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New-York tribune. (New York [N.Y.]) 1866-1924, July 21, 1912, Image 18

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Around Hundreds of Modern Occupations Hovers the Peril of Disease
Occupational Ailments Assail Painter, Plumber,
Pottery and Cutlery Worker, Glass Polishsr,
Dry Cleaner and Dyer, to Instance Only
a Few; and Gases, Vapors and High
Temperatures May Be Fatal.
IT has often been said that civtlization t
goes forward on a powder cart. Tt
might as trul> be said .hat 11 er.i- '
giOya a ^oori many other klnls Of ? art:
wlth an equally unaavory record t'or lack
of regard for human life. The ..rocess of i
prOdUCtng the OUtward trappmgo of civlli-j
zatlon ls as coetly in HveB anri misery as ,
war over- was. A !aiu*s sontenoo is far (
cNcoodcd in aupplylng the wanl* of "clvil- j
laed man." Many of the inventions which,
nn tho outward evideti'-e of tho (llstari.e
that man has travelled toward rtTlHaaUoa (
are acoofopanled in their produrtlon by i
1)1 hoalth and doath for their prolucers
There are literally hundreda of new t?C"
eupations for which tho evolutior. of a j
complex civili.'-atlon ls responslble that
carry wlth them liability to dlscavc New ,
machinery and apparatus, nc.v var!?t!es
of food and drlnk, new habits of llfe
have required the employmont of new !
polsons; put n. w burdena upon the mue
clea. laid additional stresses upon ihe
nerves, and thruat Increased reeponal
bllities upon the braiu. For nistanc. 't ,
ls ostlrnato'i that at the preaent time \
there are more than ijO trades in which j
the workera may be ezpeaed io the dan
ger cf poleonlng by load. wlth the ium
her growlag,
Tn Germa;i>. Where tlir operalion <>f 'he
Industrial insuranee laws make* it peB
-' ' ? to fOITO falrl) accurate cstlmatc.-. <-r
the extent of alckneea among Induatrlal
workera. it has been found thut two-fiftha
of the peraona expoeed to the rleka lnd?
dental to thelr nu-ans of livellhood are |
llkely to be ill i" the course of ctch ysar,
and that the number of days th ij will be
Ineapadtated is ?.J for each pereoa. Tlie
people of tho Inited States have taken
so littlc thought ln a large way for the,
ellmeata of the worker, the pnyslcal price ,
he rays for the forwarding of civilization. ,
that one must take thi experlence of
Oermaay as a basls of computatlon ln or?
der to gain any lmpression of what it!
amounts to In volume in thla country lt |
araa eatlmated In I91B that th. rumber of
men. women and chlldren who were wag
carnors wi ' * thll number ii '
was calculated thal 13,110,001 were ill ln
the courae of the rear, and that they
wore skk for a comblned total of 814,730.
lyg, or 710.137 years. a pcriod of time
cxtenditifc- backward beyoad tho glaciai
era and the blrth of prehlstoric man.
The loss to the workers was gJ6G.107.H5 ln
w..-.s reckoned al ?"?' a week. and PM,
7IB.00I in medical feee The aoonomlc loss
to soeioty at the low rate of f>0 cents f'.r
oa h workinc rlay was |IJI.BBJ1.1IB. The
total economlc and aoctal loss, there*
for. . was ITT.'.M'J.WS". or more than three
ejuartera of a billlon dollars. This sum j
1s alm.'.st as much as the natlonal debt ;
and repreaeata the cost ef the Cl*11 War
th Bldea for a year. It is boUeved
that praetteally a quarter of thla amount,
|lS8,2SaJll accordlog to the computatfon.
. ould be saved through the introduotion
of various protcctlve devices. suitahle l
by lead than by an> other metal. partly
because no other metal enters so largel.v
Into the arts and lndustries. and partly
because of the slient but iusidious umii
ner ln Which the potaon works. The use
i of lead pipes for convaylng drlnklng arater
[through a community may alowly, but
nevertheleas aurely, poison ihe whole
neighborhood. wlthout the CBUae belng BB
! tected. Krom the amelting Of the lead
| ore through all the later proecsses the
I worker ls in danger. And if he eaeapea
wlth his life he may be incapacitated for
periode of alx months or more.
Then OOBBOB the palntlng of the bouaa
if the palnter mlzea his cotora dry ba
Inhafc tha duat, or lf he has blcm
ishes ln the woodwork to till wlth v.hlte
lead, he may hoM the lead In his bara
hand and thus. lf hls hands be eracked,
absorb enough to poison hlm. Band
papering the paint afi<-r It has been UUd
on may also eauaa polaontng. Th<
gcrs from freah pamt ar. Indtcated bj
experlmenta wltb guinea paga which have
shown thct theae anlmala wlll dle withln
elghtecn hcurs if idnced 111 a large jar
the alr of whlch has been passt-d over
freshly prcpured palnt. Only recentlP a
report was made to the New Y?rk Btate ,
Factory Inveatlgatlng Commlaaion of thej
Uanger to painters working between the.
double bottoms of battleehtpa Bt the]
Brooklyn navy yard. At leaat a scoro of
nun c-ngaged In pjilntlng between the bot?
toms have suffered from lead polaonlnl
Some of the walls of the house are to
be papered. Care must bc eXBPClaed i"
aelectlng hangings free from arst-ntc.
Wall papers Bomethnea are Impregaated
with arsenic in the process ?.f manufact
111 e. thus an4langerlng the neaith of the
workera Rcoms thus papered have
prored t<. bc Injurious to the health ..f
their occupants. (Jlass wlll br needed
tbe Vj^pors
Molteti 2 ino ? Tbe Gre^t
C^re Botb Injurioud. to
Hec*.t" o.f)d
tbe H%?>ltl>.
(g) bbowm aaotf
venttlation and the exerclse of care on the j
part of the workers themselvcs.
The amount of physical comfort whlch
ppuld be added to the world's total If con
aaaawred la daya would be 7i.i87.ooo, or 18*,-1
0C4 years. a reductlon in the cost of clvil
1 lsatlon worthy of conslderatlon. And save
par those connected wlth the American I
Asaodatlon for Labor Leglslatlon, a few ,
physlclana and a comparatively few pub- j
llc splrlted persons. no one ln the Unlted
States has Btopped to give thought to the
problem of the conservatlon of the
health of the worklng man, the worklng
woman and the worklng chlld. beyond
efforta In aoma Btatea at shortening the
hours of labor and the Improvement of
. aanltatlon and ventllatlon of factorles.
There are few occupatlons connected
wlth the bullding and furnlshlng of n.
home whlch do not endanger the health
of the workers engaged ln them. When
one stops to conslder the Bubject, he be
glna to reallze why so few "get out of life
It ia declded to bulld a houae. Flrst the
foundatlona are lald. The Btone maBon is
ao Hable to tuberculoala through the ln
halatlon of duat from the chlpplng of Ihe
stone that the death rate from lung
dlseaae among Btone masons and marble
cutters, deaplte the fact that they work
outdoora. ls slx tlmes that of bankere
and brokere. llvlng an lndoor llfe.
Aa the walla of the houae po up the
-olumber la called ln to perform hia part
of the work of maklng the houee hablt
able. As the name of hlB occupatlon ln
dlcates he haa to handle a good deal of
lead. Lead in any form ls polsonous. It
' la eald that more deathe have been cnua'd
about th* houae, for man has progressed
beyond the days when he was obliged to
make oiled paper and sklns setve ln his
wlndowa. The glass blowors are not free
from ailments pecuiiar to their occupa
tlon. Worklng ln an extreme heat and
conBtantly obliged to look directly into
the dazzllng white light of the molten
glasa in the furnace, in course of tlme
many of them are forced to give up theli
means of llvellhood owing tO eataraet
Those who uae the blowplpe are tiaMe to
??gla8Sblowcr'B mouth" Ia this daeeaa*
large swelllngs like air cushions aPpaOJ
on the cheekB between the c?orners of the
mouth and the lower part of the ear I
person affllcted wlth this alltnent look
as if he had the mumps. The dlsea
eaused by air under hlgh presaure enter-,
ing tho duct Of the parotid glaad inside
the cheek. Some glasablowors who have
a pecuiiar manner of grasplng the Iroa
blowpiP* auffer from maln en crochet, a
deformlty of the ftngers.
The house belng up the owner makes
purchasea for Its furmshiiig. Me decides
to haVe hand wrought andlrona for hls
flreplaces. Hla andlrona and whatever of
iron he haa ln hls houae have laid a tas
upon all who have had to do wlth lt The
puddler. whoae long iron "paddle" aad
"rabble" have dorie thelr part ln freelng
th* lmpure metal in lta early stages from
carbon. ls expo.ed to cxoe?sive boat nnd
subjeet to aevere muscular itraln. As a
reault h* seeka Urjuld refreshment more
frcely than 1b good for him. and the straln
.ipon hla muaolos Imluees heart OMMaaee,
partlctilarly of the aorta and Its \al\es.
ThlB discase is common among puddlera
Mouldera, whp work aurrourtded bv much
WorWtvin *, Wbite Le^d Factory We?>.rir>g Respir&tot-s/or
Pro.ectiot) Against tbe Debdh-degslittg ?
duat, an Bubjecl io dtaeaaea <>f the re
aptratory organa, two-llftha dylng from
puimonar\ tuberculoele,
Deaplte Longfellow'a rrmark ai^ut Ihe
healthfulneaa of tt.loupatlon of the
blackamlth, thai claaa of workara In Iron
i* not free fr..m dlaaaae. Tha "brawni
ann" la freqmmtly dlpcovered to ba af
fllcted in a marked degree with muaeular
hypertopb] Rupture of 11 - moawlar
of the upper anu and ehoulder,
followed by Inablllty to uae the arm. oc
caalonally oceura Lumbago, kldnej dla
naee, anaemla, eesema and bolli aome
aftli.-t bUekamltha owlng to the
? ondltlona of I ? at undi r whli h they
work. M.n who are obllgi ?> '" uee heat
hand sledge hanunera ara .:i danger "f
Bre&JK Down
^^?v IoT>a>li>rtOB c/ tW Fine Hr>.ir FTWtiryg in
ibci, Air L,eb.c{?> to Lu-ng rgwt>d Brorlcrjitvl .Aflrnenta.
"hammermen s paralvi-is. ' Whlch affeel
the niusclew of the arms.
The new bPUBaheldap'a dis.hes alBO have
ciaimed thelr t..n Pottery workera,
owing to th.- large aatauat <>f duat, oaan<
tiosed of eaithy partlcles, fragment.s ..f
granite, flint, dno.j glaze, goot and traod
charcoul. Whlch Boata ln 'he uir. ta
which they ar< aapaaad, are aubject to
dlsease The utniosph.re ln whl.h the
Mnlshera und pBI IIBIbIb makera usually
labor in some pottery works contalna as '
hlgb as MMMII partJalaa of dust to each
eubte metre. The workera who rem-.ve
the excess of drlod glar,e are not infre
riuently eonipelb d to breathe an atnioa
,,l,ere <-ontamlng as high aa C8O.O0O.OOO of
partlcles- lt le not e'lrnrlstni;. therefora.
te I'Jin that bronchltla and pulmonaD
tUaaaaa me fre<iuent among tha pottoeT
inakera. But this ls not all. Besides th*
"pottera' rot" and "potters' aBthma," the
pottery irorkaff ls aubject to lead polson
Ing. Thla la due to tha w ?>? of I. ad In the
gtaalag proerss. In some branches of
the pottery industry ln the i-ourso of a
year the number of pereooa who are
aalllcted wlth the vnrious fortne of leud
polponlng number flve In every bundrwd
Hia cutlery also meana more In terma
of health and Ufe than he imai-'liifs, for
those who grlnd lt are far more llkely to
dle of pulmonary tubereuloM. than la the
average humaii. ln the Sheftteld, L*ng
land. cutlery dlatrlct It ba. been a.cer
\Y\ Stone Polisbers ^.re Li^ble, te L,ung Diaeeoes
aX Mbong Dry Colors ir> r>. Po-int
Ftvctory- &.Tj CJ-nbete-ltb/uil
t.iined thai nearl] three*flftha of the ?teei
grlndera dle of tubereuloeli and othar
re piratorj lleeaae or almoat exactly
twice as manv a ln the ndult popula'lon
of Bngtand generall) Of the maie pop
uiation <>f England "fli out of every l.ooo
reaoh tho ??? (?f Rfty?flva yeara, whlle
hardJly rnare than one thlrd that naasher
of steel griuders attaln to thnt' age. ihe
averaKe at death hBlBg foft) -three ye.irs
Perhapa the bottae owaer doetrea a few
, of the tuxurteo of il(>. and Inotudea in his
houaehold furiiishlhg a (|tiantity of cut
giass. it la Bieeeeaary that eryatal Kiass.
when < ut, abould ha pollehed. The pottah*
Ing is usually done hy means of revolvlng
hrushea raanlng at htgh speed. The ptttty
pOWder, Of rOUge, which is used ln the
procesa coritaliifl a OOnstderabtl riuanlity
of lead. Thig pPWder fltes from the Bpced
| Ing bruahes ln apray and allijhta upon
Ihe haada or the workers, or ls deposlted
I on the Boor, where It drlej. and afterward
floats throagh tha air and ls Inhalcd. Th>'
fruits of this fortn "f admlnleterlng iea<i
gre puialybtn of the haiids and wrlata.
colic and, occaaionully, death.
Furs, dlamirida and silk hats lnclude
dlaeMso ln thelr eost of productlon also.
and ln Ihe case of the tlrst there may he
retrlhtitlon at the expenae of the wearcr.
Araenic Ih ajgejd In the curlng of cerla'.n
mra. A *ew years ago American chein
Ista exainlned forty-two bamplea BJKl
found eleven of them to be Iteavlly ludett
with araenle. The amount exceeded that
peiniltted by law, which Is one grnli: to
tho sqiiare yard. In some cases reachlng
!7o gralns. Th*** furs were dangerou.
to tho wearers as well as to thos?) who
cured them. Arsenlcal polaoiilng la ?ot
uncommon. and ln aome cases the person
affected becomaa an Invalld, sufferlng
from chronlc digestlve troubles. Any one j
worklng in arscnlc Is llkely to Inhale the i
fumeB or the flne duat unlesa great care
la taken to provlde proper air flu.a to
draw them off. Arrenlc workers suff^r
from bronchltla.
Diamonds and ellk hats do not look as
If they could be Inlmlcal to the health of
the workers. In order that the dUUfl
or other precious atones may he held
more aecurety whlle thay are belng cul
and pollahed they are tlxed iu a niass ?'f
molten lead and tln about the size of a
wainut. Th.- pollahlng hl done by meana
..f an iron wheei ravolvtng at the rate ol
:\4O0 revolutlona a minute. or eometiroea
by hand ln either a\*o tbe oparatlon
euta into the s.ift metal an.l parttclea fly
upward and tnay he inhaled. Th.- polish
ers are lUbte t'? he polaanad by the lead
and polaonlng doaa oceur in not a f<ra
A sait of merury Is used to Impro-. t
gloss of silk baU When tlie hats an
Ironed tha nu rcury la '...'.atize'l and
worksaaa may Inhale the fumes to his
own undolng.
Theae are only a m^derate number of
KeupatloM which are Uable to baar frult
" thelr followers in the form Of dlBBl
Iu fact. occupatloiial dlseaacs are BO n
maroua that It la dttVoult to mentlon tl ? m
all. There are diseases due to gB?ee.
vapors. htgh Umparaturaa; dtM
crlbed to work tu caissons and oompraaaed
alr: ailments to be credlte.l to dlmlnish.-.l
alr pressure; dlsonlora to be charged up
agatnat tha ehaanlcal tradeg und to be
eradltad to the metal polsoua. dust. fumea
and mlnlng. and the maladlcs Whlch may
bo lald at tho door of clectrlclty. As haa
been mcntloned, there are IM traJcs la
which cxpoaure to lead In \arlous formB
may lead to serious and sotnetlmes fatal
attacka <>f ptumbtaan, as irad potaonlng
ls called.
Among those who are tn .langet from
gasea are tha laborers who charge blaat
furuacea. The carbon nionoxkle mlngl -'
wlth the gasee may causc illness which
aatend over periods of y?-\r* lnhalatl..tt
of thls gas causes lieadache and a aanae
..f th. 1. aa of power In the h.wer extreini
tics. It may afi'ect the speech.
Chetshoes an.l cvrry other artlcle tn
whlch vulcantzed rubber Is us-.-.i metiace
the h.alth Of the workers in thelr pi'?
duotlon. The colorleaa rolatlle llquld with J
the dlsagreeable odor called b> the rlvm
isiH btaulphlde of carbon is uaed In the
piOOBBB of vulcuiilziitlon. The lnhalatioti ,
..f Its vapor ls datigoruus. lt may causc;
a paralysls of the arms und legs that wlll
rciulre months for a t.-oveiy. Young
women employed ln dlpplng ln a hath of
thla llquld chlldren's balloon.-. tooaeoo
poiaohaa, taya, ate., on thelr way home In
the evenlng after thelr day s work aro
Boaaatlmea attacked in thelr lower cx
tremltlcs and stugger along like an |n
toxlcated person. Tho follow Ing day thay
feel shtiky und tremulous, aa if they had
been on a debuueh. Bometlmes the inhal
atlon causes acute hysterla. und ln the
more chronic form, waakaning of tho
memory, dlftVulty of speech. atnl loss ot
muscular power and of aensatlon In the
urrns and legs. Occasionully acute de
lirlum accompanled by deluslons may re
Qulck drytng palnts used on "hurry"
Jobs aboard ahlp are dangerous, f(>r they |
are mlxed wlth mcthylated or petrol iim
spirlt, or wlth beiulne. The tnhalatlon
of tho vapor causes Illness and the patnt
Is cxtremely lnflunmmble. Men cogtlttg
the Interlor of a ahip'a hunks Wlth thls
khwi of palnt freijuently hecotne uncon
sclous and can be removed only by means
of ropes.
"l?ry cleanlng" in whlch benalne or
naphtha la used ls not freo from <1uiik* '?
to the workera. for the odor of theae
lhjuids may cauee hysterla and heuduche.
and ln the severer forms of polsouinK by
benalne women have suffered from bllnd
nesB, multlple neurltlg dlrttculty of
speech, losa of power ln the Uniba, an
alteratlon of the galt called ?'steppage,'
and meiiial depreealon or halluclnatlons.
Recovery may be lncomplete, for memory
Ib often ImpalreU.
The dangera of worklng under cora
EroeryDust is
.d/or rbe .Tirobatr.
presaed air are well known tn tht* coun
try. where th* digging af submarlne tun?
nela and the conatructlon of i*r*tt
hrldges and sk>serapets are constaatly ,
golng on. 1'ortunatcly, methodg for pro-^
teetlog workmen from serlous attacka of <|
the "hends" are belng used more iM
more wldely.
"Workera la anlllrc dyefl ar? v.ihject tet
beadache, loss of appetite, shortnesa ot
breath, and a tingling ?BBaaUOB In tha
feet and le^s. Chlldren have bo?n mail
111 from the effects of anlllne oil ln
poUahea for taa eotorad shoes. xitro
benzine. owing to the odor of bltter al*
mond which It givos off. Is made uh of
ln the manufacture of perfumery and In
cooktng. Workera in nitro-bensol fae*
torlee are liable to attack* of giddineai
in.i nf uacotaaclouaneaa. a--. "mpanled by
hlueness of the face or cyano-ls.
The produetlon of eleetric atoragl bat*
tertea is not without its dangera, for tht
workmen are rweutred to apaty a r?4
paate made af red load and aulphurtc ad?
to the oponlngs of the perforated ti.-tallK
plati ? The laaligerg of '?i,fl poiaaajaf gjl
ao great in this oeeapatloa, where progjl
car> Is n?>t ex?irised. that ln sotne la*
Btaneaa la Oermaoy owing to thi number
of fatal eaaea o.eurring In <?? rtaia ??*?
among tho etnptoyea it was found nec**
gary to conduct thqutrtea regardlag tbe
eauaea Prlntlag, typaeettlng. t>oo founi
ing and llnotype operattag are not with?
out their dangets t<> tho workmea ?w
oporators, owing t.. tho poaeil llltj ->f l**4
polaontag and of Inhalation of gaa Ii
worki where yelloa i olon in ?h>
tiine?i fr, in chromata ef lead, ?
gtvert ofl !??? tht arn la egtremely la*
Jurloua, cauatng lead potaonlni ln eafdj
prlnUng lead polaonlng aeenel teajgl
OWlng to the printitig of the co'.ori bl
., mu ,.r the lead aatta
\^. baa been stated. there ara ni> te taw
IGO trade* In which le.. I I ta ww
foiin and in whi.h danger "f lead potson
lug lurko. Plumhlam aometlraei occjti
among workera eraptoyed ln maklng leil
eapaulea and In rdactag theai over tiw
? i of botttee r- r<"n* have sufferel
from thli aame djaaaai tl ??ugb their coi
, with the maaafactur* or bbHI
tallors' meaaUrlng lap. * < ireteffctieei
about puttlag the end of thi t*fl in tkl
mouth is rosponsihle The machlne jgW
who btnd llaaonio aproaa aomuttaaBiafl
attaeked wlth moderate casea of lnw
polaonlng through the lahelatloa BffJl
whlto duat which ls glven off from th*
aprons. This duat frequently contaW
small quaaUUea of wl Ite lead ^ni
polaonlng Ib also mct wlth ln peraeni ?m
ln indla rubber worki where k*
carbonati ls used as a bleachlng nw
Worldog In lead ls eapeclally danieroi*
for wornen. for they seem to ??dr**?!,
coptlble to polaonlng. H aerloualy afferw
their capaclty to bring chlldren lntlJ"B
worid allve Wl.on childr.ii are bora
allve they are llk.ly to be anaaalB, aa!
ma>- themaelves become tlie subjecta ?j
lead polaonlng through thelr mothwi
ntilk. ,t
TJiere are upward of thltty tradu i
whhh BT**OiC is used Thla BMtBl ?ct?
aa an Irrltaat to the ikln. eaaelng tcum
and uleeraUoa. and is capable of pro^j
Ing g*oeral polsoning also. A f*? >'?*"
ago an opldemlc of areenlcal poiaoningoc
curred In th* Uldlanda of l-w*
through tho drinktng of beer made rro?
glucoae contatnlns araenlc ataajf
those attaeked auffered from pal'1?' ?
feeUoae of the llmba, neurltla folloWef
b) p.-naiNsis. dropay and ulceraUOD
the skin. Mereurial polaonlng ?i?? "
lowa the tradea In which inercur* ? uM*
The workers may inhale tlie vapBh
they may be polsoned by hendHag ?|
Mercury U i.?ed ln the manufa>-tu? ?
barometera, thermoinetera and other
Blrumeiita of aclentltu' prertehai, ?a
aalta, eapeclally the nltrate, are uw*
the maklng of felt hata and the Baawg
of furs. In the preparatlon of the ? ^
aklna for the manufacture of f* ^
the proceaa etyled "carottlng ^
formed by the brushlng of the ??*.
an acld aolutlon of nltrate of m?
The acld vapora cauae the workaall
IBOB thelr n.olar teeth. The r*B*B*1
iie,.une Black, arotled and l.
Tinplate workers auffer fr*n in .
matory affectlona of the eyes. Jr>"*%
the throat. black?ned teeth and loa?
tlnlr hHlr, aulpbUric acld fumes |'!?V ?
large part in tlie produetlon of
The wotkers m any industry l? wh
there is niUOh duat are liable to becoa*
the victlms of tuberctiloals. There *"^
number of ocoupatlona auch aa t,,a
pottery mnker. cutler grlnder. tlie ma ?
gtaafl maker. epper. Iron, Hte*l. !'ton'||ga
btaaa worker, clilmney sweep.
worker and cotton operator in *l,kh J
mo, tallty from tubenulo.ls and dl*'*
of tho resplratory orgaus i. niore t
doublo that of agrlculturlita and ln **?^
of them tt la from thre. to four ???
half tlmes greater. Jai
Workers In the Afrlc.n boxwood v*r
for maklng rulers and shuttles fuh
from lnflammatlon of :he eyee. ex:e?n
toiitnim-d on seveutb pag*.

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