
a_Bl-5. .1 ?r." th-T xrhlch 6-El-.—l ar- W t^t
art»r rl«heou 3 n^s
T— iaeni. as, j fgt thi?y ghal , obtlla
8— Bl«-«"1 *r- tbe our- of! »-B>wri ar- "a^J***^
heart: for they .hall fc-art^for they .haa
_:: a_^ r for t^ev r V^
b# <-a'!ed the children
falsely, for ray sake. I for my sai }*- , , ...
T% sUJnlrr — '- 1-*— B« -
to* ■ treat la
your * ! ' a^ . ,
in for ao vent bo •--
they th- prophets were! cror.hets that wr» be
before rom ' . . . .
T3_T« ar» ll a «a:j ot I
earth: Imt .' tba
have lost Its savour. Ic»e Us sa^, -«„;.,,,
aaHadi !• hi latafi »■
forth rwd for ' t- ' ;
lag, bur. be trodden trodden on by men.
and to be ti I
under foot of men. !
In the next chapter of St. Matthew the Lor«r»
Prayer also differs from, the Kins James yezsion.
"Our Father who art." etc.. hi the first nottceaMa
change, while "Give us this day our »ap«T»ar«ta3
tial bread" Is the most striking feature of the re
constructed prayer. This is the full text in ti«
Our Father who art in heaven, hallowed be it-.y
na Thl : kingdom come. Thy will be done on earth
"Give us this day our supersutstantial brnd.
And forgive us our debt-, as we also forsi.e our
And lead us not into temptation. But deliver us
from evil. Amen.
In a foot: '
thus referred to:
Verse 11— Supersubstantial bread. In St. Lt.ke the
some word la rendered daily _ bread. It H under
stood of the bread of life, which we receive tn tn«
" Among the familiar passages which read differ
ently in the Catholic Bible is Job xix. 25: "For I
know that my Redeemer liveth. and that be shall
stand at the latter day upon the earth."
The Douay version is as follows: "For I kno^
that my Redeemer liveth. and in the last day t
shall rise out of th.' earth." "Even unto the end o;
the world," In St. Matthew, reads "Even unto tha
consummation of the world." and "John was in tft*
desert, baptizing and preachlnsr the baptism r*
penance unto remission of sir.s-."" is the Dooay ver
sion of "John did baptize in the wtlderneF<» ar.d
preach the baptism of repentance for remission of
sins." St. Luke i. 35. of th_' Catholic Bible, reads:
\n«l the angel, answering, salil to her: The Hn'y
Ghost shall come u;>on thee. and the po^ver of th»
most High shall overshadow thee. An.! tn*refor»
also the" Holy whl h shall be born of thee shall &•
called the Son of God.
The Kins James version interprets the versa
thus: "And the angel ansxored and said unto her.
Tho Holy Gh.vst shall come upon thee. an«l th*
power of the Highest shall arcnhaulow the*; there
fore, also, that holy thing which shall be b«rn cf
thee shall be called the Son of t;.-*l." Th« seventy
eighth verso of the same chapter: "Through th»
tender mercy of our God; whereby the dayrrt"?
from on high hath vtsitsd us." reads as follows la
the Douay Bible:
Through the bowel* of the merry of our God. ta
which the Orient from on high hath visitM U3.
Tr*» won! "Paraclete" Is us*'! for "Comforter**
in the Douay Bible in many placra.
It Is In the footnotes of the Douay version, scat
tered throughout th- book, that the dlfWenrc* be
tween Roman Catholic and Protestant doctrta* ar«
Th» Council of Trent declared the Vnlsata text
of the Bible authentic and forbade the interpreta
tion of th«« Scripture "without the. consfr.t <-<f
father?." Vernacular versions have been p'ib!i.«h«'fll^
at various times, as "anttiiotes t<> Protestant
l>ibks." and of these the Dou:ty la on* of the most
conspicuous. The popular French version ia kr.owa
as the I >•• Sacy Bible.
The Douay Bible derives Its n»n> from th* plac*
where the priests made the translation. The woric
was bet;un at the college at Rhrtma. ar.il completed
at the College of DottaL or Douay. The translators
were George Martin. William Allen. Richard r.r!*
tow and William Reynolds. Th N>*wr Testament a»
translated by these men was published at Kheirr.a
in 15>2. and the Old Testament in I«s>. Since then
many editions of the Douay Biblf have b» en pu?
lUhed. of which the one approved by Cardinal
Gibbons and to be used In the New-York pubttd
echini's la one of the latest.
THE SUB-CONSCIOUS MIND.
Erasmus. Darwin. CoadWac, Xavier ;ie Maistr*
and probably other authors h-ive described t?s* au
tomatic action of the mind, which is .tlw.iy* soir.f
on. or. in othrr words. th«" two t»*irji;» in us. «-on
soloua ar.d unconscious, or aqb-consctom*. Their
operation is now regarded as an established fact.
The higher "mot." or conscious self. *n<l the lower,
or »üb-cr>n*oiou!«. *.-lf. are apparently distinct, but
collaborate, normally, mid only dtji-xotUit* lh«ra
selve* In ilreamw. rvv-rir*. hypnotism and analogous
states, which allow frre play to the »:it«-mat:;
activity. Th«- sub-con»».i>>usn.-s^ has Us cwn special
memory, whKh In iiiM>s of dissociation is com
pletely lilstinot from the memory of the hhjh'f
"mok" The memory of acts Inscribed ta th* «U&
eonsdoasaess. but unknown to the eonsctousnes*.
may Inftueut-e the mmd of tiM prrsion «v*a thou«J»
"•'■'.- not conscious of tht-m. an.l may even affevt
hi- health. In gr^at aj:^ ami orrtain affections «f
th«« brain Ihf automatic activity atono »übsi«t«.
This double, ami partly consclou-i. partly uncon
■ctolis, action of the mind expiates what we call
"absriit mtmWnes*" and temporary fonretfu.nr*s
owlriK to i>rr»K-«-upat!on with uth«r matt«T»-tLo»-
RECORDING AUTOMOBILE SPEED.
From The Umdon Glob*.
V new "Vhri>nc«!pori." as t»»e t*r -mh eatl It. tn?
I qiiukiy teUlnc the Uteed ot *utumobt!*s. *«* N-*r»
lntnntucttl by the tirm of !>>p*» «*• P*n* « r«
9< nibl."* an ordinary *;>.toh an.l i.- N-th a count
of np«-wt and a chionour.ipr*. The .lUI MWriWO;
and minutes !tk ;i watch, ami II rus«» l*-«d<"» *
chronograph Indicating one-nfth i »«.vi»:id. a f>unt-r
totalizing th« minutes of tl»a» caroausrafa. *nd •