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REMOVING DECAYED MATTER.
THE TREE SURGEON.
tic l r scs Cement to Offset Ravages
By Clifford H. Easton.
I am frequently asked the question: "What i 3
tree surgory?" In so fnr as it applies to the
tement work alone a good answer would be that
k is the practical application of dentistry to
bees. But this answer would not cover the
Jnany other branches of the profession, consist
kig of trimming, chaining, packing, scraping,
graying and fertilizing. Tree surgery is. in
feet, an advanced development of arboriculture.
Both fruit and shade trees are valued now as
hever before, and the fact has become generally
Known that by skilful methods of the tree sur
geon it is possible to givn a now lease of life
Jo trees which apparently had reached their
limit of existence. I believe it is safe to say
thai almost any tree of medium age may be
saved by these methods.
Of the many branches embraced In this work
"lio cement filling forms by far the largest and
yo.'-t important part. The practice of filling
•avities with cement has long been in use, but
When carried out along the usual lines it only
served to add to the original trouble. The
n;i thod of staling up the decayed section simply
iiK reased the decay. Many examples may be
a en where the bark at the side of the cavity
was covered by the cement, no regard having
bei n paid t.> drainage or the subsequent healing
of the wound. As the cement did not stick to
t!i<' wood and the swaying of the tree by the
wind often enlarged the crack between the wood
and the filling, water penetrated behind ihe ee
m< i:i. and il' cay went on even more rapidly than
b ; re
The tree grows in girth by the deposit of a
thin layer of new wood between the wood and
bark. Th« re are three layers in this coat— the
middle one being composed of thin forming tis
fcuts known as the "cambium." The inner side
of this layer forms new wood, the outer new
bark. It is this new layer and the layers of the
four or five previous years which are known as
the sapwood, and form the active section of
NEW-YOrtK DAILY TRIBUNE, SUNDAY, JULY 5. 1008.
THE TREE DOCTOR AT WORK ON HIS SICK PATIENTS.
EVERY PARTiCLE OF DECAY RE
PACKING A CRACKED CROTCH.
the trunk and branches. The cells of these inner
rings are gradually covered by the yearly de
posit of new growth, and from living sapwood
become heartwood. which is dead, and serves
merely as a strong framework for the living
parts of the tree and as storehouses for excess
This is the reason why hollow trees may often
be found in a flourishing condition when the
heartwood may have entirely disappeared.
However, a landscape tree in this condition, de
prived of the shelter of its fellows, is in grave
danger, for a high wind or a heavy snowfall
may find it an easy victim.
NEW HOME OF PERCY ROCKE FELLER AT GREENWICH. CONN.
The house is of concrete construction, stuccoed with white cement.
A CAVITY REINFORCED WITH NAILS. A CAVITY REINFORCED WITH RODS.
A CAVITY FILLED WITH CEMENT.
Cement moulded to natural shape of tres
and painted color of tree.
After the mass of decay has ben removed
from the interior of a rottins trunk there re
mains a shell of living sapwood and hark. Into
this cavity a steel brace is inserted and bolted
in place. This gives to the tree a stability
which by the decay of the supporting heart
wood it had lost. Now comes an bnportaal op
eration, the cutting of the watersheds, which
prevent the entrance of moisture. The water
sheds consist of a deep groove cut about an inch
Inside the edge and opening oat to the ground
below. The cement, being packed tightly into
these grooves, forms a channel down which the
Continued on eighth page.
VILLAGE OF CONCBETI
A Fireproof Tmzn — 'Modern £V ;
trical Cooking Apparatus.
A member of the Authors' Club had cn!y %
cently moved from New York. City to ara J .";
urban village. He had decided that a change
scene, especially a change to a .;■ where tt,
sun shone across the "closely cropped law..
when the wind was not "sobbing among tv|§
pines" and the rain "beating- against the wiasfci
panes"— would freshen his inspiration. Havi^
written three "best sellers" in two years, helm
aspirations. He wished to write the "fear^y-
American noveL" He had argued that the wen
which should sum up America it.-, te a stcrr
Illustrative of great enterprise character- 1.
istlc of America." In order to obtain the prop?
atmosphere it must be written among the rig:"-'
surroundings. While looking about for this it
mosphere he had discovered a fireproof and as*
quito proof village in New Jersey.
This village, embowered by pretty trees, tot
truly what was claimed for it— the twenties
century village. It was fireproof, as all the at
vertisements had said, every house being of cos- ■
crete construction. No suburbanite riding bd%
town should be able to read hi his morris*:
paper, beneath staring hearlines, how the vfflajj
of »a- destroyed by fire the r »ht prertaa
just after the village elders. In convention as- » .
sembled, had voted to buy a supply of fire a
tinguishers and a chemical engine. The villa*
would never furnish an item of this character
for the papers.
There were other reasons why the villa*
would not be likely to be destroyed by ■"■■■ Not
only were all the houses, from the large man*
house of the great financier to the tiny cottag!
of his clerk at the other end of th*> street, do*
by the railroad station, built of concrete, bo
not In one of them, even in midwinter, could on
find a fire. N»t one of them had chimneys, fcr ;
there was no need for them. T- .■ sure, tin
mansion of the railroad president had struct
ures protruding from the roof which bore a!
the semblance of being mighty smoke toss, >
but, in fart, these were simply imitation chim
neys, placed on the house for the same reasra
that representations of gargoyles are sometimes
placed on churches and houses.
The entire community was heated in the win
ter by steam generated at a central plant and
conducted to the houses by underground pipet
As for cooking and lighting it was only a mat
ter of closing an electric switch. The kitches
contained no stove. All food was cooked on elec
trical appliances resting on oaken si'lebo«rii
For this reason it was easy to obtain coote.
Other servants, such a3 waitresses, were hanTy
needed, for one could make one's coffee aaid
toast for breakfast while seated at the tiUt
simply by turning buttons. One of the attrac
tions of the place to the author was the fee:
that concrete ferryboats were used in trans
ferring- the passengers across the river to ti«
station of the road which sen. I the village
"No Slocum disaster here." he had said to to
wife when they crossed the first time to vis:
the place. What if It is foggy sometimes a=i
there are collisions; these boats have nothing a
fear from collisions. I have a feeling that «
are going to find the right atmosphere for oc
Continued on eighth pace.
ORIENTAL RUGS & CARPETS
Washed, Cleaned, Repaired and Stored
MICHAEUAN BROS. & CO
TeL 5073 UaJ^n. »7 HHil AY»