Newspaper Page Text
Ample Protection for Lives and
Property of Tenants — A
E\er since the $2,000,000 Parker Building fire.
wi: Mi tale of loss of life, avalanche after ava
lanche of mixed — very much mixed — masses of
SKptatiation. criticism, recrimination and Fug
srestion have hurtled down from the heights
mhereon atowtl the experts and would we experts.
official and otherwise, upon the devoted public.
until the ldoas it had absorbed a* accepted practice
In fireproof construction and fire protection must
He maimed, if not utterly ground out of existence,
urd- r the mountainous loads of rubbishy disputa
tieii. and its In the safety of life and
property from fire entirely destroyed.
It has been fesM, T'ractlcally. that the fireproof
building is a m>'tli; that the fire underwriters
f PATENT BRICK AND TILE ROOFS.
A. Concrete -steel roof arch.
B. Graded concrete.
C. 5-ply coal tar pitch and felt waterproofing.
D. Portland cement mortar.
E. Copper base flssHina.
F« Copper cap fashing.
-a- a billion dollar fire may start in tops of
skyscrapers: that they consider these buildings
BBBJtnpSi and predict a fire too high in the air tt>
be foupht. and urge a limit to height. In fact.
that the city is in peril of the gravest fire in
th* world's history because the skyscrapers are
entirely at the mercy of the flames.
It has been toM by John Foster Carr. in his
thrilling and dramatic story in the April "Out
look/.', his -Fighting the Fire"'— living for weeks
-th and running; alongside th* fire laddies— that
-New York City is forever burning": that it has
more than "thirty alarms a day" and that
"?30,OOO.(K'O worth of property is annually de
voured here by flames." It has learned from the
lire marshal's report that fires in l**7 numbered
V«:<<. as apainst v .r,ci in 1906.
It has been appalled by the statement that 443
lives were lost in this city in ISO 7 from burns,
j-calds and fires, and that "these are normal fig
ures." as •- . had no great life destroying fires In
It has road that the fire underwriters and the
Merchants* Association had employed experts to
Investigate the city's fire department equipment —
every pi«*.<-o thereof, from the "hose nozzle to the
fiT«» bsnssf' : and it baa gleaned from the results
of that Investigation that there is not much de
pendence "• he placed upon the department — at
least, so Ear a* the skyscrapers are concerned.
It lias discovered that at the 100.000 or more
hydrants some . teen hundred of them were
frozen during the winter; that with the low press
ure, lh< department cannot get water shove the
eighth story, and that thfi high pressure is of no
use. for the rotten department hose cannot stand
It boo bei : given a roster of the firemen who
have been hart by the rain of glass: and Mr.
>'arr. before quoted, has oommei ■ on the cellar
and sub-cellar fires with their hidden risk of
And last, but not least, it has been told that
the fire *>scap<' is a lire escape in name only!
And to the discussion lias raged, and from the
multitude of counsel has oome only confusion:
Tii«r following la presented, however, not to criti
rasa the <xm i I of either Bide, but with a
view of furnishing at least a partial solution of
ire vexed problem.
It would seaaa to the "looker-on in Vienna" thnt
the -whole discussion has rested upon a fals<- ftjun
«latlon In so far as th<- skyscraper is concern**!. It
5«, or should be. for it can be made so. entirely in
dependent of the protection afforded by the under
■writer.- or by the city's lire Department. Th*re
»^eem* little 'doubt that the u:iburnabl<- building
"iias arrived," la use a colloquialism, and that it.
needs or.'-. that owners thall have the conviction
forced ujion them that it is their civic duty to
erect ttruetures that shall prove conflagration bar
jiers. because unburnable; th«ir duty to affurd : l ii -
jile a.ud thorough protection to th<- lives and prop
erty of UiOr tenants, .is well as economy to put up
*l structure not ra^ifly t<< pass the Roard of Fin?
UnderßT)tei>-; but s>t> throughly fireproof *"d in
every feature as totoate Ore insuranr.- unneces
sary. Th;« iiuts tlj<> ?«s;«n>:biHy.- eqtvut:ly where
It beloiiK? — fm property owimts.
It Is perliaps not n<c-ssary t«t explain lure that
ih*re ss— an article of tl.is description has no oon
<-ern iv:t taativem—O9 intent tc> r. fleet upon tlie
honesty of insurance underwriters In pointing
out :... • they, have mistakenly assumed a posi
tion that the ra<-ts do not sustain: that they
tire not altruists, but business men and moved by
... <on;-!di.-ratio?is th:it iiifiuefi(.-t- otin-r busi
nefcs men, ::nd that they have neltlier more nor
Jess humaJiily or civic Spirit than nave other 'it.
xenF. ami nave amorac them no L"-tt--i experu than
trt- to ba found in Um> terhnoloslcati institutes. i:j
«*• j::r.ft.->io:js «nd In i'.h- trade*: tjut us there Jiit
jaanr i«ctj»-s UAarcudaldy raised i:i this att»-iaj,t t»
■hew tJ:. unbomable t.u;i(:»:ig. it is v\*li to enter
the tjis< l:>im«-r. in truth. liu-ii relation lv lUe tut>
3«'t in hand. u< it w..uld n*ein t-> b* considered
f.y i>ract; -ai «tj»ertji, it cl«-ariy d< t'u.- dby an article
under tii- cajrtJou, "I^ea.'e fire I^rev^ntluu and
ttre Proteetioa t>i [*rofierty Owner* and tii«- J'u!<
li<%" In "The Jiull<-ti!i." :iij Insurance Journal <>f
To:xmi«». Citiaib, whi<:i says, among otl»er things:
••Tii«? ootDsanies should csertalnly ii«v«- iiu? con
i rolling voice in fixins rates and In making m.- ■ "'■■
tracts. bu« not iit making th*- rink-* fireiiroof. nor In
preventing or protecting nealnat fire, just for Hie
flmri* 1 J r ah"ti tW^t n«iith«-t the prevenUon • f !il'
ror riif>ir<-ti<in s^.-:in>--t Ore Js their bii^iness. not
In Hi ■■ with it."
It »i£t- !'"■ r«iiirbiv- figured that Uhtt are ;ih<>ui
tS/v>.nr«t/^> expended in hoiW< annually In th.;
rrnnrry. erd i^a' w*t»> $■>•.' •A"^ add^. t!i»> yearly
!css fr'-m f.j< - < ff!mar»wi. f<-r th«- !art fnt- y+arf.. at
en mvcn& *4 fi'f-1 /""i.-"> r i- -xo'ild t>* c:«=»t'y r«
tfuc*« i! r.-l entirely «a»vcJ; tli^l the a^ditionai
sum would make these structures practically un
Unfortunately, too many owners pursue the fool
ish policy of expending just enough, for fireproof-
Ing and fire protective features, to "pass the in-
Furp.nct''- a "penny wise and pound foolish" policy,
for in time the aggregate Insurance paid in will
amount to more than the added cost of thorough
flrcprooflng and fire, protection, and, In the mean
time, their property is always In danger irotn de
struction by fire.
But Is the unburnable building: a possibility Can
a building be so constructed and protected as to ba
Independent of fire Insurance?
The experts say it can, and the claim seems to
be well founded— to be based, in fact, upon
practical experience, upon the evidence furnished
by the Rochester, the Pittsburg. the Baltimore ana
the San Francisco fires. .
From the lessons taught by them, and from data
furnished by representative construction people, it
is possible to present the salient features of an
ideal unburnable building, and, in so doing-, to
outline the "state of the art" in fireproof con
struction and In fire protection.
THE UNBURNABLE BUILDING.
In an article designed to furnish information to
laymen there is here, of course, no attempt at
technical description. It is Bought to place before
them simply and understanding^- the fireproof and
the flr<> protection features of the building, how
they are produced or constructed, how they are
installed or used, and the service required of them.
Naturally, the work should begin with the founda
tion upon" which Xho buildine is erected, but as
here, in New York, the conditions vary to such an
extent that i*>rhaps no two cases are treated alike,
it will have to be assumed that this is laid, and
proceed with the superstructure. Still, as most
fires start, or are started, in collars — from cigarette
anil -..: butts falling through gratings, and from
the waste and superfluous furniture, and other para
phernalia, of th" buildings, for which they are
made thY general receptacle, to say nothing of th<»
oils for the engines. the sparks from the dynamos
and the oiler's greasy raps— lt is well to begin with
tliore. And as the expert whose system is here
described, is equally noted for the excellence of his
roof construction, the two extremes of the build
ing b,id a? well 111 1- treated of at one and' Che same
time, to economise space, always at a premium in
a gr<-;:t dally.
THE CELLAR AND THE ROOF.
<>f these, very property, the cellar will receive
the first consideration; and It I* upon it that, very
largely, lire oftenest focuses Its most insidious
and ngjefous attack". Cellars are of two descrip
tions, us classified by the builder?; those which are
t<» be subjected to water pressure from hidden
sprints, and tides, so frequently encountered in
building construction operations in Manhattan, and
those which are not menaced in that w.;. Tho
latter, in which only dampness— aside from lire— i(<
to be guarded against. Is thus constructed: Tho
foundations of walls un- built four Inches below
what la designed to be th* finished concrete floor
level; la all mils resting against earth the outff
four inches .are carried up to twelve Inches übo\«
the adjoining tartli grade, Then 4- ply of coal tar
pitch and felt waterproofing in put acroan founda
(teas, rstt-ndint; six Inches out under the floor— for
lutuie connection* v.Hh the proofing of the
cellar floor— and up, inside of in* tour-Inch walla,
lo twelve inches above grade; then the remaining
UilcJtnesM <.>r tin walls is tiullt, r> .ld), nguu.at thl»
s/aterurooflny, ft it cement mortar. After til* tho
octliU" flooi in cmooth^d with un Inch or so of
cement mortar, and f-uly wutrrpruoflug it put on
t... connecting it with the waterproofing on tin
foundation. And then .i concrete ttoor, for protec
livn to the t»at€rpruwllng and fur it wearing sur
i.,<-.- Is laid thereon.
]":.• "water-tight pressure cellar" is built in the
same manner, only that in Its case 6-piy or 8-ply
of coal i.ii pitch and felt, according to the pressure
it will have t<» withstand, and a reinforced con
,,.i, Root of sufficient resistance, arc pal in. This
pressure question is a vexing problem In hydraulic
engineering which confronts the waterproof er with
m different phase In eaoh separate |ob In the c*l
)nr> i*f the Municipal BuiMinc. W.ishlnirtOD, D <"..
it wjs necessary to put hi reinforced <-on«*re»* four
frft thi«W ... .< li-ply waterproofing, to reals! th»
water pressure. The efficiency it the Bjratsaal but
NEW-YOUE DAILY TRIBUN^ ■■''s^AT;.- arXT '' w-- 190 ?-
described was curiously proved, In a negam e^a,
in the case of the N. Y. Stock Exc l l » n Bulkl
Ins. where the pressure exceeds the eight or
the massive structure that the engineer aid not
dare to apply this method, for fear that so P" l * «
is the waterproonng's resistance the bu Id ln 6 WWW
be lifted from its foundation by the water, whicn
could find no outlet for its upward flow.
' TYPES ACCEPTED AS STANDARD.
Both the above systems are those employed by
the T. New Construction Company, as, indeed, are
the roofs hereinafter described. In fact, all the
work In brick and tile roofing, and in waterproo.-
75 c c of height reached in this picture. Top of this picture is 525 feet above sidewalk. Total
height will be 700 feet.
ing, as at present done, Is said to have originated
with this concern, which ha; a long and honorable
record, and many of whose constructions have
stood the severest tests >>r time, water and fire, as
will tie *ecn later ■• Mr. Xt« was in business
here from 1858 to 1902, when In died. The com
pany's present president. Mr. I-. W. Harrington.
has been continuously with it. as it! engineer,
since IS7O. M , , . ,
Th« approved roofs of to-day are of three kinds:
The "vitrified brick." which is laid in Portland ee
nient mortar (1), .sec Illustration) over a waterproof
layer "I 5-ply coal tar pitch and felt (C), cemented
solidly together and to tin concrete under i; (B)
with hot coal tar pitch, the waterproofing beiny
turned up :»g;aln.st all walla and openings sis Inches;
when the masons are building the walls si "cap
flashing" of copper (F) I: set in the latter four
inches and down their inner face three Inches, at a
height of twelve inches above the graded concrete
roof (B); and when the waterproofing (C) Is put In
a "base flashing--' of copper (E) i* extended out four
Inches on Its Hot surface and tip the walls to the
underside of the "cap flashing" (F). Then the "out
lets" are connected with heavy lead piping to the
iron, leader pipe by caulking them into the hubs
of the latter, and they are then soldered to the
copper base flashing iE). The durability and tin*
sanitary qualities of the brick rouf are amply tes
tified to by the fact that it baa proved to be the
only roof capable of withstanding the wear and
tear of tenement bouse property, and of — at th-_
same time— meeting all the requirements of the
Board of Health. -And, as it requires absolutely no
repairs. It is the cheapest roof for that class of
The tile roof is constructed In the same manner.
only that vl trilled tile, 6 by 9 by 1 Inch, are laid
in Portland cement mortar: while, «ii. the gravel
roof, the same 5-ply waterproofing and '•dash
ing.." with *soo pounds of dried gravel, or slag, put
into the top coating of hoi coal tar pitch, for a
finish. It should be added that standard roofs
should have twenty gallons of pitch to each l<r<»
square feet of surface) and, also, that all the above
roofe are laid on graded concrete.
The roofs thus far described are those which
have now come to be considered by the best au
thorities as representing the most satisfactory and
efficient types; but they are not the only ones in
use. For example, there is one made of "plastic
slate"—!. •■.. slate ground up anil mixed with coal
tar — not coal tar pitch— forming a paste of the
consistency of mortar— and In which the slate gen
erally forms live layers of the 80-called "9-ply
roof," the remaining four layers being* coal tar
felt. This roof is said to be necessarily short
lived, owing to the volatile nature of coal tar, and
, 1 ■
also for the reason that, having no gravel .or slag
incorporated into its superflclcies to keep i"«
ground slate in position. It contracta into r more
ate sssassaa&B ggggSS
quite inflammable. As, too all roofs with few pUes
are short lived, they should only be used on tern
"?ne yy p l £Srate roof costs a trifle £** than
either of the two first named, the saving oe
by the non-employment or metal
flashing- its life is even less one-fifth tnat .or a
s&ndard gravel roof. The latter was $**%£
was th.. irst to use it in 1817. In this the gravel
Is the tireproofing. the pitch the waterproofing and
cch s e P ac 1 e t c^n e no b t ln bb dd e eii BPB Pa red for a M.tof th ? buildings
In which this concern has had charge o 10 %
roof, or cellar and roof construction, an< * 'ifr,!
only the more notable ones are here mentioned
It put in the roofs and cellars of the M«|xonoii
tan Life, the Manhattan Life, the New York Life
and the Standard Oil buildings, and the roofs for
the Wilkea and Wells buildings. r.™-r»\ Build-
SI was put on forty years ago. as was that of the
SfiSta fhe^eifar^in tho Johnson Building, the
Brunswick Building; the new Hoffman . I louse, the
Hanover Hank Building the Herald Bull ling. tne
Blair Building, the Knickerbocker Trust Company
Building, the Royal Insurance Building, the fet.
Paul Building and the Gorham Buhding.
Among the more notable buildings upon which it
has put brick roofs may be mentioned t e .Ma is >7
sachusetts Hospital in Boston, and the World
and Tribune buildings here (the black br cks used
for ornamental purposes on the facade of tho latter
building were done by this concern, in 1SI4). It
rat in the roofs and cellars In the new Tiffany
Building, and in the Martinique Apartment Hotel.
and the roofs on both the Altman and Marbridgo
buildings; and it is engaged at present putting on
tile roofs on six of the most Important structures
in New York city, as well as on many other Jobs
of lesser importance here. ...»
The concern's activities, however, have not been
confined to New York City, but have been spread
out over the country generally. For example it
did the cellars and roofs of the General Postoffice,
and the Boker Building, in Mexico City; the Amer
ican Tobacco Co.'s factory in Havana: the Munici
pal Building, the Metropolitan City Bank, the Agri
cultural laboratories A and B. and. also, the roofs
of the subway between the Senate and House office
buildings and the Capitol, in Washington, D C.
The New York Life's Building*, In St. Paul. Minne
sota has a brick and tile roof; Its building in
Minneapolis has a tile, and Its building in Montreal
a brick roof all installed by the T. New people.
The Courthouse In New Orleans, which has some
seventeen hundred feet of unstable alluvial soil
under it, had Its watertight pressure cellar put la
by this concern.
This concern did the work on the "Wordsworth
Atheneum, at Hartford, Conn., many years ago,
and are now doing the Morgan and Colt additions
to that structure.
How well the company does Its work, and how
excellent are Its systems of construction, the fol
lowing examples of the practical tests both have
undergone will bear witness: There Is the case of the
lvvlitf lire some years ago; the high winds drove
the flumes into tho Home I. if-- Building, and gutted
It. throwing a portion of its facade out and to the
.street; but the- brick roof remained Intact. The
most remarkable instance was that at Nob. 04 and
GC Crosby street; here was a brick roof on wooden
beams, but the roof held, although several of the
Boors beneath were burned out— in fact, the fire
men could not gel through it with their streams;
It served the purpose, however, of smothering th*
flames for hours, and thus gave the Bremen ample
tim»; in which to extinguish them and to keep th«
fire from spreading. When the structure was
finally rebuilt skylights had to be »jut In the old
roof— Ptlll In commission so that streams might
be gotten through it in future. Again, there have
been many buildings torn down and their roofs,
put on by this concern, found in good condition.
among them the Smith Building, at No*. 3 and a
Cortlandt street, which was recently replaced by
the City Investing Company Building.
THE SKYSCRAPER'S SKELETON.
Very naturally the steel skeleton and the struct
ure which clothes it have been the subject of more
study, experiment ami discussion, and have more
divided the ranks of professionals and laymen than
have all the other features that enter into building
Ttie argument that the skyscraper should b« lim
ited in height finds a number of supporters, but
there are too many and too good reasons that may
be urged against this, and that need not be gone
Into at length here. Bayard Taylor, in his amus-
Ing description of the extent of his riches— the
possession of one lot of land, the title to -which ex
tended to the centre of the earth In one direction,
and up to the skies In the other — furnished one of
these, and another is to be found in the fact that
in the congested portions' of groat cities, where
small spot of ground have almost fabulous value,
structures of ordinary capacity would not pay the
EX. |. BRIDGE IN MASSACHUSETTS.
(Corrosion from electricity.)
expenses attendant on ownership, let alone the In
dangers did exist, but skyscrapers can nowto »
constructed and so equipped that such dangers w.II
"^p^rthe^ear'iTeighties steel had been used very
little for buildings, except for floor be*""-,""l
there being no textbooks on the «übject Practical y
no one had any more schooling than experience in
this method of construction.
Mr. Andrew .1. Post, the secretary and chief en
gineer of the great corporation mentioned b.-low . in
formed the writer that the first structure here, ■with
an iron frame, of which he has any personal knowl
edge, was a factory building, erected by Messrs.
Campbell & Thayer in 1877. He laid some emphasis
on "iron." explaining that ••steel— for building con
struction—did not actually cons into use until trie
early nineties," that "before that date iron was
Itself an expensive luxury," and that, therefore.
•'there were not many large projects In which it
was used." but that, "as the years went on. ana
large aggregations of capital came Into existence,
and land values appreciated. Iron and steel came
to be used, gradually, more and more, in building
construction, until the largo buildings of to-day.
EX. 2. BRIDGE IN ILLINOIS.
(Corrosion from locomotive fumes.)
housing in many cases as many people as would
comprise a good sized town, resulted. ' hta
"Before the skeleton frame was used the heights
of buildings were limited to from eight to ten
stories by the thickness of the walls, which noui.l
have used up too much valuable rent ing space if
the lower stories of buildings had been built upoa
to any great extent," said he.
"Through the development of the skeleton frame
construction, in which the walls merely form a
shell, carried by the steel work height can: 3 to be
limited only by elevator facilities; and now since
the elevator has reached Us present stage of per
fection, there 13 almost no limit to the height to
which buildings can be built. Of course, the limit
is measured by the cost, which increases greatly
*>£. Post h doesnot believe that there will be many
buildings carried hlgher-lf as high-than the Metro
politan tower, which, when completed, win be the
highest building in the world, for the reason that in
increasing the height of a building that height la
not really added on above, but is placed under
neath; consequently, every tier of colamns which
goes into the structure to make it higher has to
carry all the dead weight above; and as, on lush
buildings, these loads assume enormous propor
tions and every tier of columns Introduced in the
lower stories means much added expens there
will come a point where the latter will be to great
that the return on capital Invested will not b*
commensurate. And even if a nMn-has.nnUmtted
capital to work with. he will probably limit he^tit
to a point at which he can tigure out a fair return
on his investment. .
Mr Post indicates fire, wind and corrosion, and,
of course, in wine location:--, enrth-ruak.- "a" a tn *
chief foes of the steel structure. He holds that,
while steel Is not proof against fire— as it Is wen
known that it will fall, und-r light stresses n
heated to a high temperatnre— thoroughly protectetl
by some substance which Is a non-conductor ■©*
heat and that will not drop off under application
of the latter, and of streams of mil from tin*
EX 3 POWEft HOUSE WITH STRUCTURAL STEEL EXPOSED, SHOWING PRESER
hose, it will survive. Wind stresses), he explains,
can be readily taken care of by properly designing
Corrosion, however, he wfms to regard as the
most serious question, particularly around a.ml
about the footings of: columns, and in the outside
walls. Ho gives the expert opinion that the pro
tection used, against both tire and corrosion. in
the Metropolitan lower is ideal. Here the steel
work is entirely encased in a Portland cement
covering, and In the outside walls the latter is
applied before the masonry is built around the col
umns. He says that there is very littje data at
hand as to the effect of electrolysis on steel work
of buildings, but that in these day?, when • '•• ■ -
tricity is so much used, both in buildings and in the
streets, some methods should be adopted to carry
off its currents from steel structures; and he adds
that, to his person il knowledge, it has teen done
and Is being done In a large number of recent
As to the stability of steel construction. Mr. Post
holds that there can be no question If it Is prop
erly designed and protected. He thinks thai after
the destruction of exterior walls by Ore the stffl
construction would not he of much service, but
that It would be very difficult to destroy a good
brick or concrete wall, and he points to the recent
Parker Building lire, where the steel work was
very little Injured, except where the so-called "fire
proof protection" dropped off. Even here, he says,
Sb to 'A' per cent of the steel work and iron wort
are in sufficiently good condition to warrant their
being used again.
He believes the steel skeleton building to be a
"great barrier to conflagration, provided window
openings are so protected that flames cannot pene
trate, to feed upon contents of the building, and
then spread themselves ••> adjoining structures."
As to the proportion f.. cost of the ste**l struct
ure be-xrs to the total cost of th« building, he ex
plains that this would vary possibly from about *>
to 75 per cent m a on« story ■ tory, for example,
to 10 or 1.". per c^nt in some of th* room »-!at>o
rately finished and decorated buildings. Of course,
th» cost of the steel work will be the same In :\
building with a plain brick front as It will be hi
one with an elaborately carved marble fa«;adi> ami
having handsome interior decorations.
Tin' STEEL; FRAME'S HISTORY.
The rapidity with which <i building can be
greeted Is always a matter of great Importance.
and Mr. Post holds: that the skeleton steel frnm»»
building In the on« of nil others that can be most
qulcklv put up. He says: "We recently ««rt*cte,l a
twenty Still building In two months, and th* in
oloujnff masonry was not tnnr* than two or t)hr»»
w«aln behind us. ThU »p^*<l would »>*■ impossible
Ith any oth»r sy«tem than th» oik of wutcti 1
There is no Intention of presenting at length here
a history of th*» evolution of Iks steel str ss|
that, however, Is fairly well told, pictoriatly. by th«
dtaarmma on this ses>e, whlrh were coplffi from aa
h.vttatlon to a "beefsteak party" given to Mr. Wni.
11. McCord by that great steel construction corpora
tion. Post St. MeCerd (Inc.*. to which New Torlclsi
Indebted for so many of Its lofty structures. TM.i
invitation also graphically tell.-* tii<» story of th<»
evolution of this big company, for it giv<»s a plctur*
of the little one-story shed in West ICth street ii»
which It had Its beginning, and of ear-i: auccesstv*
housing of its plant up tn and Including th« com
modious "shop" whlc.n it built in 150-4 at •lr**;R
polnt. Brooklyn, and, which lias since been, greatly
Post & McCord are said to have handled mor-»
ste< l work for buildings in and around New Yor"«
within the last few years than any ocher ono con
cern, and they have I ad at tlm«»9 on their
outside work between 588 and <V<i xkilifd men.
while they usually have from *> to Vi engineers,
draughtsmen and estimators emoloyed.
That the skill. experiT.ee and facilitl'-s of this]
concern and the r.uailty of tii^ men and material
it employs are of the b»»st i* c tide need br fn%
number and Importance of the construction* In
trusted to it. For example, it »rert«l in ISB3 th*
steel work of the tower and the amphitheatre «•
Madison Square <;*••! n Ii 1860 it our up th<» GO
lender Building, at the corner of Wall and NasM't
utreets. which was then quite an arduous and dtS
cult task- for this Is very narrow for Ha height—
and was probably one of the first structures ft
America In which win-! bracing was really seriouslr
considered. To come down to a ranr» recent
period the Emt*r» Bnildlnsr. at No .1 »«way:
the City Investing Buildins at Broadway *r.<\
Cortlnndt street: the tower for thf Metropolitan
I !f»» Butldin?* in Madison avor.uo ar.i 21th street;
th* new Altmnn BatVUn*. ■« jnitll avnnno an.l Ml!
street: the Marbridjce Buildinjr. at Sixtti aven:x*
and; 34th street: the Gerraan-Amerfcan to"*jiM
rompanv'H - ' i
utreet- tl • ' '" ; fcnnll i & Silversmith!" CoTnoany'*
hi»lM nir. In Maiden I^ne; •< th< * SMS
University buiidin**, and all of the n*n IWMWg
of th» Collere of the City of New Tori ar» takeri
at random from th* list of notably exemplar* of
their work which dot greater New \ork to whirh.
it may be added, their activities are larsely r*«
STEEL'S INVULNERABLE ARMOR.
it will have been noted in the fnreroinsr that
Iff Post describes as an ideal protection a?aiass
both fire and corrosion the Portland cement eov.
ering in which tha steel work of the UetroßoStn
tower Ii Inclosed. This covering i* the bvrentSoa
of Maximilian Toch. and is manufactured by Q«j
great flrra of T* . Brothers— established some sixt/
jean ago— of which ho 13 a member, at it 3 lA *3
Island City Works.
Mr. '['.■■ is a chemist of not", and mac!) la
demand all over the country for the making o?
te^td upon steel structures of various descriptions,
with a view of determining their integrity m tv
particular, has this to say upon the- s.ioject of cor
rosion and upon his preventive and rm« for tai»,
the dangerous enemy of ail ?t«»el ronstnif-rion:
■• -..rr. si« •: may be divided into three classes that
which results Iroaa electrolysis. Produced by th*
attai-ks <«f the vagrant currents of electrlCTCy. tn»
mysterious tlui.l which enters so largely to-day fitto
every department of l:?ht and power, m.t only ia
the cities but in the factory towns, and on tn<»
transportation lines of this country; from tha sul
phur gases proceeding trom the «raos° of locoir..*
tives and from the chetnici*! corrosion due to rr.01.-t
ure and carbonic acid gas held tn suspension ia
the atmosphere of every city."
Mr Toch furnished the interesting- piet«rial ex
hibits shown on this page. twr. of jrbfeb so srru
lntrly demonstrate the extent to which great s^eel
Example 1 Is a reproduction from tha photo
graph of a bridge in Massachusetts which wm
seriously impaired by electrolysis By a ttac hln*
a wire to the remains of the s!de rail of tn.*
bridge evidence of i m sad one-half volt* c. e:ec
tricity was obtained.
■\' : ■ serious injury inflicted by corros:on upon *
great bridge in the State of Illinois is ?ho»r.!a
example N.. Z. Here corrosion results from this*
smoke and fumea of locomotives. , __♦_«
Kxample No. I shows the result of an »xam:M
tion of steel protected by -Tockolith." The founda
tion beams of steel which support an Unmens*
power house in Lona: Island were coated with . a.a
Insulating and cement paint tTockoliin> and then
tf-ese beams were tishtly packed in concrete. Fon.
v'eaVs afterward several engineers expressed a de
sire to learn whether any corrosion had poss.Sl?
taken place in the foundation beams of tft*s powe*
house and to that end quite a larse s*etlon-a3
showii In illustration No. 3-of the steel wa* en
covered. It was found that the steel I-beams wer*
In a perfect state of preservation, and that
electrolytic action had produced any damage wlia.
evcr provhic; ronclupivcly th.it. where steel *«
properly coated before i' is bedded in concrete, it
is permanently protected against that Instttous fo«.
Cement has been kno-srn a? a protection asra-as
corrosir.n for many hundreds •< y«ar»: but no rea.
cement imint has ever he--n n »de until th«» rr.atenal
. -.,; 1 ""ookolith was patented in "-> * T*nis is a
paint which contains .v> p»r cent of * £h»rj!cal
compound equal in comrosifion to pure Port.ar.d
cement, nnd when applied to «teel m th* form
of :i paint protects the steel against chemical cor
r< Thi«' paint i<» b^'nsr n!v><l on th^ new PBansyf-
T»n»a Terminal ai -• I street. N>w To-k Cltr. wh«r*
C.-f»o tons of steel rr t r« belns" prot^^d "^'';^ t . rfl r
rerion. It wis nse.i *n th« e-r'r» PMb*&M«
«i hwa'v: mi the ent'r* Boston !"ihTrr>v: or. ' "" r
CanarJ>fe wtmn of th*> Broofclyn •pT»-nf».i Fj. *
way nn.l tn dozens of other lnrsr» or»>ratior.3. TH»
result i» remarkable from this stand; that •
cen. Nt paint can be applied over a rusty 1 ..-.^-."*'
provided tho loose scale be removed: but tfro in
cipient rust need not. m can it be except by bsjsjbsi
of ■ sand blast.
Four stacks of the Pennsylvania ■p (y * ( 'T' n |ll!W a *
Long Island City, which were unwisely pain:rl
with an oil paint in '■'•"♦. started t«> corrode .*»
badly that something ha<l to be done. Th* »W
paint was serapetl off. as much M possible, ann *
coat of TockoilO. was applied directly over t.i*
rust in August ar:<l September. U*Jt>. and a pr"
tective coating: pl-ced «>v«r this. X'P to now. tr^er*
i- not the slightest sisn of progressive corros:or^
■which would have been the case hud any «»• air
been allowed to remain.
Took. is beir^r used r,?on the ero;it Metro
politan towpr, which has been so frequently de
scribed that Tribune renders are probably quii
familiar with it: "> by SC f*et. it is fa be OaiattjM
In white marMe, and to \e fifty stories, or *'»»
feet, in sight, and it i.<» saiit that t'.ie- nrrnost re
source"! of th*» engtneet have been exhausted bpwb
Its construction. Th<> reader ran Judjre fir nim
self as •.. what .i '• ■ i it would be to the "orM I
this great "»truoture's life were t<> prove as short
.is It Is estimated by eminent ■Btnorttl'S the !!.*
of all steel .>«mioTnres. nnjrotectnl ai.-iinsr corro
sion, must be. p-r..l upon this, tr.rv eaa form n
estimate of thi» value t>f Mr. toch's discovery.
THE SKYSCRAPER'S EXTERIOR WALLS
it will have been not«-a that Mr. Andrew J. Vo*t
does not believe structural steel would be of muck
future service If the outer walls of th* sky^crap*"
were destroyed, but thinks it very difficult to de- 2
■troy v good brft-l; or concrete wall.
Mr. Joseph Sos*. whil^ h«« .■■'-■* am to the in
vulnerability of the-«? wa!>. thinks the days of
the bld-fashionaO brickbywr are over. He nit *
it an anuchror.ism toat a man should stand -W
out cf doors and erect, piece by piece, a waH
Which; at best, does not meet all modern require
ments. He points out th^t a. heavy stream from
.i powerful lire «-r.sin«? would first loosen the mor
tar, and then bring the wall down: a!--o. tliat in
case of in« stnainic of <•< ■ part of the foundation*
the v.;ili.s wouM be renden-vi unsafe or. it« iv tn«
ease i>f earthijuake. shaken down. ll<- sees. •■"'■
lit» reason for the continued existence of tM
plasterer, for. In | :.•!■■ biiu. •"the mterto* surfaco
of the walls and th*> soffits t>f the fli>or arc'ies «"J^
>«ith b*> given tbe requisite smoothness and rln?*! 1 .
In short, he bHievf* that the tiny* is near ar. han't
when th* ■» hr»l*» building w il! b«> constructed ra ' *
shove, and afterward Bjsstunbtrd
An.l yet. h<» Is ;» br.. kU>fr '•• ">i!» <nrt In
th- business twentr-fotn yesrs; h<* • » with Scr
cross twenty years afio, and subsequent!y *.U»