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IE. i T8 OF . i MEMCA N
They Solved Railroad BuUdipg Prob
lems That Fir.'.d Engineers hy
Tunnelling the Cordillera*.
B» I.mii R. Fr«-nian
The names of several American* ?«.re writt-n bl~
In honorable achievement in the rocords of sou?
American progress, and on the wert ccart those • f
Wll«*r right, who installed the first telegraph linr.
In Chili, and Meigs:.*. who built the spectacular
Oroya Railrcad i:i Peru. Ktar.d out in-bolder relief
than any others. Of even greater value to tliat
continent, though as yet uncompleted, may prcve
the work cf Jol Hall and his companion?. ex-
Colorado miners, in driving a two mil" l<>nc tunnel
through tho backbone of the Cordilleras at a height
cf *en thousand feel above sea level, ar.d thu.r
■bringing: together the rails of t'.ie Hrrt railroad in
■oath America to join the Atlantic- and the Pacific.
Long before a railroad over the mountains was
considered feasible seven hundred miles of direct
line had V*n built across the Argentine pampas
to the rich and populous wine-crowing province of
Slender*, situated at the foot of the Andes on the
line of the old approach to Uspallata Pass. <mi tii<;
Chilian fide the extension pt the goverr.meiit ro:td
up the rertile valley of th^ Rio Aconcagua to th*s
town of I»s Andes pc-netr.ited for some distance
tht outer rnnpe<= of the mountains and approached
even nearer than the Argentine road ih» summit
of dH divide..
Ten years ago the rail? of *he Transandlne Rail
way bad thrcad'-d the sevenly miles of the rock
v-alled canyon of the Mendoza River, on Use Argen
tine side, to be brought to a halt at Las Cnevas
by five thousand feet of sheer mountainside which.
Impossible to surmount. n:u?t ne«-<ls bo tunnelled.
Tunnell?ng was at this point about eisr-t
years ego. a?id has been carried on in v more or
less desultory fashion ever siTice. Four years later.
In 3«"J5. construction on the Chilian -section of the
Transar.dine was sufficiently advanced to iv/rniit
tunnel work to be s:arted from the Pacific side,
and. profiting by th<- miserable showing that had
been made by the Argentine wcrkrr.en. 11. C. \\ bile,
the able New Zealander in charge of the" engtaeer-J
Ing work, sent directly to t!i • United Sta:es for
practical drillmen to drive liis i<art of th<- tunnel.
Kipht men were procured through tiie New York
■aVc of the contractor?.' all hands who had '"■
come. ?.ceus:omed to working at high altitudes iv
htc- lofty mountain carnns of Colorado.
HAD NO ENGINEERING TRAINING.
None of the <-lgM Americans had had anything
In the way of engineering training, yet from two
©f them within six months of the time of their ar
rival emanated suggestions -which were responsible
for surmounting two of the most baffling difficulties
the builders were calU-d on to meet— the protection
of the exposed points on the higher portions of
the line from snow slides and the tunnelling of the
Balto del sjoMado.
The quos: to protect the 1
snow « the em
than ;. ■■ • -
... . ■ ■ . .
the trouble is partly the result of natural precipi
tatir.. and partly the result of slides from the
slopes of the tides of the 20.000-foot mountains
•which bean 5n th* pass. This snow is from ten to
sixty fp»t deep by springtime, and when an ac
cumulation of seven months begins to -lide in the
thaws of November and December, whole faces of
the- mountain often break ax-ay. The coach road
running up to lh« pas? is rebuilt each spring at
en averapt- expense of JGG.«X"J by the '"hilian
poverrmenl. I»uring the -!.::i>-r 1t is one of tiie
best mountain highways t.. t*? found in any part
of the world, but it is so completely ground down
and scoured out by the slides that Its reconstruc
tion Involves Iwth resurveying and regrading.
aaaaanaaeda f.:r heavier than ti • heaviest on the
roads of ti.«- t'nited States and <*anada had proved
cf aba I as much u.=e ns canvas wind s!:i-j.ls in
preventing the track from being carried oat down
the mountain and the jn"ade obliterated. One of
the newly arrived American drillmen stopped the
epßawec one day nnd asked him why he lid not
<sri\e t» through the solid rock at the Kposed
points where it had lx»eii dr-monFtrated that sheds
vould not be made to hold. The scheme was so
audacj - anu Its carrying out promised to be so
expensive, that it -was not seriously considered for
some tin;€. but after another season of slides had
cleaned o.T another lot of t-nowsheds it was adopt
ed af a last resort and proved entirely successful.
Tiie last thirteen miles leading urn to the divide on
the Chilian side is broken by fifteen tunnels, all
through the native granite, and some of them over
a . trter of a mite long.
ROBBED OF RSWABD BY DEATH.
The narrow canyen of rock through wbJc runs
the Salto del Soldado presented a most pro;ilesing
problem t.. the .... It setmed that the s'in
plest plan ■ nal I l>c- .-■■•;■ kind of a tunnel, but the
difficulty was that from above it as only practica
ble for the track to approach a tunn«=l ••■n the right
side of the rivtr. wink- beh w it would have to a;>
proath from the left. These conditions being abso
lute and unalterable, it had been almost decided to
give up the tunnel idea and surmount the obstacle
with a switchback, when me of the American drill
men suggested a aim] solution of the problem.
This plan, which was carried out without delay.
conti*t-<i of tunnelling on both si-Jes of the river
and connecting in the middle by a bridge The
bridge is fifty feet above the water and almost as
broad as it is long— the shortest railway bridge in
the worid. in fact.
Coming down from* above, the train first passes
through two short tunnels on the right siJ-e of the
Saitc. running from the end of tl • second one im
medTately upon the bridge, which. In turn, leads
quite as abruptly into the third tunnel, on the op
posite eide. The last tunnel can you out Into
the open aasaw below.
The two Americar.v whose ke. t> mteda had seen
the way through to light where the best engineer
lag talent available bad groped in darkness, and
who •were to have been rewa : ror their services
fey being made aaacrtetemh I of tunnel construc
tion on the Chilian and Argentine Fide when the
time came for rushing work o;j the great bore at
the Esmrnit. -were kffled. wttl several of their com
paaions, by the iiiiiianan explosion of a blast in
<»ne of the smaiitr tunnels about a j eai after their
So aattafaUuij had proved the 1 1111 1 111 with
American d'iilmen that, when the most f-th-
original eight were killed In the explosion alluded
to. no time was lost in sending for others from the
earoe section— Colorado— to take their places. A
dozen raea wore contracted for through New York,
and It is th<-?»- who are now pushii;? construction
on bcth sides of the divide at a rate never before
approached In South Amerlran tunne! work. The
youngest of the twelve v.-as a drillm.»n's helper of
twenty-two, cair.ei John Hall, a youth sj resourcv
ful and energetic- that be was placed lr. charge of
th<- tunnel gangs c; both ... he had been
at worl: r. month. iuul aa whom to-day ats the
responsibility for completing the longest tunnel ever
constructed at anywhere rear »r. an altitude.
Kail ■bowed mom> I ln« of the stuff lie i« mad*
o* witiun a day or i» of. his irrlvaL Tb* station
master at E3 I'ortiiio. the cjixnp at the < ad of tiie
railroad near tii<_- Chilian ti:outii of the tunnel, was
a Spaniard of most itmlal disposition, entirely
devoted to the interests of the railroad, but hantli
c?ipj--«-d by ?! tendency to absentmindedness. Tiiat
this •wat- a serious failing in a man who. with his
oJ>«r duties, combined that of train 'l.^^uicher,
vas mad? plain just afttr the Americans came,
tvhen Seticr Blanco started «>ff the "down" frei^nt
with the "ap" parsenger only two miles from Xl
Portillo. Scarcely was the freight under way be
fore he discovered his mistake- and went tearing
off Sn pursuk of the swiftly Bovine train. Several
or the Amfalcnns. v.:iV. worp just going on shift,
Joined with liizn in th< holies.* chase, but youns
Ila'J. recalling ihc- zigzags by which bis train had
■ mounttd to l'ortillo, mini!; picked up a pic-ce of
broad planU. stpp;,,.! over to the frozen slide at
tht: edge cf tiie 'grade, and dropj»ed out of sight.
Half a rr.iau'^ later, with his hands bleeding and
fall of Ivtw, but otherwise unhurt, ■• had
' aavESed the tiuw-crawnng passenger tr.'.in and Btisi
had thne left to run hack around the next curve
and Kt< ■ Jte freight.
The exploit which won ycun? Hail his promotion
to the aprrlatlj created position of enerß - super
intendent of tur.nrl construnion and gave full
■cope to tho exe:cise of hl« retfSy resourcefulness
and indomitable -pluck aras to releasing, in the
fuce of heavy odds, several oi his companions and
a number of Chilian "muckers" and car .pushers
who were caught In a cave-In of the main tunnel.
Hall was the foreman of th. -duty shift, and
when v.orJ came to him of the disaster he at once
mustered his own shift and went to the rescue.
A !a~e -ectior. of the tunnel roof had fallen in
betwwn the entrance and the "breast." leaving
the entombed men with several hoars' supply or
air. but apparently hopelessly cut off. Several
blasts of fUant powder were set off with good ef
fect, but while a considerable wall of rock rtil
remained to be moved word was brought to H;i!
that on account of washouts in the Aconcasua
Valley, the regular eekly shipment ol dynamite
hrjd r.ot arrived and no other explosives were to
Undismayed, the youthful foreman beg a
search for a substitute, to find among the Las
Cuevas freight which was held up a' Xl Portillo
several tanks of liquid carbon dioxide ga<= for
charging ,1a water. The chief engineer expressed
bis doubts as to the practicability of exploding the
gas effectively, but while he and his assistants losl
time in conjecture Hall laid a bed of charcoal in
a lio!e In tho debris, forced a tank of gas on top
of it. ar.d then iet fire to the charcoal and covered
all deeply with rc<-k. Within twenty minutes the
rjowii charcoal had expanded the fas to a point
where the tank couSd not longer withstand the
pressure, and it exploded i>itl-. terriflc force. TJ.e
barrier was clean and though all of th • victims,
as «ell as several of the rescue party, were ren
dered . unconscious by the released carbon-dioxide.
FLEET IN WESSEX
Portland Roads and a Fighting
\\> -. month, Ifaach - : '
ont] ■ • at anchor in Portland
Roadj I s ' ectacle from tho
rock] ' -' Island. Within the
. rdle "f breakwater constructs
In .. . the safest, - south coast.
With nearly two»mil< '."'■ ;!!1
:■ barely completed in a,
- there is anchoragi
for all th. British b i I veea the
open roadstead of Weymouth
Bay. Th< X' :^f ■ though
steam launches and small boats are swarming
ruisers) yet the
arith its Ms guns, completes the picture of
th-- seagirt Island, bristling with batteries and
fortifications Lord Charles Beresford's I
iv.s. on the King Edward vn. but within
1 hours it Is to come dpwn In Ports
■ Harbor, and the fleet which be has com
manded is- to be converted into a division of the
guard In th< > I - There
: ■ • ji an exchan) tat ntary dinm rs
■ :.- hlef and his cap
tains, the flagship will soon be steaming through
t hi l:nt-s for the final salute, and "Charß* B
as he is affectionately known among the sailors,
will g< b pet bulldog. It is the
ranee "f a famous Beet u:;<;>-r its most
popular admiral, and all Weynaouth baa
g .-n from the crest of theisland and fr"::i
the Kothe, isrith its gardens, fortresses .-'iid Jet
If 1 wore writing a letter solely on a naval
theme I would have to r*-fer to Nelson's Hardy,
the maritime hero of Dorset. As one stands on
the rocky ridge overlooking the H«et and Port
land Roads he has only to turn his «-y« % s from
northeast to northwest in >ird.-r Jo follow the
curving lint- of the chesil bank, a natural break
waler, t>-ti timos as long as the convicts' stone
buffer, until it ends not far from Portisham. a
secluded village with an embattled church
tower. That was where Nelson's Hardy was
born, and back on the hills, at Blackdown, there
is a monument, high above sea level, in mem
ory of the second in command of the Victory at
Trafalgar. The pillar visible from the *<-;i is a
reminder that a great navy cannot be turned out
by improved mechanism, nor by accelerated
construction, nor by loans to gun makers and
armor forgers, but only by inherited instincts
and traditions, which train a Hardy, a Kelson
or a Beresford for command as a man of ac
lion, and the gunners and sailors for th. ir work
iik>- the men of the Victory. One may look at
SOME POINTS ABOUT BUILDING A BUNGALOW
Durability and Appearance
Depend Much Upon
Paint is a small Iten in the cost of a bunpaiow,
yet appearance and durability depend upon it. and
a detailed consideration of the subject will repay
the owner. T.,.- Hrsi thing to be settled would
t-eem to be a color scheme, l.ut a persoi might de
cide on an attractive combination and Vhen dis
cover thai one or more of the colors were not ot
the lasting kind. Therefore it is necessary to
know first the eligibl? colors. 'I"■I "■ ■ most during
paint Is made of white lead or white lead and zinc,
combined with raw Unseed oil. and this is the only
article defined as pure paint in the laws of some
states. 11 is evident that any .ither color than
whits- must be produced by the addition of foreign
matter to the fundamental base of "pure paint,"
and in fact that the dark colors cannot contain
any load or z:nc at all. Where there is an ab
sence of lead and zinc good results cannot bn ex
pected. Bewar* of the dark colors, and some of
the light onc-s. too! Outside of (he standard base,
iron oxi<i*-!- will last the longest. These are pres
eni In I'ompelian red, but not in vermilion ana
cherry. The _'re>n.s :! nd blues are likely to fade
away, It must be noted that the nomenclature^ of
color In commercial use is variable and what is
called vermilion by on< linn Is something else In
another catalogue. Likewise the color samples
may be faded or give an undu • brilliancy of effect.
Having learned what colors to avoid, the owner
may devise his imbinathni cr select one t.-r tiie
colored pictures of ttages furnished by paint
acturers. TLe styles of the latter are likely
to be rather garish. A bungalow especially needs
to avoid the cffeii cf irban self-assertion. 11
can bear bright hues in tasteful combination, but
a plaiir.g mixture of colors amid the forest or be
side the ocean is an aCroni to nature. There
should be endeavor to lia.rmonlze.With ihe local
surroundings and t<> suggest the right .f the
bungalow to stand where it da-.5.. If there are
other bouses near, their color scheme must Ik?
t.ik> r. into acccunt, so as not to produce too much
contrast or sameness. A harmony between the
c-xterlcr and interior of the bungalow should not
be overlooked. For Interior suggestions and gen
eral information on the treatment 01 cow k a lately
published little book. "Color Values." mUrht be
consulted. TSii.s contains precise, tables ihowlns
the relationships of colors.
Whether i: is best to buy rea mixed paint or
the raw materials has been much debated. It Is
said, on the one hand, that the mechanical mixing
i^l the factory is bound to produce better- results
and that the ready made palm will cover consid
erably more s-jifac, than the other kind. Time is
saved and the danger of unskilful manipulation
avoided. On the other hand. it is argued -that no
one knows the constituents of ready made paint,
and when you buy the raw materials you are cer
tain of a good jo!.. To this it is replied that the
conscienceless rainter is as likely to adulterate as
the -.ir.M-ttin-r and that high class houses will
certainly Supply ■ pure mixture. The statement of
constituents msitf by relL-ible firms may be de
pended on. * -io."
The owner should have no doubt ••„ one p-Vjit
at least— that the cheapest paint is most expensive.
NEW-YORK DAILY TRIBUNE. SUNDAY, APRIL 4. 1909
the fleet, however, on a sunny day as so many
I "painted ships on a painted ocean," with Wey
mouth and the chalk dovras behind them. The
mechanism of sea power after generations oi
Invention and evolution ir.ay come to have in an
era of peace a pictorial value despite British
nerves and political agitation. It fills the Roads
with floating rr.a^azim-.s and batteries as mod
ern as the ruined caetle of Henry VIII on the
edge of the harbor Is obsolete yet the ships are
metallic glints of color in the picture, like the
abandoned fortress, or the defencesVand bar
racks in the Verne, five hundred feet above the
sea, or the crumbUng ramparts of BoY and
Arrow Castle, midwa; in the island, or the
ragged edges of the quarries near Portland
Yet there Is nothing in this rock-hewn pen
insula, with its fleet, fortresses. Quarries, em
battled cliffs, villages Bwarming with workmen
and the massive causeway of Portland Bill, so
picturesque as the curving sweep of pebbles
stretching for sixteen miles along the mainland.
The stones are said to differ in size and color.
JOHN HALL (AT LEFT) AND AMERICAN CO-WORKERS.
They arc pushing a tunnel throuyh the Andes, ten thousand feet above the sea.
but from- the heights <>f Fortunes W<-11 the
natural causeway is resplendent in glistening
white, wjth a seaward frins- >.f surf outside and
a continuous linp of backwater lagoons within
the bar. Nature operating f->r countless ages
on a great scale has accomplished results which
engineers and conjvlcta <>n the other ?i<K- of th»-
Island have riot succeeded In rivalling, although
they have submerged «>r uplifted tt-ns <<f millions
of tons of stone In the c^rfstruction of ;•- won
derful breakwater. Th< chceil beach was
fi'rtri«-.i thousan <>f years b--:"i«re tl>>- Roman
galleys found refui behind it. The water
worn wreckage <>f the Dorset amf Devon coast
carried eastward l>y tides and srak-s was stopped
by th- invincible barrier of Portland i:ill. and
levelled and i-.'iingl^d by the breakers. Mr.
Thomas Hardy has given a graphic rlptlon
of it in "Th.- Well Beloved." nrid ..f the en
vironmeM of "The Is!.- of Sllngera" in tlr*-
Pennsylvania Castle quarter, but one needs t<»
stand on the lofty stone terraces and to follow
the shining strai as far ns the eyes can carry
the ceding white lin<-. streaked "ii either side
The difference In price between the best anil th^
cheapesi paint In «in amount sufflclent to cover ■
small bungalow Us only a couple of dollars ir so.
T'--- Inferior tui ■ ess in a few months.
while the •>•!.■ r lasts foi a foui year period ;.! the
leas) to be m Inferior
grades In the city, where flaY must be r>
•'• f ■ ■ • ••' Inti als on ac ouni of ever shifting
t • • : : .- 1 1 . t ?- and resorts !;k>- Coney Island use up vast
titles of '•:■ .:. paint, whicli is Ni,.-.->,.d to
last onlj 01 thing must look abso
lutely efresb, jt.-I endurance la no object: but a
man who owns ild have it painted
only witn t : <- best materia C untry dwellers, in
fact, prenerallj understand the point, and call for
th' besl .
White lead used alone tends to chalk niT after six
months or a year: it rubs away • n the anger In a
powdered form. An addition of zinc Imparts hard
ness and also a whiter color. The Rovernmenl
specifications for paint used on buildings at the
seashore call for one-half lead and one-half zinc.
This meets the trying conditions of ."nit air. It Is.
perhaps, as veil to use enp-quarfer zinc to three
quarters lead. When too much zinc is employed
there Is a tendem to flake. Pure raw linseed oil.
a little turpentine and japan dryer are combined
with the ground base. The same tint may be
used for lnslue work with more turpentine added,
since unseed ol! show* a yellow tint. Out ofdoors
the sun Weaeb.es. the yellowness out of llnsead oil.
About three gallons of good paint— enough to cover
with two coats a bungalow S by 30 feet— may be
compounded from thirty-eight >unds of white lead.
twelve pounds of sine, two gallons of Unseed oil,
half a pint of Japan dryer and li^lf a pint of
turpentine. The cost. for s gallon ready mixed is
about JrGO. When the raw materials are purchased,
linseed oil retails around tw cents a gallon, white
lead ai S cents a pound and zinc toward 10 cents
a pound. The small: Quantities of turpentine and
dryer make them inexpensive.
with blue, before he can appreciate a stupend
ous natural phenomenon.
One thinks of the later Hardy, not only as
the chesil beach gleams in the sunlight, but also
as the downs loom up beyond Portland Roads
v.-ith its fleet, and Weymouth with its hotels and
bordering upon the esplanade. Those
[owns where the soldiers ware en
camp* d when th<:- peasantry were in momentary
dread of an invasion from France. The nov
mbo was horn a dozen miles to the north.
In boyhood the leg.-nds of the "Boney"
spectre and the rallying of the home guards, and
them the basis of action in The Trumpet
So deeply was he impressed with them
that after writing the romance of the mill, with
Mer und sailor lovers and the vacillating
.. he reserved the main theme for epical
treatment In "The Dynasts." The picturesque
mill may no longer be found among the thatched
rooffl of Button Point*, for the requirements of
lUth's water supply have involved its re
moval, but the White Hors.? Down, whore the
rilled ::nd the villagers were
thrown Into a panic by rumors of the landing of
VBoney's** men. la a Imark even from the
"Isle of Slingers." N..r has Britain wholly re
covered its nerves In the course of a century.
The 1 ovri rful fleet of battleships and cruisers in
the Roads, with reserves at Portsmouth, Devon
port* and the Nore, does not forestall ■ panic
When the Germans lay -i^ ■ Dreadnoughts
ahead "f time, and crowded audi'-nc«^s In Lon
don an- witnessing with sympathetic thrill the
siege "i" "An Englishman's I me" by northern
invailors. It is now a spectrv with a spiked
helmet, n<>t the j»u-tly LittU Corporal, with
f<<l<ie.i arms and Inscrutable eyes, that haunts
th>- bedrooms «>f British dyspeptics and give*
th«-m k prickly warp; and "old women «rf Mth.
sexes," as the Prime Minister happily describes
them, Bnd recreation In discrediting th«*
strongest navy in th<- world and in laughing at
the territorial home guards.
n he was < i"\ ernor, and
Hugo, who i ■■ : uk
A PORTO RICO BUNGALOW
It is estimated that a gallon of good paint Will
cover an square feet of gurfaoe, two coats, but the
klnii and condition of wood, as well aa the method
of application, will modify thla estimate. The im
portanoa of rlghi application cannot be overstated.
Some houseowners, realizing the unsatisfactory re
sults .if contract work, to which correctness is sac
rtflced to haste, engage their painters by the day
anfl willingly suffer the tendency to prolong the Job
for Ihe sake of having it well done. There Is a
story of an owner who praise l Ills men for slapping
the paint on fast Instead ol dawdling. He <!i>l not
know tliat the more they hustled the worse h«! was
being cheated, for it '- necessary thai paint should
be thoroughly spread and brushed into the, texture
of the wood. Patience and elbow grease are re
quired. However, b bungalow of the sise indicated
above should be carefully palntod with two coats
in'about two days' time. The country painter will
ask about |250 a day for his crrvices.
The condition of the. wood at** tiie state of t..e
weather must be considered before beginning t<>
paint Green, unseasoned lumber has caused many
unsatisfactory Jobs; the sap works out and causes
the paint to peel and 'crack. if the lumber us—i in
the tngalow la not well seasoned, painting .--iioiiid
be deferred for several weeks. An equal cause of
trouble is interior i. Tint;, which has not dried
out thoroughly— the moisture paw Into the wood.
The drying of ister may be hastened by keeping
a stove going f'>r a few days. In lieu of a stove a
couple of oil heaters and the use of the iinpn tire
place .■, in serve. Jaoreover, paint should not be
applied hi damp- or wei weather or during periods
of rente temperature. Oil has no affinity for
water. CoW weather will cause paint to shrivel,
while a. hot spell will make it form in drops after
being spread. A temperature around 7o degrees- ia
preferable/ After touching all knots and sappy
spots with shellac so as to prevvnt the sun from
drawing the pitch through the paint later, tlie
•ncod i» ready for a priming coat of paint. ! The
&ed theatre for scenes in "L'Hommequt Rit." It
overlooks the beach of Melcombe Reg'.s. where
fussy old George 111 used to take his dip in the
sea with u9 "Budmouth" in an ecstasy of loyal
affection and dutiful reverence; and if the chalk
silhouette of him on the white horse cannot be
identified from the Island, it can be found after
a breezy ramble among the breezy downs.
Kinss and princesses have landed at the Dorset
port on their way from France or Spain; exiled
royalty has been in hiding there. Deadman's
Bay has witnessed many a tragedy of the sea.
and the high church tower at Wyke Regis
marks the burial place of Wordsworth's gallant
brother, who was wrecked off Portland Bill
when in command of an Kast Indiaman. The
chesil beach can be followed to Bridport. the
scene of one of the Wessex tales, but there will
be more varied entertainment for a saunterer
at Abbottsbury, where there are a decoy and
swannery dating from the Middle Ages, with
swarms of wild water fowl and thousands of
cygnets and swan in season; and Lord Ilches
ter's castle !s on high ground, and near the vil
lage church, with a pulpit pierced by bullets, is
the buttressed .and turreted abbot's barn, with
a stately Gothic archway in the transept.
Yet numerous and attractive as are the diver
sions in this picturesque corner of Wessex. the
most inspiring memories are of the Siege of
Calais and the Spanish Armada. Weymouth has
always stood for sea power. As a popular
watering place it has welcomed the coming of
the Channel fleet as the best of the town shows
in summer or in winter. Its heroes are sea
dogs like "Charlie 8.." whose flagship is going
out to-day with full honors, and whose bulldog,
growling fiercely on one of the heaviest guns, is
the j>et of the town. Germans and Dreadnoughts
may be discusseri In Engiand with more partisan
passion than patriotic discretion, but in Wey
mouth and Portland tht-r* is th»_- oldtime faith
In a fighting admiral, and in the certainty that
one English ship is worth tw«> from Cbe Con
tinent. The two-nation standard is a poor sub
stitute for that hardy faith. I. .V F.
AN ANCIENT "TAG DAY." j
Xothlns: Is new. Even the tas: day." which has ;
sw/-pt thrcugh the land, gathering in Its hosts of '
contributions, bears many of the marks of the old :
"montein" of Kton fame. Thla time-honored cus- :
torn cf the great English public school died out or
was suppressed soire sixty odd years agi». yet the
modern "hol<i-up" has Its prototype in the ni-thou
of gettlrg money, practised by Ike "cuU«g«i»" and
"oppldtans" of Eton. Arthur Duke Coleridge gives
an account of monten in bfai "Eton in the Kortie*."
The origin of montem Is buried in oblivion. The
first- accounts of Its practice date back t'» ihe time
of Henry VJIL Its obJeH was to «ather contiibu- |
tions to aid the lucky ■'colleger" who l*d his class, |
an<] who was called "captain of niontem." The •
■ "collegers" of Eton are the students preparing ;
for Ki.-ir;' College on the foundation established "by
the royal eniiower of the. school.
On Whitsun Tll r a the boys af the school. '
dressed In pli nn aqun ¥ ostumes, formed a proces
sion to escort i he ii>r..-« of the day. Tne chief
hero was. of course, the moateai captain, wnoaa
election h;>.'! taken place twelve days before In th« ;
evening of "Montem Sure Night." To him all the •
fttnda collected tinough montem day were given. !
It «rats In th« gatherin»; of those funds 11. at we
can Bee the trace of resemblance to the m«>dern tag
day. Certain hoys were cboaco as collectora; two :
of these were called "salt bearers" and commanded
a fore* of twelve boys cill»U "runners." All w»r
dressed in gay. and often beautlfnl. cootunaea Eaen
boy carried a painted staff and a -«atm money bag. !
and v.ui> stationed on some point of the road with !
orders to dcmaiid of every piMßMrby a toll of
'In old^n tinrs a pinch of *-a!t was given as a
receipt for every tax t!;u« levied; in la:er years .i
ticket was given instead, nnd the money Itself w*s
. ailed "salt." Th^ cry • t the the tax gatherers was ,
Tlie two salt bearera had the more dignified duty
of collet-i ng. from the college authorltirs and Kuests.
Kach of the twelve runners was accompanied to
his post by a hir-<! attendant, Who was armed.
Such precision v.is n»cessar>, especially for the
boys stationed at any distance from the college, for I
1 ich a runner might b« In f.ost;»-sslr n of era: '
hundred pounda b«?fcr<» the day waa over.
An nv*rae*> day's collection u'mounteri'to one thou- '•
MUld pounds or more. This V.H9 all turned over to
the captain of montem. Out of this the favored one
bad to pay for a breakfast for the first one hundred
boys, and a dinner for the whole ara> If th»
captain did not happen rb he entirely popular. th»s.- j
menls were made ao expensive a.« possible by the !
boys through wilful breakage of dishes and rock- .
lessnera of w.->st<\ H«-s!<i«-s these exi>ens«\s. the }
captains had to pay thr salt bear*™ and runners
and rhelr a't'-ndants. Often It was anything but a
large portion ot the sum whldi anally found Its way
to thr- raptatn'a pocket.
Montem is tio forgotten pave by the oldest Eto- !
nian. The spirit o fth*> advanced* age called more |
and more loudly thar it Involved a great waste of i
time nnd money. One of the atrokes which kill^ |
the ruston waa the opening of a railway that
brought 1 protnteeubaa crowd of spectators— a gath
ering Impossible to control— Youth's Companion.
A GREAT DISTINCTION.
■•*'«•*," said Sfra I»ublev. of Jefferson City. "I
r<-<-kiui that feller llmf writ out the I>o»-!ara'. of
Independence deserved th* h<">nor."
"You nifan the honor of helnu assigned to write
No, sir' I mean the honor o' bean' named fur
our town. They called him 'Jefferson,' you know. '
—The. Catholic Standard ar.d Times.
primer is the rock on which much painting literally 1
splits. It is the under coat, not visible, and may ]
be composed o.' any material without affecting the -
looks of tho finished Job right away. Yet. in a
sense, the prim<»r is more important than the upper •
''oat; it Is the anchorage of the paint, and when It
falls fr> grip the wood the entire layer peels oft.
The practl of using ochres nml ith->r earthy
materials In priming Is long "staMishcd. but the
better and surer way Is to employ the same pur"
paint for the under coat that is used for the upper '
coat. By thinning with one-half linseed oil the
regvtar lead and zinc paint, a firs: class primer is
obtained. A gallon of paint thus thinned with oil
will cover about twice the surface that the former |
material will cover undiluted. The object of prtm
ing is to fill the porea of Urn wood and give a base
or anchorage for the surface layer.
Enough turpentine or benxlne may be contained
In the primer to counteract a glossy surface,
which militates against the adherence of the next
coat Hardwoods need a thicker priming coat
than absorbent, porous woods, like poplar and soft
pine. There is always more danger of putting on
too much than too little paint. A thin coat, well
brushed in, is the proper thing. Several days of
very ilry weather or a week of ordinary weather
should be allowed the primer In which to dry. but
it Is bad practice to delay tho second coat until
the lirMt has become weather worn. JThe more
slowly paint dries the longer its lasts. The only
reason that "driers" are -added to paint Is con
venience and becuuse a sticky aarface, exposed too
long, accumulates dust and Insects. The last coat
should be put on evenly and thinly. It Is not
wise to attempt correction of miscalculation In
the primer; a top coat which Is too thick will
not hold. While two coats are often deemed suf- j
flclent, three coats of pulnt will last longer. in
this case the second coat should not be as .heavily
compounded as if it were meant for the surface
layer. . :
. There is no reason why a bungalow owner witn
a little spare time and inclination to follow direc
tions carefully should not give himself rile pleas
ure of doing his own painting. He will need only
n Hot to Mand on. a short ladder ' from which to j
hang his paint pall at the convenient rung, an.l a I
suit of overalls to receive the surplus paint J
alopped from the pall and nicked from the brush. I
If he begins at the rear of the bungalow he will j
probably teach himself how to do pretty fair \
work by the time he gets to tne front. It is a>
good wrist exercise, better than the wrist ma- i
c me in the gymnasium.
Wood stains cost from $1 50 a gallon upward, 1
There are different kinds to suit different raratuCa
of wood, as oil stain for whltewood and alcohol .
or water stain for hardwood. It is not often that!
stains are used on exteriors except for shingles,
since paint is more protective and durable. Creo-
HOte shtngie stain costs GO cents to $1 a gallon
and may be had in green, brown, red and other
colors. ' -The green color is most exnensive. The j
phingles must be dipped individually in a tub of .
the mixture before belnjf u»ed rather than I
painted with the stain after they are In position J
on the root. The stain will dry in- half a day.
When shingles are painted in position It is manl
fest that only a portion of their surface receives
tho staiu. and there is usually formed, at the upper
part a ridge 'of paint which banks water and
causes decay.' Creosote stain pieserves as well'
as ornaments. A good red cedar shingle does not
need preservative so much as a softening" to the
eye of its newnes*. . _....;<
: . WORKED WfiOHG WAI
EFFECTED CURE THAT
Still It Had Its Compensations, r Ae»
cording to a Scj: Hampshire
No. I don't say there's nawthin' in this ah*«t
treatment like. My criticism is that there's liable
to b«vtoo much in it and that you -will let loos*
something yc-i wish you had let alone, if you «tt
i to foolhV with it.
BIM Curlew i 3i 3 a mean, iow-down cuss, if he do««
live on a tolerable high hill. He> worried and per
secuted the whole neighborhood for tu»nt. ' years.
Bill has trouble with his lyiaail Can't tell on*
Bide of a fence from t'other. He grot over on Mrs"
j Case's and chawped down twenty-flve cords of oak
one winter. She sent him notes by her toy. let
ters through the mall, messages, and flr.a: went
to see him herself, but Bill, he kept rl^ht on
chawpin". Then she had him arrested. Some folks
thought that was groin? too far. Mr* Case's am
burned down three day» after she grot a 'smmt
against Wiiiy. killin' ten re*a and three fiorseaL"
Henry Dorr got to m!ssln' feed out of his grain
room and bought a b! B dog. Ha heard the doe
starr yellin' in the night ar.<J run skaliyhootm'
out over WBljr'a land. Couple o' days tater Willy
sent in' a complaint that Dorr's tog had bit him.
Something had bit nim all right. Th« dog or
nobody eoaMa*l testify as to under: what circum
stances the bitin' was dene, «o the dog had to b»
Mrs. Curlew was on the school committee of the
town and took special charg-e of our deestrict!
She had a. fami:.v and arofeaaeo*aj pride in the rec
ord of her fo::r kids. Her proud nature simply
couldn't abear to see them cr.ildr outdone.
Brown's girl. Maud, was a rear ahead of Edri!»
Curlew, same age. Mrs. Curlew ordered Maud
shoved back, "to make.lt Imerestin' for Eddie."
who was all alone, tar school beln' small. Mrs.
Brown she raised a baßr* an<i went to the school
committee aaaaajben of the rest of the town, ar.d
Ma.:d wasn't p:;t back. Then Crown's dog waa
poisoned. Mrs. Curlew. *!ie ordered Sa:nrr Gray
put back with Kitty Curlew, and Mrs. Qra made
a row. and i: warn't done. The Grays didn't hav
r.o dog; but a likely little heifer was found dead
in the pasture a few days later. When Mrs. Cur
>w tried to r::t Jennie Morrison back wltb Lizzie
Corlew, the Morrisons might have stood for it if
they had b*»n awpevatMows; but they wam't. and
they didßj'l have no dogs and no catt>. But th^ir
old torn cat never come home no n:or». and some
' n«; most itc |M i lone o!d fcoose Urn had.
and Bdaßa Cuilew, kinder off hi*, guard like, said
he thought ■aeaM m»at was the B«M they Is. Well.
n-orge Goss, he Insistrd upon keepin" his boy Jim
where he was. stid of goin' back with Ar.nl? Cur
lew, and three of his hogs died and four hens..
j Queer lot of coincidences.
Out in an. uncivilized state like Ir.d.a they ;ak»
r» man llko Bill_ Curlew and flo< him. or rtotifv
him to either git or take tr.» consequences of
stayinV Bat in New England we're too law-abidin'
to do anything to folks thai, ain't law-abidin*. Of
cours?, we neighbors sometimes talked over these
things, and that is how Sia-k summer boarder got
into !t. First off ne suggested the Indiany plan of
neighborhood improvement and village beauiiflea
tion. but we said we lived in New Hampshire. ?>ort»r
j ttvlr.' death, sometimes, but the Old Thirteen has
' traditions that has to be kept up."
"Who's keepin* up of "*m." says Slack's sum
mer boarder, "you men, or Bill Curlew?'
"Well, one thing about It Is." said Henry Dorr.
I "Curlew is a sort of measly feUer, not regular
| •ick!v. perhaps, but sorter pick-ed. It is p'-sslb*'*
| that : ' It* wam't for t ->al mebbe I'd so far forsit
I my self-respect as to lick him. But he ain't haxd-
I ly robust e.nough. Fact Ij>. they say the critter is
elck right now. He thinks he's got appendicitis."
"Give -;!m absent treatment " said Slack'? «o«l
mer boarder, and be told us some lnterestia' thm^
' Now my proposition ain't to cure him. but to make
him attket H-»s a kind of wolf, a dangerous aa
lmil. him and his family There's really no t»ll<3*
when a chap so haiidy wl*h p'isen may take it
into his head to feed it out to your children 'jt:4
of a dog. Now this mental treatment can We
worked In two ways. By wantin" to cure fn?k*.
thlnkln" about *em intently and Je?<t naturally hank
erin' and lontrln* to benefit 'em. you can. strr.eV.mes
effect remarkable cure*. In the Middle Ages they
used to work this absent treatment t'other end ta
Their favorite wny was to make a dr>:i »r a !ltt!s
figure like that, and In th-lr minds, this figure was
aa «it*r.d for the person they ia« after. They
wr.u'.d I'e.it it. or stab It. mebbe stick pins la tt
and leave, 'em ikam They used to c!aim that so
long as the pin was in there, the feller would be
(<:rk A In years back tney laughed at ail tfcjs
and talked about what iaota them Middle Ages
fellers was to believe surh a passel of truck.
Nowadays there Is tellers who say that tntnMn* *>
hard about a man like you do when you etick a
knife In a doll th its repres»entln' of him. harmia*
the fipure phj%tcally. your concentrated mind acts
on the feller, mebie in the *cry spot you stab, and
harms him. . The Middle Age people carried on their
works in a gang, usuallr. ,< whole lot ot em stab
bin', generally, and yon «e<- the action of their
united minds was a pile stronger than If on" '* ••»
done it alone. Now " says Slack's summer "w*
er, "why don't you check the a< l!ea of this
enemy of society jest like you would any other
"Suppose we should liappei to kill him?" said
Henry Dorr, klndir anilous
"What's the hurt to the community?" say*
Slack's summer boarder. Btrollin" away.
"Well. says I. "he sl.-k. and if ha should die
we'd never know but he «iif<i anyway, and there'd
be no guilt attachin' t.. us. and if »'• Jeal puabei
him along, and as a natural result of BBBB* of his
meanness comln' back home to him and strjkia
Jn. his constitution got weakened and consequently
he couldn't resist sickness very well after awhi.e.
and so kicked the bucket, that ain't hardly our
We argued awhile, and finat!> Henry Porr sajs.
"More to gratify scien::*. curiosity Ml vote tt
•Might discover something of >IBI» to human
ity." said George Goss, 'Vxper.:- with in<
We didn't have no .1011, and couldslt n *" B _^
small figure like that very easy. 50 »c jest stu^ '
MM hay in some old clothes and made a *"' r^.
scurecrow out in Slack's barn and got a pig sticica
knlf -•. : '..
"Better all stab In the «ame spot.' said CcS *\**
not to dilute our thought and prevent concentr
tion of mind by havln' the jabs spread all over .
So we stabbed away, one after an.ther. har.l a
iUluiaa f like ara was stlckin' p!?*- Tlien w
went home. ,-• - ... r i n '
Didnt iu-ar no news from Curlew's foU* <^r
the next two weeks. Hay In* time and •?>^^L
stop to Inquire, and didn't hardly have tins- h>n
think of him. Saem.d a foolish bwaal too. v. n,
we reflected on it. though Slack's »un>mer Deaa
did seem considerable smart. ,
Well. sir. one m«>rnin\ 881 Curlew drove t»
stopped to speaK. I never see such a change.
wu» well as a trivet. 'Stld of beln 1 kinder P*
lookin' and generally measly, he had a .fine t J
and the crafty, intlike way he used to ha"
lookin' ai you was now bold Inoolem-*; s r^
and well like he was. what w. ul.lnt he «• -^
f«-rv« the iiflahN:rhood out. aiv.l you could "^
was thlnkln* of the opportunltl««s that would |
from his new ability.
•/By gosh!" said he-, "there was a * rl *\l
happened to me— kinder miracle, you night •
There I was. allln' with that cussed appends^
one afternoon 1 gits a terrible lot of 9l:»rp. ■
den pains like the blamed thing waa beln' cut o J
And tt ain't bothered me since. Seemed us» •
was cut out and Jest »l«»ugh»d away." ~,
"Bill Curlew, you allu^ used to be too p**\
to lick, but you ain't now." ' fc rf
So 1 snagged him out of the buggy ana "<
him. Then 1 telephoned down to Henry Do *^ — ,
George Gobs. Pretty soon. Bill drove »>' lig *^
looitln" more llckfd than when I had rtn! . stl w „
him. ' He liad turned MCI with«>ut going to t^^v-
Wasn't goln* to pass Goss's place. So %
phoned up the ro d. this time, to J<*» •*
Henry Moore and Frank Brown, and they »
him along' the way home. • Great thing. tR«'
telephone. Does much to make the J*i'»«- •..