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V l.\\II....N? 23,897. SS??-tXS?iP? NEW-YORK. SATURDAY, APRIL 20, 1912.-SIXTEEN PAGES
r? T? T_nT_*? /"VX'l? Pl.'VT ?* ?"?'.*? of New York, -terse? ??
PRICL ()>?_ V !_._> I KI.SKWIIKHK m'oiMTH
TIT?NIC'S SPEED 21 TO 23 KNOTS,
EVIDENCE SHOWS: STORIES OF HEROISM
ISMAY QUESTIONED ET
Declares He Left Titanic on Last Boat ai
No Women Were in Sight When
He Went Over Side.
IS A SUPERCILIOUS OBSERVE
Unwarranted Belief That Ship Was Unsinkable, Reck!?
Navigation and Wonderful Calm After Impact
Brought Out at Hearing.
The remarkable and unwarranted faith of Captain E. J. Smith a
his junior officers in the unsinkable character of the Titanic, the reckle
ness of navigating the Titanic at full speed in view of the advices tl
there were icebergs in the vicinity and the wonderful calm which p
vailed among passengers and officers after the collision?these were t
salient facts brought out in yesterday's session of the Senatorial inves
gation of the Titanic disaster.
Captain Smith of the Titanic obviously had far too great faith
the stanchness of his ship, which was shown by his failure to sound
alarm immediately after the impact with the iceberg. And it w
brought out in the testimony of the second officer that not only did
return to his cabin after the impact, under the assumption that no serio
damage had been done, but that it remained for him to suggest to i
captain the advisability of putting the women and children in the boa
which suggestion Captain Smith approved with the words, "Yes, ai
Even then the second officer, Charles W. Lighttoller, failed to a
prec?ate the danger and loaded the first boats with extreme cautio
putting, according to his testimony, only twenty-five persons into tl
first boat, and gradually increasing the number until the last he se:
down contained possibly forty-five.
Thus far the investigation has failed utterly to clear up the my
terious absence from the boat deck of the approximately fifteen hundn
passengers and others who were lost. According to J. Bruce Isma
president of the International Mercantile Marine Company, there we
no women in sight when the last boat but one went over the side, im
which he stepped, and this is partly confirmed by the second office
who testified that he loaded at least seven boats, and that toward tl
last he ordered some men into the boats because he saw no women i
sight. He was, however, in charge of the boats on the port side, whi
Mr. Ismay was on the stafboard side.
Of the survivors of the Titanic, 495 were passengers and 210 wei
officers or members of the crew. According to the testimony thus f_
taken, the members of the crew asigned to the eighteen lifeboats whic
were launched successfully could not have exceeded two each, a tot<
of thirty-six. There is only one explanation. All passengers and ere.
wore life belts, but obviously the members of the crew were more cap?
ble of battling with the icy waters, and not only succeeded in remainin
afloat, but in making their way to the lifeboats and were picked up.
Twenty-eight appear to have scrambled on the one lifeboat whic
went down with the steamer and reappeared bottom side up. Deduct
ing these and those originally assigned to the boats from the 210, i
appears that 146 were picked up by the lifeboats, as were, eventually
those clinging to the bottom of the capsized collapsible.
ISMAY UNFORTUNATE IN IMPRESSION HE MAKES.
J. Bruce Ismay was the first witness called, and was not fortunat
in the impression he made on the committee and others present. Tha
Mr. Ismay had been concerned chiefly with his own safety seemed to
be generally suspected, although it is only fair to him to say tha
nothing of this kind appeared in his testimony or that of other witnesse
thus far heard. It is, too, probable that he suffers somewhat from ai
unfortunate mannerism, a somewhat supercilious expression and rathe
too much evidence of amusement at the "landlubberly" errors of th?
committee, considering the gravity of the catastrophe for which hi
company must be held in some measure responsible.
In striking contrast was the testimony of Arthur Henry Rostron
captain of the Carpathia, who made a most favorable impression on hii
hearers, receiving the reiterated commendation of the committee. Hi
gave every evidence of being modest, courageous and alert, thoughtfu
to the last detail of the safety and comfort of both the survivors of th<
Titanic and his own crew, no detail having escaped him in the prepara
tion he made for the rescue, and his thoughtfulness rulminating in th<
religious service of thanksgiving which he asked an Episcopal clergy
man to conduct immediately after the rescue, obviously as much be
?"ause of a realization of the sedative and comforting effect it woulc
have on the nerves of the sufferers as because of his religious con
The third witness was William O. Marconi, who denied that there
bad b-en any effort on the part of his company to suppress the news
?nd repudiated the idea that there had been the slightest purpose ol
showing disrespect to the President of the United States. Incidentally
he testified that the pay of wireless operators on British ships ranged
?rom $7 50 to $10 a week, with board and lodging, and he said he be?
lieved all ships should carry two operators, this being brought out by
the fact that it was through the merest accident that the Carpathia,
with only one operator, heard the distress signal of the Titanic.
SECOND OFFICER TELLS OF LOADING LIFEBOATS.
The fourth witness of the day was Charles W. Lighttoller, second
officer of the Titanic, who went down with the ship, but later succeeded
in climbing on an overturned lifeboat and was subsequently rescued by
another lifeboat. He was on the stand the greater part of the afternoon
and made a most favorable impression as a careful, conservative and
truthful witness, as well as a brave though possibly overcautious officer.
According to his testimony, it was not safe to load the lifeboats
anywhere near their capacity as long as they were suspended from the
davits. He did not regard their capacity in that position as greater
than twenty-five or twenty-six adults, although he purposed to have
them filled up from the lower decks after they were afloat?a plan
which does not appear to have been well carried out. He planned to
Place only two seamen in each boat, but, running short of seamen, he
Placed some men passengers in some of the boats, among them Major
Peuchen, of Toronto.
His testimony also indicated that the collapsible part-canvas life.
? Casatinitod en fourth veo*, trat mioma, .
CAP?. SMITH DIED
I LIKE TRUE SAILOR
?Man with Him on Bridge of the
Titanic When She Sunk Says
He Ordered Work of
Rescue to Last.
TRIED TO SAVE A CHILD
Just as Giant Ship Went Down
He Seized Little One and
Leaped Into Sea?Water
Knee Deep Before
Ail the survivors of the Titanic'! crew
assert with emphasis lhat Captain Smith
?il-i not commit suicide, bul died a
One 0f .y]*, firemen ?who was on tlie
bridge with him when th?? ship went
down .??aid that Captain Smith Jumped
into th?- water whan Um bridge was
awash, ami. so far us is known, no one
?aw him after that.
"I was ?m the bridge deck," said the
flreniHii, whose name is James IfcGann,
of Liverpool. "I was helping to get off a
collapsible boat The last one was
launched when the water began to break
over the bridge on which Captain Smith
Htood. We were not able to launch it
properly, so that It was overturned and
was used at? ? ruft, some thirty or so of
us, mostly firemen, clinging t?> It.
"When the water reache?! Captain
Smith's knees and the last boat was M
least twenty feet from the ship 1 wa
standing beside him.
i "He gave one look all around Uli
face was firm and his lip? h;?r?l set. He
looked as If be might be trying to keep
bark the tears as he thought of the
"Suddenly he shouted Well, hoys.
It's every man for himself now.' Then
he took <>ne of two little Children who
were on the bridge beside him Thev
were both crying. He held the child. I
think it was a little girl, nadar his right
arm and he jumped Into the sea.
"All of us Jumped. I lumped righi
after the captain, but ?grabbed th?' r>
malning child before I did S'>. When I
Htruck th? water the ?old was so great
that I had to let go my hold on th.?
kiddie. The next thing I knew I was
swept toward the last collapetble boat
which had been launched the over?
turned one. I clambered aboard.
"It was the Intention of C?ptala Smith
to put the two little ones on the boat,
but when it overturned it was swept
away, and many ,,t those who jumped as
the ship went down, as I did, were saved
by It. There were about thirty of us
('llnging to it all niftht, until the Car?
pathia picked us up All our legs were
frsotbltten and ?re were all In the hos?
pital for a day at least
"I looked around for Captain Smith
after I got on the overturne?! boat, but
he was nowhere in sight.
"How did he act on the bridge while
I was there? Always directing the low
erlng Of the boats himself, and lie WOM
always shouting: 'Women and children
first.' 1 think that when he struck tho
water the cold ma?le him let go his hold
on the chilil. end he must hav.? bean
swept away from the boats. Anyway, 1
don't think he wanted to live after see
lng how things went. There were dead
bodies all around floating in the water
when he Jumped, and I think it brok??
WOULD HAVE MEN GO FIRST
Suffragette Says Women on Ti?
tanic Should Have Held Back.
|Bv Telegraph to The Tribune ]
Philadelphia, April li>. Miss I.ida
Stokes Adams, a prominent suffragette,
to-day declared that the women pas?
sengers of the Titanic lost one of the
greatest chances ever presented in (he
?ause of suffrage, that they did not as
s.ert themseUcs and prove that they are
OB the same plane with many n.??n from
th?- point of view ?if personal ?'ourage.
'?of course, It is hard to answer
Whether the women and children should
have had preference In such a disaster,
but 1 don't think they should have had.
1 think the women should have Instated
that the boats he tilled with an equal
number of men and women, or that even
the men should have had an equal
chance of saving thesuelvea, even
though in brat, strength the?, are
stronger. H would have b??cn a wonder?
ful thing for the suffrage cause if ihn
had been done.
"Years from now there will be similar
accidents, und I venture to say that the
men and women will share the ?lisustrr
alike. The women will not be content to
be taken care of. They will endeavor t?>
save the men."
After making this prediction Miss
Adams praised the men of the Titanic
for their heroic conduct.
HEARS OF PARENTS' DEATH
Jesse Isidor Straus May Sail on
La France To-day.
Cherbourg, April 19.?The steamship
Amerika arrived here to-day from New
York. Among the passengers were Mr.
and Mrs. Jesse Isidor Straus, the son
and daughter-in-law ot Mr. and Mrs.
Isidor Straus, who lost their lives In
the ?inking of the Titanic.
News of the disaster was received by
wireless, but only on landing was It
learned by Mr. Straus that his parents
were not among the saved. He Immedi
atelv secured an automobile and left
tor Havre to secure passage. If possible,
on the new M.amer la% France, which
salts to-morrow for New York
Anooatur? Bitters originated 1824, an old
fticad. aa c-f-.tive Spring i__u_.-a_y_.
AT HIS PLACE ON THE BRIDGE
While the Head of the Line Leaves.
MASTERS NOT FORCED TO
MAKE SPEED, THEY SA
Owners Declare They Are Fre
to Decide for Best Interests
of the Safety of All.
?"CAN'T BE LATE ALWAYS
Ships Are Expected to Mak
Runs Ordinarily in Allotted
Time. One Master Says, Dis?
cussing Speed Question.
Prom dlacuMtone reeterdaj erltl
eteamshlp >ownera and the muten o
reeeeli relative t?. the supremacy ?>
command al am and ih" io>called un
written underatandlm "to make time,
it is ???i ?us thai the average iteamehii
captain doei no( eulfer brcauee he Ii
The owners de lare thai their raptalni
nre absolutely free t?i d?> what tln-y
chooee with lhe?Jr ship?- to 'mig as thr
management is f??r the heel IntereaU <?f
th?' passengers ?>n board and for ill"
safety of the ship ami h? r cargo.
No captain will denv this. lie will
even g?> so far ax to sin that the steam?
ship r?mpanle* are ratremely liberal In
th?ir dealings Kflth masters ho far as In
dependeaee ??f ? ommand Ii ponceraed,
luit with it all, some of them say. there
Is a feeling on Ihe part of every master
that s?imehow or other he has got to
Tii? master of ?i reaeel now lying al ??
Pier in the North Hiver ?aid yesterday
he had no doubt whatever but that Cap
tain Smith of the Titan!? was making
something close to top speed when ho
hit the iceberg.
Speed on Approaching Ice.
'Is it reasonable to run at such speed
when approaching leaf h<? was asked.
"That depends on circumstances," he
replied. "If there is no ice In the im?
mediate vicinity I see no reason for
slowing down. \Virel??ss warnings are
Invaluable, but on a i le.ir night one may
depend largely on the eyeg."
"Does this apply when fog prevails
with the Ice?"
'Ah, that Is entirely different Stop
dead for fog and feel your way under
the lowest steerageway. That was done
by all the men who came through th<*
same ice zone where the Titanic 'went
down, often ships < ut down to half
speed, but that is only relative. Half
t-atiuucd ?a ?e..at__ page, tec and -??'ii'-iri
[NO PREFERENCE AMONG MEN
Some Millionaires Drowned md
Some Steerage Men Saved.
London. April _. ..-"The Times" in an
? ??llt.erlal pays a warm tribute to the be?
havior i?f the millionaires on the Titanic
'After the woo'en it waa clearly a
matter of pure chance which men ?.?.??re
saved Moot of the mttllonalres were
drowned, while many third ?lass pea
sctiKe.f.; pf?jre eaved. Indeed, it is estab?
lished ?beyond doubt that the millionaires
wer?? treated exactly like any one else,
and that th.\ nave an exhibition of
courage, lelf-restralnl ?*nd obedience to
orderi tecood to none"
CROSSED TITANIC'S GRAVE
Bergs Still Near, but Sailors Saw
Boston, April 1!?.-(Mil.'ers ..f the Brit?
ish freight steamer Kseengu, will? h ar?
rive?! at Quarantine from Calcutta to
day, were surpris?'d to learn of the Tl
tank disaster? having ?passed approxi?
mate!] over the scene within twelve
in.his of the white sur liner*! founder?
ing The Kasengs Is sol equipped with
"We psssrd ov?_f thai sr??i .?t n???n
thne "ii Monday," ?aid ?Captain skeit.
"We struek the ice in north latitude II
degree! Is minutes and west longitude
is degree! 30 minutes. In all there were
ai.out twenty-five Icebergs, with H sur
rovnding lee iiei?i. and they exteadad as
fai" as 41 degrees B6 minutes north and
BO decrees west. No sign ?>f wrechage
Irae ri-iti? I'd by any of us. but, of course,
ti?.t knowing of Ihe disast?T. we didn't
look carefully. The I? e fields mav have
pushed anj survivors or wreckage away
from e-hf eplace where the Tltanl? w??nt
*?[ remember remarking to the man on
watch that some one was likely to have
trouble with that Ice."_
AWAITING NEWS AT HALIFAX
Liners May Bring Tidings of
Some of Titanic's Victims.
Malifax. N- 9-. April 19.?Local Interest in
the Titanic catastrophe continues keen and
the arrival here of the White Star liner
Uiurentle .tn?l the Allan liner Victorian,
U>tli f,0ni Liverpool, is patiently awaited
In the hope that th.-y may bring news of
some of the victims of the disaster. Both
were In wlrelew communication with Sable
Island to-'tay ?>>d a,e ?*??"* ncri? to-morrow.
The steamers passed In the vicinity of the
The steamer Mackay-nennen, which wa?
dispatched from here In search of bodies
fro? the Titanic, id expected soon to reach
the spot where the Titanic rests in the
depths and begin her march for the dead.
MA ILL. ARCS BREAKFAST COCOA
,. nuit* unlike any Other and this ?lliferenw
?mSS-*! iu ?uP?r-ori,y*~A<*vl'
Speed Not Reduced Nor Watch Doubled
When Warning Came from Amerika, Second
Officer Testifies, Though Captain Smith
Commented on Danger from Haze.
ROSTRON TOOK PRECAUTION IN
GOING TO RESCUE OF SURVIVORS
Fire in Coal Bunkers Made Chief Engineer Cry, "My God,
We Are Lost!" When Informed of Extent of Dam?
age from Collision, but Belief in Unsink
able Ship Remained General.
W. W. Jeffries, general passenger agent of the White Star
Line, gave out the company'- official Accounting of the number
of survivors of the Titanic yesterday as 70.), divided as follows;
First class. 202
Second class. 11 .">
Third Ota*-,. 17?
No official statement was made of the number of those lost,
and the estimates arc conflicting. The White Star Line has
? previously estimated the number on board at 2,181, which would
[make the number lost 1,476. A committee of the survivors
; placed the number on the Titanic at 2.3-M). This would make
?the lost 1,633.
Sydney Buxton, president of the London Hoard of Trade,
I ?aid Thursday that the Titanic had 2.20S on board when she
?cleared, and this would fix the loss at 1.503. The last total, it
?is thought, will prove correct, as an accurate list of tluise on
'board would have been kept at the port of clearance.
The committees formed while the Carpathia was speeding
to port having provided for the care of the survivors of the
Titanic, all energies were devoted yesterday to fixing the blame
*or the disaster.
Many contributory causes were discovered.
One of the most remarkable and surprising parts of the
evidence came in the testimony of Second Officer Lighttollcr, of
the Titanic, before the Senate investigating committee at the
Mr. Lighttollcr said that a warning of ice ahead had been
received at noon Sunday from the Amerika, of the Hamburg**
! American Line, but that the speed of from twenty-two and
one-half to twenty-three knots an hour had not been reduced
nor had the lookout on the Titanic been doubled, as was the
ordinary precaution when approaching ice.
"IF IT GETS ?HAZY, WELL SLOW DOWN."
He was on watch, in charge of the ship, at 0 p. in., and Cap?
tain Smith at that time spoke to him about the ice. saying that
it should come close at 11 o'clock. Captain Smith added: "It is
very clear. If it gets hazy, we will have to slow down."
A fireman among the survivors said yesterday that he
passed through the engine room a few minutes before the Ti?
tanic struck the ice. and the indicators then showed a speed of
more than twenty-two knots an hour.
The Senate committee began its investigation at/tlie Wal?
dorf yesterday morning. The witnesses yesterday were J.
Bruce lsmay, chairman of the board <>1 directors and managing
director of the White Star Line: Captain A. II. Hostron of the
Carpathia: William O. Marconi and Second Officer Lighttoller,
of the Titanic.
Mr. lsmay testified that he gave no orders to Captain Smith
concerning the speed or handling of the Titanic. He said that
he had nothing to do with choosing the crew of the lifeboat in
which he was saved, and thai he had done all he could to help
load the boats before he thought of saving himself. He looked
about the deck on which he was. and, seeing no more women,
got in one of the last boats to leave the ship, He was wearing,
lie said, ?pajamas, an outer suit, an overcoat and a pair of slippers.
Captain Hostron was reluctant to criticise Captain Smith
or the handling of the Titanic. He said that after receiving
the call for help from the Titanic he turned the Carpathia and
rail full *pcd for the disabled ship, but he doubled his lookout
and would nol have run full speed, knowing that he was going
toward ice. except that he was on a mission of rescue.
Resides telling of the warning from the Amerika and the
speed of the Titanic, Mr. Lighttollcr said that when he went oft'
duty, at 10 p. m?, First Officer Murdock took charge of the
ship, and Captain Smith was not on the bridge. Lightiollcr
was in his cabin when the crash came, and ran to the bridge.
He found both Captain Smith and Mr. Murdock there.
Mr. Lighttoller told of the inadequacy of the lifeboat
equipment. He said that of the twenty lifeboats one became
entangled with the rigging and could not be launched, and an?
other was so inconveniently placed on the top of the officers'
quarters that it could not be launched.
LIGHTTOLLER SUGGESTED LIFEBOATS.
The suggestion for putting the women and children into
the ?oats came from him, he said, and -Captain Smith replied:
"Ves, and let them cast oft'."
The faith of all in the unsinkable qualities of the Titanic
was demonstrated bj_ .Mi, .Lighttoiler b testiaiou*,- iu repaid tq