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yEWYQRK^DAILY TKIl SCyyE , SUN])AV , ATOTSt 5, M."
for Lapp's Historic
—.„_.,« r Chamberlain nnii Rollin
rgl. **^S of Departments of G»l«*ry
SJSSSS&SS^nS Results,^ pp. tzt-. Voi
'7 -} >^-, -r^irtJi History." pp. C92-C24.
■itaMo exp'a nat ' nn for my of
the p.-ol..pist studies, he
. ., toc k on fomf concept i«m of the
■'" Sd: rd^'* 1 '" >f thf ' srI ° bO- F ° r a lon "
"^^B notion resrardin? that stage of
i^^Mstory was generally accepted.
fO&siMtotb* soundness of the nch
•"T'T^ are n nw entertained. The most
' "^-♦^-e of the really magnificent work
and Salisbury Is their
doctrine and l he-advocacy
# tn Jot}i««s. H<«-.\ fully it will ■■■ ae
;< £ jjae'ttn tell. Ther^ are indications
'"^/rfceived favorably in isolated in-
L'Sasyet the majority of -■ logists
" *Jr'v h?«:tate to" pronounce in opinion.
~*l+p theory which is advanced here
*ans. the techriical reader who care
; ijaKth* volume? under discussion will
jrt, njcauore the larpf amount of fresh
J-^wiicS fcjy been introduced and the dis
r.'e ♦T:stnM > nt of Truest of the questions
., f , bdifved that V.\e space now apied
' cyrtew was onc<* filled with a cloud
> : r nTtS*^ P ls - which was hot and somo
'Z arcaired a rotary motion. Th< nebula
— rsxinatdy spherical. In time it besran
-•ish fc &*< an j ther< was then detached
•j equatorial rejrior. a rins; of nebulous
- si'&ct a number of these rings were
c <>? is succession, each being imaller
•s prr3«tssor. The central portion, very
condensed, formed the sun. The matter
gtlin each of the rings eventually shaped
'j-tt'a fpherci and by d-trr.-.-s assumed a
ax. The earth. Laplace held, was once
fits !na?s. on which a crust developed by
lotion of some of tht original store of
He icroanted for the high •\iture
c r-'jjwd to characterize the ■ rior
. •jobe tt-day in this manner, and fancied
bsj* 'or a comparatively thin shell it Is
Chamberlain and his associate start
j-uch lower torr.j* rature. If matter was
psH>z; condition when evolution began,
tifck it would s'ton become cool enough
if-tute ar. Incalculable number of small
i jntrrtf-afly identical with meteorites, l»ut
£at the centre a hot. gaseous mass. Other
SBe^-mdi as the collision of two dead
caHßt considered incidentally, as means
jpijfcg a host of tiny stones. The Chicago
pit evtece co preference for any of these
tei replying the meteorites, however.
Solia! feature of their hypothesis 1? that
ties! small bodies— "planetesimals"; they
itse4-iad been provide ■:. a few clusters
ii<4 the nuclei of the l.iir planets, which
bs2t c? ly tlie addition of the more- scat
;.-wt*ontes. The internal heat of the earth
Srfed as the product of the ;nechanical
z:i of ibe material aft-.T it had assembled.!
.t be ■B-eil to rememi* r that th<~ great Oer
;^idst. Hdmtoltz. attributed the ability
*sa to maintain it« thermal output wlth-
BStioa, in Fpite of its enormous losses
?i radiation, to gravitation alone, though
! ras probably a contraction of volume
lain had not b^en able to detect.
r hypothesis of Laplace presents a number
Snltfes. Artronomrrs are r.ot pure that
rx:?r which wnuid 1* left behind by :he
:z?i asd rotation of a spherical nebula
2 as^r^e the form of rinfrs. It is also
aa Thether a ring- would break ur and :
ac a rrbere. Hecent computation seems ,
"fiat if the Fr>ace bounded by JCeptime'a
• *r» *:ied with a r.ebula ar.d the mo- !
ts ''. the bodies of the solar system were '
2rf to it. tht- rotation wou:d not be rapid \
off any matter. Aprrun, though |
tebah in the constellation of Andromeda 1
~!r does seem to t>e splitting up into con- I
Keeler— the Sate director of the
'.'Kerratory— has shown, that the vast ma- i
rttsOaOie are Fpiral, with a disposition to !
; iE=ber of knots, or local condensations. I
" ciarxes In the level of continents or :
ißKhtpakes and some other well denned !
aaa are attrlbrted by the Chieaso geolo- j
'.: naß and ephemeral strains set op in !
=««« the earth. These n:i & ht be caused :
-K'i2 ? :es where matter had been ejected i
box*, or to the subsidence of ocean beds,
&taa of internal heat, which, however, :
w« to be less serious iliar. v.-as once sup
,-, »£ of these Influences, in the opinion
*aasi Ciamberlain and Salisbury, is ade
»fc fcraation of the great mountain !
J" » g:cbe. The furce majoifested in '
a aatim^ phenoraenbri; they believe, |
~,'.* > dl!!er€!:t ori^ p -. has accumulated!
J operated on ar. enormous scale ■
;-^-e occasions, relief was then ob-;
ItwT* cximjaraUvdy short periods.
r i^''' Jted to a genera! shrinkage. I
■• .; ''" 3 z " 7 exter -s-"-c cooling', but the ■
1* '^ y compact td rcateriaL To a
-~iJ!!f a " SCTTyr - t in crest of
*^a£r £ssi?nf ' d <Jie building of the !
"" -s. the Alps aiid iLe Iliaiaiayaa.
*"fin« I . ° UKh *" **" and the «^
t d ""n '£'l* tP th * -—^ •*•« to create a
«n the interior of the earth seem to In
;;;^;- : «,, iinyl , ui(lt :; "£
Z d . ;. Rlobe ls "" ariy - ri^> - «**
r"/ S rW ; IKy mUSt be neatest at the cen
that h ' S Btron Sly contradict the theory
that lava comes from a permanent reservoir
im essors ChamberlaJn and Salisbury hold
that when molten rock ta ejected from a vol
cano the performance is local and independent
of volcanic action elsewhere. The preachers of
the teslmar gospel hold that up to a c«r
tain Imperfectly defined level heat ascends from
the centre more rapidly than R passes thence to
he TOrfa Accordingly, there must be regions
in which there Is a slight, temporary accumula
tion which causes liquefaction. The softened
material eventually gets access to a fracture
and f.,l»ous the line of least resistance to the
surface. The volcano acts as a safety valve,
gives relief and then subsides
THE ITU 1.
From Notes and Queries.
V.Meth. r the Scandinavian Tinmr and the P!av
Duma spring from the same root is not exactly
the question which I take ap. although to my
HEAD OF A GIRL.
(From the drawing by Leonardo Da Vinci.)
thinking th< root is to be found in the San-
Ifax Mflller "Science of Thought"). The
bi Russian meaning of the word is thought,
this meaning it is strictly limited. The
Duma is a council of thinkers (of opinion), pon
derers. The word ha? grown up from two roots:
of the first the consonantal sound alone is re
tained; the second Is to be found in urn, the
. for llw capacity of the mind; Sanskrit
nma. whence also the Russo-Slav mnit, to think.
My chief point, however, is this: the Duma
was entirely unknown in Russia before the reign
d the Terrible, who first established a
Duma, or council of the leading Boyars and
notables ..bout his person In l. r »7:j. The
word itself does not occur in Russian history of
eriod when Scandinavian influence pre
it< dnt Novgorod and at Kief. Nestor did
aploy the term; he could not have known
The T>uma assembled in the Cznr's own
chamber, In the Golden Hall of the Kremlin, or
vestibule of the same. From \".-l to the
of Peter the Or<--;it the formula of the
was: "The Czar has directed, and the
Boyars have [by bis command] decreed," etc.
5 . linavian Institution of the Icelandic
(ore, never introduced into Rus
sia, ":m<l tin Russian Duma cannot possibly be
of this orij
FRENCH "SPELLIWQ REFORM."
Prom Tb< London Globe.
It looks ri? if spelling reforms were really ar-
Fran • proposes to mak^ certain change?
compulsory In all its schools. Thus, "s»" is to
be substituted for "x" in plurals — "chevaus* for
"chevaux." The "h" is to be dropped in certain
word?, giving us "retorique" and "teatre." And
the French ben will henceforth do its ducking:
over an "cuf." With an Anglo-French exhibi
tion impending, these decrees cannot fail to
strengthen the hands of our own spelling: re
former:--. But though the spelling of schools can
be dictated by a government, that of authors
cannot, ar.d a conflict of usa?e would be disas
trous. It is fortunate, perhaps, that Prance haa
I>rovided us with Uxe ouDQrt^titX to watch such
Mr. H. O. W.-Hp has finished his somewhat
raperncial study of this country, rind is consider
ing the preparation of .i volume expounding the
general principles of socialism. He believes thai
suen an exposition la much needed.
The Samuel Pepys Club, of London, lately
made an expedition to Pepys's house.
Brampton, which Btill looks as It did in the
time <i the fr.tnk diarist. Dr. Kr-.i^h! h
clared that Pepys w :i s born there, but this is
disputed. A visit was also paid by I
Hincningnrook. Lord Sandwich's house and here
dn-Ts of its mci ng for their host the
IJialogue Between Apollo and Neptun< "bewail
ing the death of the first Earl of S
lament which was found among the manuscript
music In the Pepysian Library at Cambridge
two years a
Borne mrrespnrdnnr-., hitherto unj.uMished.
between Ben Franklin and a certain Mme. de
BriUon will appear in the next number of
Hari'-rs Magazine." The letters were written
while Franklin was living in France.
Several, if not all. of Thomas Hardy's novels
are undergoing translation into French at tbe
hands of M. Firmin Koz M. Roz has lately
published a critical article on Mr. Hardy's works
—an article full of praises. He speaks of Wes
se X as "one of these corners of the earth which
art has made into a fatherland for our imagina-
tion." His translation of "Far from the Mad
ding Crowd," by the way, is "Loin dt_- la Foule
Some notes made by Ilalph Waldo Emerson
on the character and career of the famous
preacher to seamen, Father Taylor, are pub
lished in the current "Atlantic." Taylor was
"mighty Natures child." Emerson says, and
h< shows us "how iiit-n are always interested in
a man." 'He is a real man uf strong natur>-."
He is a work of the same hand that mad' De
mosthenes, Shakespeare and Burns, and is guided
by instincts diviner than rules His wh< U dis
course is a string i f audacious felicities harmon
ized by a spirit of Joyful love. Everybody is
cheered and exalted by him. . . . Edward Tay
lor is a noble work of the divine ounain.u'. suggesi
ing- the wealth of nature. If he were not s< strt ng
I should call him lovely. What cheerfulness in
his genius an.', what consciousness of strength!
"My voice is thunder," he said, in telling me In w
well he w;is. And what teeth, and eyes, and brow,
and aspect! I study him ;is ;i jaguar, or an Indian,
for his untamed physical perfections He Is a
work, a man, not to be predicted, his \ i s i ■ .m. m poetic
and pathetic, s:u-ht of love unequalled. \i>>\\ can
hp transform all those whiskered, shaggy, untrim
tarpaulins Into son? of li^ht and hope, hy
the man within th« Bail r. -.-•-•■ i rur then :■■ :■
brothers, husbands? But hopeless it is ti.
make him that he not; to try 10 brint; I
account to you or to himself foi aught "f I
M. Jusserand, the French Ambassador to tlie
United States, has sei English print-! the
manuscript of th< sec< nd volume of his "History
of English Lit- r:i - <:r--." The English edition of
this volume, which is already in circulation iti
French, has been written by the author almost
as a new book.
Mr. Zamrwill has apparently ceased to write
novels. He has been preparing a comedy In his
1< isure moments, but almost zill his time is spent
in work for the Jewish Territorial Organization.
Among the art books of the autumn will b<
found •'The Life and Works of Vittorio <"ar
paccio," by the late Professor Gustaf Ludwig
.and Professor Poinpeo Molnaenti. The trons
By Antonio Fogazzaro.
The storm centre of the
world's religious and liter
The greatest religious novel
(LI)C ; in U
The Jesuits have put it on
the index, the Christian
Democrats have accepted it
as their gospel.
Editions in America, Eng
land, Italy, France and
Ready Next Week,
By Antonio Fogazzaro.
Crown Sbo. $1.50.
A 24-page booklet telling
all about •• The Saint " sent
v. P. Putnam's Sons,
27 & 29 \V. 23d St., New York.
lator is Mr. R. H. Hobart Cust, the author of the
book on Giovanni Antonio Uazzi vSodoma), pub
lished last s-.--a.son.
Another art book which Is In preparation is a
biography of Vincenzo Foppa, the Lombard
painter of the fifteenth century. The authors
are Rodolfo Mfllocchi, of Pavia, and Miss ('. J.
Pfoulkes. Exhaustive r search In Italian archives
for the purposes of thia v.-..rk has produced some
valuable results. Reproductions of all ofFoppa's
known pictures will accompany the text. Many
of his works have been destroyed.
Miss Ellen Terry's reminiscences of Henry
Irving furnish forth the most engaging porti >n
of Mr. Menpes's book on the £■:•• a f actor. She
pictures Irvins while rehearsing "The Merchant
of Venio "
I came to the reheasal with ideas, with my own
conception of the part as it oufhi to be play<
tlie moment Irvine began 1 was hypnotized. I
couldn't budse— 1 was entl railed. . . . He threw
himself bo thorough!; = skin con
tracted and his ey< - sh ne His .;;■.- grew whiter
and whiter, :ind his skin more and more drawn ih
ttie time wetit on, unt.i he looked Uke a livid thing,
He knew his Hmitati »ns, Miss Terry declares.
"How strange it is," ha once said ro"her, "t!iat
I should have made the reputation I have as an
actor with nothing to help me— with no equip
ment. My legs, my voice verything has been
against me." "And all the time," says Miss
Terry, "I wa.= looking at that splendid bead and
th'>s-- wonderful hands, which he was holding
out in a despairing gesture toward me, and I
thought, 'Ah, you little know!"*
Mr. Bernard Capes has charted the title of
his forthcoming novel from "Cartoocho" to "A
Rogue's Tragedy," the former title having al
ready been used. Mr. Capes has had an odd
experience as to titles, this b«r:.? tl:e fourth oc
casion on which ho has unwittingly chosen those
which were not original with him.
Among the rare books which that persistent
Investigator, Mr Wilfrid Voynlch, has lately
found, is a copy of Sir Thomas Herbert's
"Travels." in which that lively writer described
the discovery of America by Madoc ap Owen
Gwyneth "above three hundred yeares hoforo
Columbus" Herbert was thi Parliamentarian
who was chosen as groom of the bodi haml ■ r by
Charles I when the Kinrr was forced to tllsmJps
his own attendants He became much attached
to Charles, was in the end his only attendant
and was on the scaffold with him when tin. royal
head fell under the axe.
MIBB LIBERTY FROM THE BAT.
Tlut it is not alone these foreign arrivals whs
lament the singular jM^iiior. in which the Status
of Liberty finds rself in these latter days of
the New World, Pity 'tis 'tis true "Liberty" is
no longer It; she is even become soni&what iia
trop. The outgrown colossus topped by hun
dreds of mere office buildings, is not jury not .^
wonder of the world any longer, tut something
of a reproachful reminder In an unpleasant way.
One poet has even consigned her to tho New
York City dump, in a millennium, to be there
after covered ove* with marsh mud. This i.<? a
picture limned in a sonnet by Arthur Upean, a
leal descendant of the Pilgrims ar'd Puritans,
though resident somewhere in Central New
Tin-: statue op uxamrr.
(Now V..rk Harbor. A. n. 2900.)
Ilfre nni . . *foo r**oi*nis ihow, a land wtwso pt^Qtt
Atxidp In Prei li m ■ watchword! And ot'i; h«r»
Th<- [."!-t ot tniflio f. r a hemisi
With >:re:i! ffuld piling citiei a: her side.
Tradition F.iys. superbly unco did bide
Their sculptured goddess r,n an islanj rrrr,
Vv'itli hi^t.ital.le smile and torch kei't clear
K..r all wild tmrd.-s lhat gougbt hei o'er the H<S«.
"r«;i.s rentui ago. Hut this is true:
l«i-' tbe : nd tyrant wt.'. mtsrulca our !nnd,
litdding lii? serfß dig deep In marshes oi«.i.
Trembled, i.ot knowing wherefore, as they drnr
l'*i n out ttiis ■■.■.• '. ancient mid
A shu.ii'.-i< torch iii-iii in a nughir hand.
— BoMlun Tr». — r.?L.