Newspaper Page Text
Important Matters to Come Before |
Triennial Assembly in Boston.
Boston. Sept. 25 (Special). -For three weeks. b»
(tnlrc October 3. nearly or.c thousand delepat"*
jrcs: ;.ie laity ar.d clergy of the Protestant Episco !
pal Church and over six thousand ether prominent !
Er<scnpa::ans wCI be gathered in this city in at- j
tetidar.ee upon the Triennial General Convention' or '
tie Church. Seme ii=r>crtant matters are to com*
before 2as body, xrhirh will meet daily hi the Em
casue! Cturcii. ir. Ncwbury-st.. and lejislation for
tie United States. Alaska. Hawaii. Porto Eico. '
Cub*; Hayti. Brazil. China. Japan and Africa will i
le passed upon.
Sixty diccescs rvill be represented, ar.d there will ;
be ninety bj-?hops in attendance, besides the a:.- :
bistcp cf Canterbury, -who will be present, merelj |
gs s. eject cf the convention, but at the same • irr.e
as th* representative cf the English Established
Church, with the Biaho? of Hereford. England, as<l
tie Eishep of F-pcn. eland. who i:av I all beeaj
The House of Clerical arid "La.? Deputies will hola
its* sessions in the Exnmasael Church and the !
House cf Cishcps in tte chapeL The opening ser
vce rQ *^« beU in Tr.r.ity Church, or. "Wednesday .
aiorntr-S- October 5. Daily prayers Trill be said In
Trinity Church, and a choir of men will render the
music. Copley Hal! will be the business head- ;
oatrfiers cf the convention. *A special postoClce wax :
there, with tclepb.cn- ar.d telegraph j
preparatior.s have been made for en- \
tertiir.:"? the delegates ar.d rlsitiss Church rr.em- ;
bers. J. Pirrpont Morgan has the use for the t'.md [
the ccnrer.tlcn ccntinues of the mansion cf J. !
MffT'tfi''T"* T 7 Sears, at Ccinmonwca'.th-ave. ar.d :
Ari:r.?r;n-st., ar.d several wealthy Episcopalians on ;
tjse avenue have rendered their houses to guests. :
n., Archbishop cf Canterfcur;* w!U bo tlie persona.! i
nest ci Bishop William Lawrence at the latter*! ,
Comntoiswealth-ane. home, but will attend some of
the £sc!il functions to be held la connection with .
the cuaTdtten. inc'.ufiirg a rc^e^Tion to be given by .
3IS, Morg-n to the dele^ateii. Another reception |
•.viT. be he:d at tie 31"»eunj cf Fhv Arts bu-!dir.g, ,'
«s2 o^ the second day Bishop Lawrence will give a j
Inception to the bishops. Tii«»re will be z. Cam- «
bn>ge day. when the eosTcntloD ar.d ta« women's •
asaffiiTJ 1 wffi visit places o: historic ar.d literary ;
inrer^Ft There Trili aliso be a Concord day, with ■
*ree:a: train to take the guests out to the home cf :
the Bey. Charies L. gutchlna.
Accommodations of the rjsltin; bishops have been ;
pwimmited in part. Bianop John Scarborough, of
New- Jersey, w^l be the CTBen Ot Mrs. Horace Gray.
»t No. <S Mcunt Vernoo-st.: Blanop Coadjutor Rich- >
t:i -I. Nelsba. Of Albany, -will stay at the honu o? j
Srs. S. L. Bu«h. No. SS3 Beaoon-«t.. and Bishop
CoEGJZtrr ChsrV? T. Olsftead. of Central N<=w-
Tork, will be ipiMrtered at" the Vendome. About ,
afty of th- biabops fiU be at th« Hotel Somerset. !
Biaaop Kerry C. Potter and ilrs. Toner w.:i oc- j
copy '.:■• residence cf ilr. ar.d Mrs. Charles Head, ;
at JCoi iIT Ceacon-ffU. which they have leased. Mr. j
llcrpan «m bare 2? his r^rscr.r.l s--ests at the f
Em srs mansion Bishop WlZlas: CrosweU Doan<s, cf
Albany, asd JItS. Doane, acd proVably Bishop Cc*
i'djst ! Darid Creer. of New-York, with Mrs.
O:e»r: the Rev. Dr. Slorpxn Dt£ rector of Trinity j
Ofeorcfcu •Cew-Herk. Mr?. t>:- aad other friends.
Tl.- Archbishop of Canuatimy wd be the guest
ait a reception on VTednesday afterr.ocn. October 5. j
and THrsirday tte Primatq wiu attend the meet- >
• .- < : •: • Tcsa?n*i Auxilirirr to d*>liv»r an address, j
The following Scaday be rfD deliver the — tag f
'— - - at Trinity, and ra> Monday b« will speak j
:.- a i^rse ndssloa rr.«-::r^ :r. rreaoot Tessple.
The Caafcfllin deputation to tie cooT*atton will ;
< «:.=:.-tof th" :"oU-. -.vi-p di?r.i:.»r:*9: The Right Key. j
<"narJe« HaaoHtoa. Btehop of Ottawa; the Bight '
Rev. Jas s C raslchiel. Bishop -'-idjuror c! Men- j
treai; th* Dean of lloctreal, tha Provon of Trinity i
• ..• ~*\ Taroaro. E. H. Blake ar.d J. A. Worrell, of j
Some trying problems wm fare the convention
at jhis catering vesslosi Successors -a:"! be chosen
■.'•. tti bishops of Bait Lek», I'tah. ar.d cf Han
jf"Tr. China, who died rot loss ago. and It 1? said
t sense in'>:-c-?iC' :;t dioceses may be created. It
i poftsfhlc that the doc^f tit New-York wi'.l be
" .. ' tie Diocese of Hudson created. Ques
tion* relating to the uuM!s!;m»n: of separate
;iresb:trri^s for cdorwJ people will be discussed.
Rsd tne'percr&slon of a CiocCSE alar.? rarlal lines
for the Poles. Gr»iat prom :r.«ri.-e wd te given to
Quest/) as rtiatiag to the extension of th«* cirurefc.
bola .;• hcrr.~ asd aliroal. sr.ii ths leperts cf the
• irioos ra:?si';r3rj - dioc«s»s will r-o naturally of
.T,:b!- Interest from this fari. On October
«". the united o!Ierir;? of aU the wrtoen's auxiliaries
i '..rcv.jrl-.out the world will be presented to tb<s ccn
:.■.''.. T'z'.s c^ering wID tM> u.v>«* for training.
Msdicg, and TOpiwrtrng -women workers in the Cor»
alga Held, zr.tl the women, of the Church are mak
;•; every efTuri :o give at l»ast SJI'VyM a* this
BerrJceJ Three years agn, when the convention :r.*T
!a Ban Frawcjfco. the cJferlr.g was an eren $106,000
Dfirgatea to this meeting will be prtt»r.t frosn
»s»ery ilioeese ia the Cdted StaTr^-;. fcexldea Chla*
Japan, Havraii. Alaska. Africa. India, Erazil. Port
'.V.'i. Cuba ar.<l tie Philippines.
The proposed change o: w.s* will be urder cor.
n !crat)O3 zs there has been det^rmlr.rd e^ort on
the part cf some Western dioceses to raaie the
EpJsecpal Church conform ir.ore cios'lj- to its his
tory and teachings. Five cases hava been pro
rosei as fo"ows:
Airerleaa broach of the Catholla Church ir. the
Tnited BtttW. the Church Jn tie Unlt«d States cf
ASMTjcai American Catholic Church. Airerican
fatho'-ic Church in the Csited States ard the
Chsrta in the Csited states of America.
Eishr-rs Scarborough. Turt-j. Pi?terkin. TVhlte
be. Leonard. Grecr ar.d the Key. Drs. Hake.
fc»cre. Egar, Rog-';rs and the Messrs. V. B. Lyman,
P. a. l>ew;s, a. J. c. BaowrJen. L. n. StoehooM
■S3 Jc«eT-h Packard wi!l render a printed report
upon the fcuVjc-cf. as cocuslttee in charge. They
*33 al^o suite that in Their judgment a change of
r.aae is *.r.«"-xpi?fi!ent. But the whole subject will be
ftopesed again and r.ew evidence, collected w'.thln
the Utt three years, «rfl3 be presented by the advo
ntea cf a change.
Another QUMttaa of impprtar.ee will h^» that of
rrsuy.ing the doceses into province-, 19 at present
t-e Geaera] Convention unwieldy. It is cor.«id-
Tt-a^too lursf: a body to !eglsUte properly, and the
•staciishir.ect of froviaces. as proposed.
wsnld save ir. a j. y cifflcoltJes. Eiebop Doane. of
A-ban;-. b chairman of th.*> committee which win
pwseat a report oa the subject. The s<--rior Bishop
<"f each pro\ince «ocU become its primate, corre
fpondtef to ArCaWsbjp ;n; n England.
The Cer. Dr. F. P. Davenport, of Tenr.'.sse<». will
Trt?tni a prcpositicr. frcm his oonbnltXe« to have
ccarta cr eppeaj estaullahed. .-Ac.i are at present
uckisx is the Qbareb. Tfces*» co-arts would rertew.
c"2 if necesiarj' revise. • " " f.ndir.ga ia the case of
'•- £ * c^ a Clexcaiaa and giv* l^ni a b'ttrr chaSC4
»3 clear hinse;; before being deposed frcm the Bin*
T;:ree eminent law3*ers, members ■' the
Ct-rcL. the Chief Justin at tbm United States, with
a fcrraer scfflne and a former chief Justice of the
Appellate Division of the Supreme Court of New
*crk. are advocates of the mea«ure.
Eev:ziea cf the ear.ens of the Cfcurch occupy
Biaerjr^tx broker pages cf a large report, and cover.
**^ses tea above mentioned matters, the njarriage
BP* > * r ~ Karri*** cf divorcees, rights of the
mTstiOßary r.T««:tlngs. the badge of clerlcai
*■ a:^J many other matters.
When the question conies b*for»! the ention
the establishment of negro prerbyteries.
*or tr.e benefit of Southern negroen. the debate
J« Uiteiy »o be bt-tii frolonged and lively. Bishop
c «"own. of Arkansas who epokir out to freely here
■bout a year ego as to be rebuked by some V.' the
Eoncn clergy, ■■■■.. speak bis mind again up- th*
The xalter of ssfsCttM a permanent meeting
?-ac« for the General Convention will be reported
«-I«n. but prebaUy no <lec:slcrs win be reached.
'•"•CM, tfcrre la con^JderaiTie opposition to eelectlng
■57 on- city to held the convention in time after
*^c. It is felt that the Church ir.'ij- be benefited by
Its lirisg fctld first in ene city and then in another.
Ia th-» licvite cf Es?*ors there are commissions and
£•* ' <m the following matters: A German
•wslon cf the prayer book. ElFhop Potter chair
«aa: cz tr.e reparation of a special prayer book
n the Pwe<Jish language fcr use in the .VorUi
*e«. *>.«■« there are many new converts- on a
raj azra of examiratK.n in holy orders Btehop
r '' " cf Texae. chairtnsn: on the reconclUation
c- a^enated congregation!. Bishop Tuttie of Mls-
chairman: on the consecration of W«h<-i)s for
««xjce. Bishop McLaren, of Mexico, chairman.
Elare tie death Of the Rev. Dr. Lir.jsity the
f^et of present of the House of D^^utl^s ha«
*** racant and a new president must bo chosen
VJV J Pr#*i,^ a t the cuniing convention *h» Rar
?*• Charles I- Hutcfcin-. the secretary of th- body
r» tie last twenty-sevea years, and a deputy to
«*• •reaaat coaveatiyn. will probably be the taau
lu^ , carson law will be strongly in bla
£».«;„„ ♦'C" 1111 Ms Pnmoimeed staifd on many
XEJJ" WOULD ALPHABET.
Plan to Establish a Universal Stand
ard of Pronunciation.
Boston. 30.— Boston University Is axranging
to call a world's cohrerence or piairtXa^ists and uni
versity professors to take steps fcr th<» establish
ment of a •Tuntyersa! alphabet*; and the institution
of some reforms in spelling, Which will form t », s
basis for a universal Uuguase, the need of which
has long been felt, sr.d for which the many at
tempts to provide. Including Volapuk and "Es
peranto, have so far proved Inadequate. A univer
sal alrhc.'J:t under the p'.an proposed by B"*?ton
University would indicate the pronunciation of all
words in the leading- European languages. The
twenty-six letters of the Roman a'.rniabet are
known aU over the worla. and probably i») per
cent of the world's printing- is done with these let
ters. Thus, the basis of a "univeifcil alphabet"
already exists; it only remains to remove a fe-sv
differences. For the most part, the twenty-six let
ters represent the same sounds In all languages.
Write such wot as arm. brick. pa«=t. black, clock.
harmony. Individuality and others, and they will te
DTonounced alike, or nearly alike, by all Europeans,
even though they may not know a word of English.
However, as the value cf the letters !s not quite
the. same in all languages, or ever, within or.c
language, it becomes necessary to resort to dic
tionaries and language minuala tor keys of rro
nur.cis.iion. As the scientific study of pronunciation
is of comparatively recent development, r-.o ur.iforci
EMAXUEL CHrRCH. BOSTON. WHERE THE EPISCOPAL CONVENTION WILL BE HELD
LEM TO J. P. MOBGAN.
It? has yet been attained in its notation. Almost
every dictionary uses a key of its own. which is
useful only to the reader of that particular dic
tionary. Whoever wish's to consult several dic
tiouarl-s has to learn as many different l:*?s. and
•whenever he wishes to ascertain the pronuncia
tion of a word he has to consult the key at the
bottom of the pa^e or tn the beginning of the »3ook.
Recently, however. th*re has been a marked ten
dency on the part of dleUorary makers to use the
«ame fyxnbols for speech Bound* As a culmina
tion of this movement, the Boston University plan
designs to replace the multiplicity of keys by a
sing!* key as perfect as it can be made through
the amplest possible discussion and experlmenta-
Uon by a commission composed of the fr. r .» m ost ex
parts la th!- line of research. By (light mo.iinca
tlons roeh as win not Interfere with leglhihty, it
Is thought that tte number of letters can be in
creased from twcnt>'-Eix to a number that will
suaVa to represent all the sounds of the leading
In English about for letters would be quired.
Several levers even now are used in several forms
In Roman ;±r.d italics (a. c and g. for examplei. Bnd
In script the variety is still greater. By assten.r.j
to each d these forms a definite sound forty letters
may easily be provided without inventing new let
ter? or resorting to the ass of diacritical marks.
Should this key come into general us<j In diction
aries it would impress itself upen the memory of
dictionary users of all nationalities and enable them
at a glance to pronounce correctly any wot writ
ten In that key.
As a prellmlnarj- measure. Boston University has
prepared a cir^-ulnr which has been sent to m?ra
bern of the American Philological Association, who
will meet in St. Loiils about the middle of this
month, where the chief philologists of the world
will be assembled. A second circular will soon be
■cnt to all university professors as soon as the
faculties reassemble. The circular asks the philol
ogists to answer these questions:
Is it possible to de\-i?e a uutvereal alphabet to b<»
naed as a key to pronuiclatlon in all dictionaries
tit the leading languages .' if ««, is it Uoairabl^ that
auch a k'y oe au.)ju*-a by the d.etionaries? Is it
nossible to give -..: key uch -■■■ as to render It
most convenient also far ordinary writing and
nri-tlngi thus estafcliahlns a ucivtrsaßy xij<:o^nu<*d
ohoneUc spoiluit,-, which any tvr.dcr may readily
J.ooyr If SO. is it desll . that ci;ch t'lrm be gi\.^n
this key? Would. a uarvtrsai key alphabet be an
n.lii to learning th<; pronunciation qf toreiga la "-
Kuaj.B? It so. wr>-i!d that fact contribute. to r**n
5i7 this kwv alphahot (and therefore th?*phf»Tieti's
stioliinK) raore familiar to a Urge portion of the
I' it be true that by means of a puonetlc cpe l!nc
children !'«Tn to rtad ard write In a few weeks.
and master even the traditional sr»l,!njr tynr*
readily thuu by the present method, would it b«» ad
visable to tesrh them the photic tic spelling n.-«;t?
If hv this mi ■?.:: the riains oration becomes
tlmiii»r with th<« phonetic spoiling. Will It 15
necessary or advisable that the traditional spelling
be retained? ,
no you think that an agreement on a universal
alphabet '•an be reached satisfa«? r «' by , < '^"T'
• D.jnd»-ncer alone, or is It desirable that an alphabet
intended tr> be us.*l by a !l natioi-s tl *?*% a *ll, cn JP c
b- *iven at the out.-M ;he full bereli t rf oral d:s
«->sslon by th* foremost aurhoriUes in the Preatnce
of expert type designers, to give their opinion on
th« rorm of the letters as r*«ulr*» fur wrttlo* and
NEW- YORK DAILY TRIBUNE. SUNDAY. OCTOBEK 2. 1904
printing, and enable them to draw In prefer form
for the inspection of the d '"gates"
Letters indorsing the plan and favoring a world's
conference, to be held In Boston, have already bean
received tea 112 correspondents, including the
presidents of Stanford. Missouri and Wisconsin
universities. Professor Brands Matthews, cf Co
lumbia University; Dr. TTllhelin viator professor
of Ens'isfc philoloyy at the University of M«irb.:rg.
Germany, and president of vhs International Pho
netic Association: Professor K. A. March, of La
fayette College. pn?«iilent of tvs Spelling Reform
Armdatton: Melvt] Dewey. S;it» Librarian. Al
bany. X. T. : Jean 5. fires. Editor cf "La. Re
formlste.** Far:!*-. Dr. I. K. Funk. Editor of the
Standard Dictionary: E. Benjamin Smith. Editor
of the Century Dictionary, and Dr. Thomas M.
Palllet. -.'-an of the School ,-f PedagOl T'nivwr
sirv at the City of New-York.
Professor J. Geddes, Jr.. of •*» <ieri.-irT:nent of
Romance Languages, Boston University, is in
charge of th<» correspondence sr.d otr-er« are al
ready working out the preliminary detail* tor a
world s conference.
VIOLATING LAWS OF WAR
What Is Denounced in One Age Is
Allowed in Another.
While theoretically nations are expected to «d
here to the laws cf war adopted by the Geneva
Convention, which have been accepted as part and
parcel of the statutory regulations of the United
States army, yet the experience of the past co»3
to show that a strict ■ranee of these ethii?3
becomes almost impossible in actual warfare.
Every now and ther. a press dispatch from Rus
sian or Japanese headquarters In the field says
that protests ■*■:!' be lodged with • v powers be
cause "the wounds of our men prove that the
enemy Is using dumdum and explosive bullets'*;
that 'the use of floating mines in extraterritorial
waters is dangerous to neutra! trade! and should
b<» interdicted as being: contrary to the usages of
warfare among civilized nations"; that "Sreshlps
are relics cf tne twrbaric age and should not be
to'erited"; that "shells containing dead or
poisonous pases shouM b« stricken from the list of
legitimate weapons." and *o forth.
Off.'-ia:s of the War and Navy departments at
Washington do not attach much significance- to
these so-on'led protests, merely --' -- - to his
tory for an explanation, and contending that everj
invention, while new. stra^;,'e and unusual, met
with opposition from'the - ty I tinst whom used
but. ua: when they tnenuselves have become
familiar with its natur ae and eft enesi they
have by eeneral tacl sent accepted it as a
lawful me mh«»i of the tamily of legitimate weapons.
Only a little over a century ago flreships, though
frequently a part of the outfit of a fieet, were
consider^ unlawful, and their cr»ws. if capturM.
suffered death, and not 50 many years ago Lords
Cochrane and Gambier. of the British Admiralty-
Court, denounced their use a3 a ''horrible a.nd anti-
Christian modo of warfare." It was anraed that
punishing the crews v.ith death would make their
uso only an extreme rceasur* 1 . the crew? knowing
that they took their lives In their hands when
they volunteered for this hazardous " Ice. Their
use was infrequent, but. rather on account of the
extreme danger of navigating such craft than from
any Rr<-at f'-ar of the consequences of capture.
L.i X?l2 the Raii'lUies, a British seventy-four, wtis,
lying at anchor off New-London. Two Americans,
kr.owlnj her to be short of provisions, ritted out. a
vessel with a holdful of powder and a deckload
of Hour. A clockwork affair was arranged to ex
plode the powder at a given time. The vessel
was captured, as was intended, the crew escaping
to the shor^. The vessel was ordered to Us off at
anchor Bar another prize, and was not hauled
alongside the Ramillies to unload. as was ex
pected. When th* explosion did take place only
the email prize crew went aloft, instead of the
six hundred men in tho Ilumlllies. This act was
foudly decried by English writers, and there is no
doubt that the crew, had it been captured, would
have been Fummarily hanged.
It is a remarkable historical fact that ricochet
firir.g for a lons time encountered much opposition,
and many commanders forbade their gunners to
use it. The Congrcve war rocket was at first
loudly denounced as an unlawful implement, and
even gave rise to some versification, on Sir Wpi
lam Congreve, which went tha rounds of the Eng
lish presi. to the following eject :
At ht» alt voca:ion the worthy knight
Did labor loae an ■ *«U.
Ami pTU"''«ii lis Invention*
1= the crucibles or :.«:..
Wheaton. one of the greatest authorities on in
ternatlona.l law, rather doubtfully asserted that a
steam vessel in tho defensive might throw steam
or boiling water, and a !at*r critic asks the ques
tion, without answering it. however. "May a ship
on tho offensive boil enemies a.ivt?" in the Cri
mean War the wrath of the people of Franc*. Eng
land and this country was greatly excited because
it was reported that Russis bad accepted and
adopted the invention of a.: ingenious American,
which as on infernal Mm, could blow up a
liri— of-battle ship and instantly destroy all on
bond. This invention had been rejected successive-
ly by the governments of the TTnited States. Eng
land and France, probably because- they doubted
its efficiency, but. as alleged, because It was un
lawful. Nothing was said against the subterranean
mines of the combatants at Sebastopo;. which daily
■eat to their deaths hundreds of men en both sides.
There was intense excitement in the North in th*
Civil War because the Confederates tried to Mow
up ore of the fed* ral ships by surrep*-k.'cu?ly intro
ducing into the bunkers a torpedo disguised as a
lump of coal, ar.d again when the r.r.ed States
Ironclad Housatonic was destroyed by the subma
rip* affair known as the David, whicii was de
nounced a* "unusual and secret," and therefore
Down to the so-called days of chivalry, history
throws little light upon any distinctions as to
legitimate or illegitimate -weapons. To give or ac
cept quarter was the exception, and no need was
felt for discarding any particular am for fear of
punishment for its use by death at '•* hands of
the captors. Th« weapons, except bows and ar
rows were entirely manual, and whatever could
reach and destroy the enemy was. considered law
ful. The. laws of war were few in number and
vague, in form, and were bay entirely upon
"might making: right In the days of the Ro
mans and Greeks, who with reason classed them
selves as the polite nations, the use of ;goned
weapons alone -vas barred, though rather because
thfc surrounding barbarians, from whom they
wished In all possible ways to be distinguished.
used them than for any humane reason based
open philanthropic sentiments.
For several centuries preceding 1 the invention of
gunpowder th« only questionable weapon of any
marked power was th^ famous Greek ftre, con
cerning whose destructive properties many fab
ulous accounts have been handed down. It appears.
however, to have been highly inriarr.maMe. and to
have possessed the power of burning vi •!■•- water,
and -wherever It fell it made great havoc, from
its Inextinguishable nature. For many genera
tions the process of its manufacture was kept a
profound secret at Constantinople, the capital of
*.-.- Byzantine Empire Other r.aiior.?. thus de
barred \>y r.fztrsxiiy from, *t5 i;se, were energetic
In denouncing it The knowledge of its composi
tion, how-ver. gradually spr-ad. and at the- begir.
r.irg of the jfur.powder era, it formed a recosr.ized
defensive and effensl rl-jmctt ir. most wars,
from Western Europe to Asia Minor.
In the so-i-alittti days of chivalry certain quixotic
Mea? prrvallL.-? as to tho kinils of weapons and
methods or clrcumstanct^ of using them, but when
It came to a life and death strugs^ th.^ gallant
knights 1 f th-i period *i!'i not scnip!^ to avail chern
frive^ ''I -.very po.-siblo device for Injuries; and kill
ing; the "Mi'-my. such as molten lead and boiling oil
pourrd on thi h^ads nf the f^e. without regard to the
quality of th« adversary. Tne batUeaze would be
u»f«l to top off an arm or >g. and the victim £«; left
to blo«-ij to deith upon the Held of honor. Th^ lr'->n
n:*c« s:utl<!«d with knobs cr s; !k-?r would b«
brought, down with stunning effort \i-.on the hea.-ls
o: tho unr.irtur.a-^R within reach, and with bruised
jraias an-1 mansJ^d featdrea they gave up th'
shoflt nfLrr prolonged agbhyi
Whe.-. however, e*r!y !". th- thirteenth century
th's vaUant chivalry of E-irope b^?un to ran be
n»ath the leveUteg ro.vt-r uf gunpowder, it; raisr-l a
ffreat outcry ajuir.ot. this n-w weapon es b e i ns - an
!r.v»s-.lon of the d-vi: mi Its use unworthy of 1
true knight. As Urearms became more jroeral
rh*> slaughter of battles diminished, for aa army
ourmaneuvred was aa army at the enemy' .<= mercy
'nd th^r^for- h«»nt*-n. The minds of mankind soon
bfrarro familiar with this new explosive agent.*& it
«\s:> an civilized nations <juick!y adopted the pro
;ec:i> wapon many continued to regard as uri
tawftj] certa.'r. fornis of prpj^ctils and methods of
use Each advance st-p in the perfection nf f. r ,.
«rms or manner of employing- th-ni was bitterly
fot:ght by the so-c.-*li*o humane sentiment of the
age. This sentiment as history proy» s . vas, as a
rale, only a pretext, for as scon. A3 fee knowledge
of ■ en became genera! opposition ceased.
The French v!ce-admlr.i]. Marshal Confirms j - n
fertlcted the use of hoUo-rr shot against the enemy
« bvlr;? an unusual an.l lr.f<--rr,a: weapon, and
•h_er*-ro.r.j not to b« uftZ by polite nations. \Vlf*hin
77, vurs the use of hot sh^t. jrrape. canister splJt
bans, err., was severely denounced by rh« writers
of the day as Oleca] and unmlUUry. At the naval
"vml* of the Nile th * Er.clljh were charged with
ha us« of unlawful and Infernal machines, because
they sucr»f>,le,l in blowing up tho French Ime-ot
l!a«> ship L'Ori-r.t with all on board. A hot shot
hud probably penetrated tho raapasine. At this
Period there seema to havp he^n a distinction made
b*-tw^*n the use of certain mis^l'^s en land and
"•-^a. The use of chain shot on the fl-M was deemed
unlawful, but afloat no objectioa was made, as it
*as dfslsn-d for cutting: the masts ar.d rissir-B oi
vessels, regardless or the equal ltabiliry of having
men's bodies torn in two by the projectiles. In
tho-,e days a great commander exercised his au
thority as frequently upon the sea aa up<->n th*
land, and while he would hesitate lons befart using
.isainat a ■as. lin the open ocean any device which
would at one blow destroy the enemy, he withheld
not his hand from resortins to such ei3i"-s"oa
land. It was taltroltous to send a ship to the
bottom, . ing the crew no earthly chance for sal
vation, but If a thousand mm could be caught con
veniently gathered over the prospective crarer of a
mlna it was considered a grand 'stroke to re that
mine at the happy moment and bolo-x the?e war
riors skyward with mutilated b"di*»s or bury them*
under the falling debrts. At this period, also, the
better Judgment of military mankind continued to
Forbid the U9« of poisoned weapons, and this pro
hibition was held against those not Intentionally
so prepared, as. for instance, bullets of copp,>r cr
other metals liable to inflame tho wound cr per
manently Injure the health of th wounded The
argument was that an enemy may be wounded in
order to disable h m. tut there was no right to take
his life alter being; so disabled.
In the earlier and more barbaric Kjcea i so two
nations encaKed In war. It appears to have been
the custom to destroy not only the firmed forces
of the enemy, but also as many non-combatapti
as Doesible. regardless of ace, sex or condition.
This custom, to a irreat extent, arose from two
causes — the tribal organization of nations and the
Inferior social condition of women. The tribe, was
the family enlarged: the nation only a loose agirre
graf. n of nomadic trll.es. The adult male members
of the family ware th« warriors, a.-d the women
and children their slaves. As such th«y did the
work and bore with the drudrery of the camp in
peace, anil In war tended the flocks and raised ana
garnered the supplies. When their masters were
defendiafl their rudely fortified towns or eneatap.
ments they worked on the rami>arta. or when on
the offensive assisted in the stese by their man
ual labor. Their destruction cut i>fl in a meas
ure the aggressive or defensive resources of
the enemy, and a'«o deprived them, of their
source for the supply ec your-* warriors. Their !
deatb, therefor^, followed as a necessary war |
measure. As this ctistoai. however, in a cen-ra- '
Men or two began seriously to reduce the fizhtins '
forces on both sides, the rude statesmen of tha day I
Inaugurated the mis cf canturtrsr r.live the women I
and youn/r children, the former i?r breeding pur- |
coses, th« latter for training s? warriora on the !
side of the captors.
With the improvement in the orjfar.isation cf ;
mankind, both political ar.d social, and t'.ie partial j
;Da*:on of women, came less rigorous rales j
as to their treatment by the enemy, and gradually
with th« lapse el time this clemency -was extended I
ta men not actually In arms. Cf course, cases |
ari«» where the livfs ami limbs cf n^n-comiatast!" I
must be Jeopardized, as in the siege of towns, a
battle In a thickly populated resion. etc. The vio
lation of the rule is incUfenta! and nec€?sary. and
obtains whatever be the weapons.
OCCULTISM IX FRAXCE.
Frauds Practised by Spirit Medi
ums on Clients.
Paris. September 21.
It might have been thought that recent dis- :
closures of frauds p*rrpetra.t?d upon unsuspect- !
ing sous by so-called spirit mMlums would |
have brought occultism as a profession into dis- I
repute and spoiled th-? trade for its professors. !
But this is by no means the case. Than is. of
coarse, in the Latin race a atroßSj strain of
superstition, which makes its members more;
susceptible to the influence of anything pur- :
porting: to savor ec the supernatural thart
either brar.-.-h of the Anglo-Saxon race, for In
stance. A.. certainly, ir. the teeth c-f most ad- ,
verse circumstance*, lime. Cbristrr.ann, "the sor
ceress of Versailles." must be ocngratulated on
the strength of the faith ?h-> has managed to
inspire In her votaries.
Standing on independent ground, entirely
apart iron that by Christian Science.
it Is as a faith healer that lime. Chris-mann
has coma before the public! ' Her methods; are
extremely simple: magnetized water appears to
be the principal, if rot the only, medium em
ployed. The inquest upon the body of the vic
tim c£ this trea:iner;t — for Use ChriatßUUDa
numbers one martyr in the ranks of her foi
lowers^goea to prove that, without the disease
from which Mm*. Carbaut was suffering, death
mart have ensued from insufficient nourish
Th- dec»a?ed woman, Moms. Barbaut. was th^
wife of a co<>k In one of the large establishments
of Paris. Early la the spring Mme. Barbaut.
who was thirty-two years old. fell !H with a
form of dropsy, and her mother. Hnse. Fleury.
then living at Ver«ai!le». fetched from her
hasband's house ar.d placed her with Mme.
Christrrmr.n. ir. whns? m«"iical skill she had—
ar.d !nd»M stil! his — entirp faith. In th? first
v.-^ek of August Barbaut. a reservist, was called
up to do his month's military service, and he
re?;i:r«?'i to Versailles to take leave of his wift*.
Be was at once introducf-d into a room whera
his wifo <raj lyln?. cold and Ir.ar.irnate. her
hards cro?3P«l upon her breast. Mme. Christ
mar.n ».x plained th«» condition of the patient to
b*» on- of ••rf»n< v n-al." ar.a assured the alamr"!
husbani that !n a very short time his wife
woald b* restored to perfect health. T« the
ordinary TMholder there is nothing particu'.arly
cor.virctr.g about the exterior of the "sorceress."
her commonplace features ar.d receding chirr
b»ingr by r,o means calcular-d to inspire con
fidence In her d!vin« lnspi^aticr.. i?h<». however,
quit" c>r.vin<:»<l Barbnat of her eeeul: powers,
and he departed to Falaise. t«> Join his rstTn ■
withe ar.y ;nissivins?.
But Mm*. B-irbaut harl a star whose faith
In occultism was less robust than that of her
mother and brother-in-law, ar-.r 1 . she. In her turn.
came to Versailles to inquire after the sick
woman. On beins refused admittance! by sffjne
Christmann she applied to the lUce with the
result that tr.e d^a-l rromar.'s b«dy vras removed
to the rr.orfru* a**.J a post mcrtem examlnatinn
n^adc. The medtcai evidence prov*l that death
had already occurred when the husband Ttsftad
his v.ife. snd durir.s the fare- -w»eUj that had
elapsed sine that event Mrr.?\ ChrUtmar.r:. ft
masaease and sorrerMS. had bathed the tody in
powerful antiseptics several times a day. plac
ing- fresh Ur.en ar.i burning the old. Irt this way
she had tn sje« extent arrested decomr»ositior..
thoilfih the uther tenants of the house in which
these hjffuorlotts do!ns^ were takirg place had
several times complained to the ocnrlifrge of the
unpleasant rowlla whi-h pervaded tha staircase.
Both h'nsbacd and mother objected strongly to
tn » po-t-inurte-m rxarr.ir.atfnn. as b^irg likely to ■
retaril tha process of ••rer.ewat" rrorr.!?ed by the
"sorceress" and cor..ldentl>- exp a ct«<! by both
The odd thins about it is itat Mm*. Christ- ;
manrt does not appear to have rr.ad? any money \
cut of h<?r cures. Her papers show that aha has j
attempted to work br correspondence also, but ;
ri">t for lucre. On the contrary, she has in irany j
IniteacVa shown herself to be generous to the j
poor arvi suffering:. If ■ceOlugs ate taken i
agatnat her it will te on the charge of prat- ■
tisir:^ medicine without a Ueense. but at: arts- j
er.t her mental condition is beln? in-ulred into. |
She calls her?elf tha •'daaarhter o* Cnr'st." and :
apprar? to be much in. earnest.
£ Another spirit, recently raise-i In Paris, that of ,
a dead husband, has shown a good deal of wit. j
His widow, wishing to marry- again, applied to j
a rr.edi'jm and asked her to euuimmicata with j
her late husband, to find out wnatnat or not he ;
objected to the smub'i remarriage. The in:- I
tia.l expenses of t*r» affair cost the woman AH \
francs, and brought her the information that tha .
dead man was. for his sir.s. then actually In ball (
By the orders of the medium a not* for WOO ;
francs, togetbtr with some Je-xelry formerly j
worn by the dead man. was placed in a vase ■
and covered with a vel». Then. enjoining upon
the widow to spend the night in prayer, and to |
burn lavender and sugar in the morning, the ,
medium took her leave of the client, tnforrnlnff
her that til answer to Is* inquiry would be
found in the place In which I M money had teen i
deposited. The following day the widow, ac- '
cordingly, tremblingly opened the goblet and
looked for the promised message. She found a
slip of paper containing thece- words): "I wish
mv successor Joy. if he *« still willlnjr to have
yon after this exhibition of your folly!"
C. I B.
HOW ANTS SLEEP.
DurJnsr Bases the ant's body is quite still. Occa- '
slonally may be noted a. regular lifting 01 and
setting down of the fore feet, one leg after an
other, with almost rhythmic motion. The anten
rj* also have a gentle quivering, arrarently in
voluntary, movement, almost like breathing. The
soundness of slumber was frequently proved by j
applvi^K the feather end of a quill. The feather I
tip is lichlv drawn along th* back, stroklnz "with
the fur. " There Is in> motion. Again and again :
this action is repeated, the stroke beir.g made
gradually heavier. Still there is n^ charge. The
strokes are dir»-."ted uvon the he:i.l. with the same j
result. Then th^ featbrr Is applied to tha n<*«-k I
with a wavtcs: motion intended to tickle it. The
ant remains tnotionless.
Finally the «!f»per Is arcus-*d by a aharp touch
cf the aoQL Bh€ stretches out her head: th^n her
l'ses' which she shakes also: sters nearer ta the
''eh- yn.rrr.s. «nd bestrs to c-omh h<-r antennae
and brush her h^ad and mnuth. Then she clam
bers ovt bet ileeptec ramndea, dlv«»s into an
open gangway, and soon ha- said "Good morning" |
to another tour of duty. Be it wf'J noted, how- I
ever. »Nat ahe has jron* to work v as si:,- and all i
her fellows always do rot. orly re-iftd. but with '
her person pcrff'.-tly clean.— (Harper's TTiHalTiaa
HOW BIROS ORINK AT SEA.
••When I was a cabin boy." said an elderly sailor.
"I oftan used to wonder, seem' birds thousands of j
miles out to •»». what they done for fresh water
when they sot thirsty. One day a sijual! answered :
that question for me It was a hot and blitterin'
flay In the tropics, and in th« ole.ir sir.- or*rhesjd a
bl Ick rji:i ttoud appeared ali of a sadden. Then
o-i* of tr.o empty space* over a hundred -- '. birds
came dartin 1 from evsry direction. They got under
th« rain cloud and they watted there about ten min
utes, drclln' round and round, and wh<^n. the rain '
kcKin to fii.ll they irank. th- - till. In tnu tropes, i
where the gveat sea hlrd* «ail thousands of miles '
aw.iv rom snore, they get t^cir dnnkin' water In
that way. They smell out a nora a long way oaf ; I
they travel a hundred milt-,. maybe, to set under
It and tner smaller eaoueh raindrops to keep them j
goln -—(Portland Or«goaian. '
Their Methods Exposed If the Rev.
The Rev. Dr. bsbjm K. Funk, ef this city.'*,
earnest investigator of psychic phenomena, has m
article ia "The Homeric Rsrrtew- for October
which throws a strong li~ht upon th.- =-a*»s c'
fraudulent BBtrttoaCstts mediu^i H e- a ;s; s a-'orfl
business card which recently come into Dr. rW.
SMEDmrs ripiisww PU . ■
»;Zr *?'-:; v>u - rradual'.y.
* «fcCut r*-cm anil disappear.
ET.XLZ. T/OKS COXFTDO.-TIAiL.T3
He claoed this card ta th* hands cf fc: 3 brother.
a- *.n un*. asiinsr hiT! to investing and make *
*; r^ r - In k* 3 r*^ 3 " B. F. Furta says, ancrs
"I :cund the proprietor to cc a ysssssasial centle
nianly SO rt it f«ir. aSßarertly reSne-i aad edu
cated. I f.ld him that a lady friend of mi=e in an
Extern citT- 3 :: ccscel troth^tod some medium
isti- cower. BQfftdteat to move ■ table, croduc* ra-w
P.r.ss. etc but that her gifts had not enaush
mo.ty makina Dov.-er in them to e-ati* h-r to
STOnort hencU and these deaendeist csqq he-
On recetrte, your card froa a frieni ,. \ g£
tiaued -it occurr-d to me tha: you might heln
-•w ll3t c? BtecoJsrn , wouw sto = refer
.ha: your lady fri-nd should orodncer * ask-»<t
"I rspued: I wish her t« jrive cfcrsica! 3ianiTe»
toOoas^roeh as the TOttiHaffntfaa C ' hands, of
ma estire ntnnan firm, aotrtt voted; illuminated
stars, vsarlta. ray 3 of Uaht. fioatins calls of are.
Ccatins musical In?t.-umcn:9. trumpet talks. aUt»
wrlttr.?. mir.-i readinc. etc. Are these thicss wttotn
the ?cope et your art?"
"He smiled at the modesty ■ * mr wish, then said;
.'AU this is merest child's nlay. provided your la«J^
friend !s aot otdek wttted and has I asi
fttmfahfca l:»lp iaftsr fhfa sort to the niedituns if
CWcaeo-^they a!l com? to mft: I know them all."
'" 'Is- there no tfifSaztCr in n-.ani3ulat!ns ti!s ma
chinery or caraDhernalia?"
" 'It la so ateoTS you will render why M is that
people do net at enca detect it. When you under
stand it asd urd'-rs-or-.d the modua opened! Of
L^3<nir:sr I:, you will tv- much assosadL'
" "How about ?late wri;ins?*
"' 'Perfectly simple.'
" 'With tied slat;s. g-lued s-d sealedr
•"Tea; oh. yes. I have laughed until — - stdsw
ached after a .scar.cc- at the remenibrancs of how
easily ar.d completely rh«i d. c.'s (dead sssssaJ
were footed. To se« ; a Uotinjr f.tther -.<- nss ma
terialized form cf his d*a.l eKM «a h!s bstea and
pet it ar.d ki?s it. and then tear tho Mb) oca «ay
"X"w. papa. I must so; I f-ei 1 am g-rttas weak -
and thpn ?*e the child slip from his lap and
.disapE-a- to the teCzdte surprise of aU On faith
r-.—.t is mor<> lan^haile than -• Artsßsssl Wanl
"wa.t-«^?er show." '
""But I fcav» been where I was permitted tt»
touch the hand of a form. It seemed warm, as if
2esh and .blootL"
•'This seemed to iai'.i!» him frr*at!r. Finally r.»
sai-i: Te-; It does feal precisely Uls<» flesh. Bu
this i=» anotter phiw of the c-isir.^ss. Ir Is all ex
plained virk'n. the out.*!: is sent.'
"To my repeated questions ho^r this and dssl
was dcr.e. his almost cor.srant ar.swer was taat
th^s^ -ecrers were part of his stock in. tratia.
" 'But. l I insisted. "I have 5..-. eu sometimes th»
rreti.um and a spirit fjrr.i stand eiie by side, an.i
I hava taken hold of tbstr bamia anl talked ta
ttem-somcttnea both it the sa.ma time.*
••T. 113 gave the fellow much quiet fun at my ex
pense. FteaDr. ho 3 aid: 'That re-ir.d* ma c* a
scar.cc I one* attended. It was heM by one of the,
beit. meitiums ir. Ct;-.?aso. There wer» j. number of
2r.«j mate.-ia:!zat!cT.s— understand me. wh»r. I am
with tiio SpMtuallsts I am an enthusiastic Spirit
ualist. The rexr day a. wealthy woman who was a
believer called en ra». She ?a:d that ah* eajoyea
the me-itlr.?: the evening before very much. tut. that
she wbhed to ask me a vzesttoa. Slia desired t>
know whether spirits really persg for she ha.l
detected the cdor of perspiration, on one of the
form*. ?ha snok* with such earn harness and her
questions struck me as 3^ ludicrous that I had ta
exeviae myself and wen: cut anu laughed mvaeTT
almost lr-to a. convtilsion. Whea I was Uu«he.l out
I retarceO. and with a long face said: "Tei 0..r
dtir friends materialize tn perfectly natural Dcdl"^
and hence, of course, perspire on a hot snmcey
evenir:?. just as the reyt of us do." H»r faith m
"I said: "I know i mas who ad Ma httl* chiil
en. his lap. and it deaaterisliz^d whila h* was
•' 'Certainly; that can be done- easily with th»
" 'But." said I. 'a liani will materialise and de
materializa r!gh.t before DM »
•' Ten .-ar.r.ot tell whether it is a hand or a f -•
six feet away. With my radium i!:utnina:ion, thu
front illunnnated and th* back no; you run: ts-*
hand and you have materialisation, and you, turn t?
asrain and you base, cietnatertalizarioa. antti th.
"oh's" ar.'J "air's" of th© d. c.*«. So wlta tis star*
and so with the entire human form. Huch success
deresds upoa th* skill of the medium 12 manlpula:
ins the black ar.d the whit* cloth,"
*' 'ily friend has art the power of ventriloquism.
How w:il M be sibll to represent "• diCereat
•Acatn ba smilei a-d finally brought acs an
aluniinuni trumpet and several c^u:r.r:ecaa, It
■was a revelation to hear tha diiersnt voices h»
could prcduca and the rapldlry with wbseb h»
could change fro-a one voice to tho other. v.*h«a csy
back waa turned I could nave taken an, cats, that I
heard two different voices Bsannsssl ax the oars*
"He told rza much mere, and I '.e-1 by tils busi
ness rim: 'I can fix v? ycur la-iy friend and so la
struct her. '.£ aba ia clever—^sverseaa is essential—
tiat sha will be aila to earn from S3) to *p> c.
TRAINED DOGS ON THE BATTLEFIELO.
The R-issian governmetit is la conMßuoicailon
with Ma.jer Hautonville Kichardson. a retired cf-
Seer of tha Entisa. army, on tie suaject of his
aspplylng a canina am'aulance corps for th« Tar-
Richardson cor.slders that t.ie best dogs)
for ordinary work in ths field ars black or table*
ccllles. Inrallieence. not breed, however,' is th»
chief consideration. Tie Riissians hava adopted
the Caucasuia Cos; France favors tis "smuggierar
cogs," well known on her f rentiers: Austria em
ploys Dalmatians: Turkey finds Asiatic sheep dogs
most suitatlff. and Gemacy gmsnlly selects
The. trainej £ag can be employed H 2. number of
ways. He mar act a* a scaur, as- an outpost to th»
outposts; in 3^. actual engagement his service*
_re readily available for the txanjpcrt. cf reserv*
ammunitlcn to the firing line: in a s:es« or invest
ment ta aaay be used as a sentry, and in this
capacity would prove invaluable In r^a'iins asair.st
But. it Is in ambulance wcrk that the dog mir
provide th» greatest service to man. and it Is ta
this special and important pha3e that Major Rich
ardson bat devoted many years, training 1 his dos»
to perform their life-savin- work with almost
human skill and Intelligence.
Tha ginning of training for field service ia to
take the dog at night to some quiet spot; and h*v«
aa assistant creep up slowly toward dng and
master. The dog scents the approach and gives
wanting by growling— barking bein?r alwars
checked by the trainer, since In war time it would
betray the dog's pi esenc« to iz» enemy.
In ambulance work, the dog. finding a weunde-i
mars, ties down beside him. and tne man. if not
too se. iouslv injured, helps hlm3elf to tae brvsdy
carried by the dog in a Bask upon it* back.
The deg also carries bandages, a wsierproof
sheet, a pencil and a piece of paper. The wounded
man scribbles a hasty rote to inform his comrades
In what part of the 'field to fin;i him: then, te
tirsa:in^ to the Jng by a way* cf his hand that It is
to recurs, the dos dasnee off again to tae as:
Holy fci dispatched at once, tae ambulance party
being le«i ta the spot by the dog itself. The
wounded ma**, has in ice mean time bee*n enabled
reushty to fc-irda«e his wourds. end -perhaps, br
Btooplnte a dangerous flow of blood, to aave his
DEFINITION OF INCENSE,
From The Brooklyn Times.
•••"Uve a sentenc* containing a synonyt3at» ex*
press' ■* ' for "ir.cense.' ** commanded % Bro«bjyn
school teacher t-> her class. It was a very hard
Question and if you don"t be'feve it. you had better
try to answer it yourself. The nwwumefnmsss of
school children, however, is reraarkat-Je. Tha
tor i? heat bey la the class rawed his band. Whan
ca!W»d upon br t*i>s teacher he said:
"Holy smoke, what a scrap it ru!" Hi