Newspaper Page Text
NEW-YORK, SUNDAY, OCTOBER 13, 1912.
"Sea Soldiers" Have Record of Daring and Duty Well Done
y/hen You Read of Uncle Sam's Marines Calmly
Stepping Ashore in Nicaragua to Face Deadly
Machine Guns in Protection of American
Interests the Story Needn't Suprise
You; TheyVe Been Doing Such
Things for Many Years.
? ,ftf- I met Im all over the world. a-doln*
2BS IthaOatlW gun to talk
???,?*???*"ammVcii Instead of a rot. an*
??fl__t ' ^e top of the earth the
*^J..r ? ? nor do
?flS im ?t nlght on a bald mm*
?? * . *L? own can."-.
J****- Ti <?sin..pnlouse ?oldle
T.rt'il'- -Ru.lyar.l *__***__
THrs m, Kipling descrihes the
Marlne How would the reader Oa*
icrlh?* him? Withln the la*-t few
?jm eor marlne- hav< faced the Nlcera
?uan machim* guni at Cayotepe, and cap?
tured lhal teht I stronghold and Barrane.i.
Thev were landed to pi-teet American
amm from alau-thter, to restor,
The l'nlted Btatea is BOl at war with
Nlcaragua There were flerce and blood-.
hattlf* in athtth ***** of 0Ur mH,lnef'
"ere killed- But. in the technic al sense.
it waa not war. Why these men happemd
te b? wnt -outh 1? another story lt la
-rlth the marlnea themselves that the
Coroparatively f<>w i-"prson8 know wb0
these '*marines' are that are so fre
ouentlv reported ln the newspaper head
linef as havlng "the situation well in
ha--" Where do the marines ko'.' Whal
are their dutles, tluir characteristlcs?
How do they dress? It would be mtcre.'-t
ini to hear the responses to these ques
tkns made by the Brat one hundred per
tons to whom they might he PHt.
NO TRUMPET BLARES FOR HIM.
CaaeMerlni the part h. ha- pl
the world s historj oi warfare. there i**
nr ftghtir- i nll le
predated, or even leas known than the
marlne. Hav ng taken ? in iha
nwkinir and obliteratlng of mapa since
the days of the Ph*o?niclan galleys and
the hiremes of the Grecian maritime
atttes at l-aaal Bve ceaturiea before
the Ctsrlstlan era. down to the pree
ent day, the chronlclera of the Klories
of arm-- of all rivMied peoplco have m<i.
battles in every-corner of the globe for
i.'ore thRn a century. Its 'nembei* in
the Btat men on tho ground ln the event
of trouble wlth a forel.n power ami tM
?i la b-ttk In cas, f hO-tillti-**.
11 moblllty and _*__.__- tbt (|-tck
_____ _ra rt(|iilr<-(l uf -h.* marine*. They
a<e kept ln readlness t_ Otor* at a m>>
RM_t'_ notlce. Ifl many ,,f tne p.ctioii* in
which they have __m.il tnev bave had
to OOntCOd n_i.ii:.*t gtaat <>d1_ in the way
of iapcrfor wtmb i ?
The battle of Ouantanamo Fay. Cuba.
."urli**j the war wlth Spaln ia p good ex
ample of the great odds that marines bi*
frequenth _*__*_ to meet A battalion of
txx.nty-three offlcers and ti_3 men wns
landed M the shores of Guaiitanamo Rav
on June lb, Ih'iK. and, wlth only llttle foo^*
and no re.t, engageI a very large Span?
ish force, whlch was conceabd la the
inapi and nnderbrnsh thercahnut, fnr
thi**. tejn and nlghts. and finally suc
la _aa*aat___ and drivinc tbettiemv
< ntir.l~ ovt of the dlstrtct.
STRENGTH ABOUT 10.000 MEN.
At the nutbreuk of the war with Bpatrl
| the I'nited BtaiM Marine Corps om*__.1
j ed of 2.','><< men. Xow its approximat* (
atieatrUi la 10.000 men.
The particular duties of marines aboard
a_lp ara a>- aaattaala to watch over thi
**aa_*a_**_, boats alongslde, approachlng
nt pa-sing. and to give the alarm ln vtm
! of flre. to preaerve order ani to permlt
np -ambling or swearlng: to prevent in
Jury to or theft of prlvate or gov-rn
ment property; tO allow M __K*_t__ 91
~a_?lOg Of Cloth.. except at the pre
? <1 hours : to allow no onlisted man
nr boat to leave the ihtp withcut th*' "***?
thority of th*' offlcer of the deck; tO
*r__i_ prisoners and at all times malntaln
dlactpttaa and good order. In port they
COastltOta the deck guard fnr purposes ol
Marines are detailed as -run crews of
1 the s nalatlng of th-- i
Gvat. Crew of M-n.rin.ea , U S.S. Con.-nee_.c_t..
workin^ 3 ir\cK *Aurt.'
I'ennsylvnnla Rallroad ferryboat Newark
on Deeetiiber "'. 1911. ami aaved tt:.* l.r
Of Owen O.-illriKher. twenty-si--: \. .*? i ?-...1.
cf Bajroane, N J- lt ia n..t plaaaatrt Ir
the Hudson ifi DeeembeT Etergeant Miii* r
i.i- recelved i nteda] from Congri
will. it if unil.-tst....'!. ??"ii !???) ? I Cai
negle hero m>*(lal al ??
As an adraaca haaa forea tha marlnea of
the Unltad stat.*; navy ara tralaed tn ti
uee of portable .-.-ai. IdiKlit*. th.* wlrel.--.
telegraph. telegraphy. tetephon.
torpedoea and range Bndera Thej
tralned to tranaporl and pa
Hc. towi (orcee, jui-i thelr preHialnary tn
?1..11 i-- liMiallv tha -ame.
I'.ci- theea raaaoM thej' havo *?*?
q laltfled tor iint> olthar artth Om
ot tha navjr, aad ar.*, therefore, "t do
raloa t.i th.* natlon thal ? *nipi">- th< m
Th'-ir heai benrad-i and depota
pre oa ahore, and from theea detaili
I, .,.!.* when raq dred f.-r aanrlea on board
Thaea d - rerj ?'?
a || || . i ij.. fi'dii a Booan in- n iiii-l. i a
and the Tripolitans, "after moat gallant
exertlona," Lieutenant Osborne and hla
guard were made prtsoners.
In the flght of the Trlpolitan gunboata
on August 3. 1S03, Lieutenant Trlppe. en
gaged In a hand-to-hand contest wlth ti
Turk, waa saved by a sergeant, who
"passed a bayonet through the body of
the Turk "
The marine corps alao flgured ln the re?
markable march of General Eaton from
Alexandria to Derne. nearly slx hundred
miles through Northern Africa. whaTO R
small detachment of marinos, under the
command of Lieutenant OBannon,
mounted on -amels and donkeya In the
caravan. leavened the lump of Arabs nnd
Greeks ln the service of the Unlted States.
and In the attack on Derne stormed the
prlnclpal work. took possesslon nf the
battery, planted the American flag for
the flrst tlme on a fnrtress of the Old
World. and turned tta IMM <il>?>n the
enemy. Thereafter. Trlpoll was Insrrlbed
on the banners of the marine corps
During the War nf IM" they wc'f ex
tremely actlve at sea and on shore. In
the glorbvis vl-tmy of tha C_W_UtU_0_
US. H_.rir._- m_J-*-irx-4 ?_*
l_.Tidin*^ _wb .5_bo*_cy,
C__b__ i*x 18*. 8
-:? * ??'*. *?
A datacnment of M^rirves on. botvrd
tJ.S.*S Conntclicut e ?.! *-- k i n4 - He ? *-_i*per
A M-JLr.T-e Turkey T-ro-ft_n??
-with. a_ ?_wilor on Fl_-?_hi-p Cotv*-*-.
fjon- ComrmrrtoW OKicers _nd Pr.u_.tes ?f^/P^ision^^omp^y or
H_rin.s. M_rinc 3_vr__k., N'_.v&\ Ac_.dervi_/
i ? I
tloned h:m ln many a stirring *?
And yet. to-day. a very large part of thi
Population of maritlme nations, and cer
tairly r the I'nited States, do not know
what a m.irlne really i
They have proved ihelr patriottsm and
Wnetk ? to oar eoontry for over a hun?
dred >ear?. Througlmut this perlod thal"
* ii In th'* frnrt rank of Amerl<*a's
detendrr.* They have been zealous par
ttelpants in nearly .***.? iv Sf-tpedltioa aad
action in Whlch th.- navy has beea .*n
gagtd Iti many trylng <eaaape-g-M \--lth
thelr hrethren of the army they have
won diMir.< tlon. Thr jjlole has been 4helr
They have fought at Trlpoll. in Mexico
?nd tn tha fiji le'.ancis. They arere <-n the
job ln ParaRuay, at Marper's Ktrry. at
Kiwmvc, on the west coasi ? f Africa. and
ln Panama. They fought the Japan<*se at j
Shlmonosekl, the aavages ln Korrr.osa an 1
the forta in '.'orea. They suppressed seal
POaehlng ln the Berlng gaa and prot.i t- I
the Mvea and property of Amerlcan cltl
aena ln Hololulu, '*hlll and China. The-*.,
*bd many more things have the I'nlt-d
Btates marines accomplished.
Who ls this amphlhious wnrrlor?
THE NAVY'S MILITARY BRANCH.
All New York knows that the MVy nas
aaaemble-l Its greatest fleet in thls harbor
ln preparatlon for l revWa hy the I'rexl
dent ef the l'nlted States: that the offlcers
Iii rm n ln thls greai fleet will number
between twenty-flve thousand -*nd tbltty
thousand. To the average person these
twenty-nve thoueand men will be known
?? aaliors. To-day, on the modern t.attle
?bip there are six branches of i-ervlce.
eiclualve of the marln*. These are; The
artlflcer branch, the engineer forre, the
eon?ml?sary brni-i.h. the metemnn bran-sh.
Ihe special branch. the seaman branch
and tl.e marlne detachment.
The ourlnes comprise the mllltary
hraneh ef the 1 nlted Btate-* Navy. >r<2
?erve l--*h at sea and on land. At aea
Ihey tkrte on the battleahtps gmt tlrm
lasa crulsws, and on sh ire ;hey are sta
hontd at tbe navy yarda and naval sta
a">*e. It U the gallant llttle corps that
*M so ably reilsted ln flfhtiog Ameiica'a
DctojcK-me-at of M_.r--.__ _-fc* C_mp
smaller callbre. machine and rapld flre
guns. Every poaalble opportunity for
drlll and target pra-tlcc is taken ad
vantage of, and the men be.B_*a expert ln
worklng these guns.
In time of peace. therefore. the rcgula
routlne dutlea of the marine corpa. ln com
parlson with the varlous clvll ilfe em
ployment*.. are llght, and the houra of
actual o.cupation are ahort.
In time of war the hard_hlps are many
At such periods in our country's history
we flnd the marlnea dolng thelr duty by
protectlnK the Interesta of the nation in
thelr own characteristic way.
It ia not an unusual thlng to read of a
marine in tlme of peace performing a
deed Of h? rolsm aa though Impatient at
the dearth of opj*ortunltles affnrdeci Ia
such piplng season.
Henry W. Miller. a aetgeant of ma?
rlnes. attached to the recrultlng atatio.i
at No. 74 Newark avenue. Jeraey Cltv.
plunged overboard from the deck of the
able shore posltlons guns of 3. I and ?
In other words. the navy has ln th"
marine corps a llttle army of Its own.
whl<h. without causing lnternational <om
l>l|..itions. without distkrblng stock mar?
ket. and without even attractlng undue
attentlon. It may pick up and move tfl
some dl?tuil>e<l centre ln a forelKn land
for the prote tion of American 11 ?
?UUt-lU Thaoe "soldlera of the sea"
?ae-re pgaaSUy s*1*1 tmmtatMlbwmly, taa
iiuently nipping i fvolutlon In th.- btat
before the world at large knows that
there has really been any cause for con
In nearly all maritime countries clalm
ln\' to be war poweia marine-; constltute
a separate mllltary body trained either t?i
flght as lnfantrymen or artlllerlata, and
e-jpeclHlty for partlcipatlon ln naval aa
gagements. They are orga.nl_-d. clothed
and equlpped very much aa soldlera ol
| setgeant tn slxty or more men under one
or more offlc? rs.
The flr.-t authentic record < f marines I
InAmeii.;, i.ei'is the date of 1740. Early j
in that year three additlonal regiment*
were ralsed when the royal st_ndard was
dtsplay.d at New York as a port to whlch
any volunteer marine was to repalr.
lt ls nippoaed that tne native Amerl
.v... t. tter calculnted fnr service ln
thls cllmate than **a**r_peaM 'tid they
WOTO loth.d in a mann.r whlch was
H.r.d well ntxtptai lor thelr dutle*
I !;?? tl.bl offlcers were appolnted by the
crown, the country offlcers were nomi
' nated hy the American provlnces.
I On June f. 1775. the Contlnental Con
I gress resolved "that the . ompact he
Ml th? 'Town and Massachusetta Bay
is dlssolved." and on November 10. be
jfore a alngle vessel of the navy was
? sent to sea the corps waa organized by
Ihe following reaolution:
fiv* inch te-rget
8?hofc8- 8 H\iB
o? US S.
"Resolved. that hattallons of marines i
be raised. conslsting of one colonel. two j
lleutennnt colonels. two majors .ind other
Iti,. I-. an usual ln other reglmentM, tbat
ji.. | .cnslst cf an equal numb-'r of prl
vatea. with otlmt hattallons; that par
tleolar eara ha taken that no person he
appolnted to ofhVrrs or enllsted In aaid
battaltoaa bai auch ea are good xeamen.
or so actjuaint*.' wlth nmrltlme affairs as |
10 b- able to --.rve :.i udvantage by sea j
when re.pilre.1: that they be dlstingut*-h--?l
hy the name of the lst and M hattallons
,if Amerlcan marlnea."
I.it r ln the sanie month another reao
latSOB was adopted. provldlng agalnat flll- j
ing the .orps f*-r th.* army. On Decem- j
.?.,- u !".,, I'.cimiess dlrected thirteen j
(.j-.lp- of war to b<- hullt. On December ?
8 Congreaa paaaal a resolutlon declarlng |
Eaea Hopklaa oommandar in chlef, and j
appolnted od-cen f"r all the vessels then
Thls was the flrst step taken toward
the creatlon of the naval establishment.
whlch has won Imperlshable fame for the
l'nlted States and upon whlch Is based
the clalm of the marlne -orps to be "the
oldest in the service."
Alitri.lKe aaya "before a alngle veaael
of the raw went to sea a corps was l
orgaataed." and from that a detachment
of lt won. on the Island of Kew Provl
dence-one of the Bahamaa-early ln 1777.
the flrst flght ln the hiatory of the reg
u'ar naw. ln thls noteworthy engage
ment the attacklng party. conslsting of
31.4 marines and landsmen. under MaJ..r
Nlchols. captured the forts and other
.lef.nces of the enemy after a struggle
,,f a few houra. and aecured a quantlty of
storea and British cannon. The marines
b.-lon-el to the fleet of Commodore Hop?
kins. who was operatlng against I_>rd
DurltiK the following; years of the Revo?
lutlon they arere found ut work provlns
thelr patriotl. m tn the cauae whlch gave
them being. Conspicuous among thelr ser
vices is thelr part. under John Paul Jones, j
la tha action between the Kanger and thr
Drake, la whlch Lieutenant Walllngfonl.
of the marines. lost his Ilfe at the head
,,f hla mta: aealn. ln the great battle
between the Baa Homme Klchard and th >
Berapta, in whlch the marlnes numbered
1:17. 1<-I bv Colonel stack and two lieuten?
ant*. In thls action they lost forty-ninp
kllled or wounded.
ln ]7s. Captain Barney. in command nf
the Hyder Aii. litted out hy the State of
***na*Q*t**--ta, with n crew of Ut aaa
men and marinea. captured ln Delawar*
Hay the British ship General Monk. eigh?
teen guns, after a hotly contested combat.
Thls action has been deemed one of the
most brllllint that ever occurred under th
American flag. If waa fought ln the
presence of a vaatly auperlor force that
was not engaged, and the ship taken waa
in every essentlal respect superlor to he>
The na\y, and consequently the corpa
of marinea. like the army. waa dlsbanded
at the terminatlon of the Ftcvolutlonary
struggle. leaving nothing behlnd but th<
recollectlons of thelr service and aulter
Obj Aprll tt, 179*1, a regular naw
department was formally created, and or.
July 11. 17PS. an act wna approved for
e.tablishing and organlztng the marine
During the war with Trlpoll, ln 1803, in
the fhrht between the frigate Philadelphia
c.v.-r tha Oaerrtara lha Brel oflteor klUad
arpa Ueuteaanl Bush. who wantaai
the marlne guard, and who, with h\*
junior lieutenant. OontOO, was assistinff
in repelling boadets * at ? Clftk ll inBC-M Bt
of the angaia_a>nl ** ta lha rl storj of the
l'nlted States over the Mac.-donlan. Lleu
tenaata Anderson and Bdward- fought
for the tnarlr.es with th-- "at-BOel steadl
In the hriliant operations of the Essex
ln the Paclflc Ocean. Lieutenant Gairble
gained great reputatlon for "sklll nn'! et*
flciency," commaniling in turn his guard.
a prize ship. and a fort at.Nukahiva. in
the liaiejaceaa Islands ln the bloody
flght between the Shannon and the
Cheoapeake, Lieatenaat Brooai aad devea
of his men w? r<* kill. d nnd twenty wot.nd
The marlne.- also took part in the bat
tles of l.ake Kr!e and Lake I'hamplaln;
in the action b.tween thi- Constitution
and the I'yane gjai I.evant; in the fight
hctwe.ri ihe President and the Kndymlon,
and la th>* ii?iit oa [_aka Poaohartraln.
Oa shore they v.-.-tv with the army
under BooCt, th.-n cob.nel. lo Canada; with
Oeneral Wlnder at Btedeadharg, with
Oeaand Jackson at New Orleana. at
North Polnt. Baltlmore. and in aundry
affairs on the coast of Maine ar.d on the
?horao of Cheaapeaka and Dolawata baya.
In th.- Interval b.tween mi and th-o
Florida war 4l*?_?>-37? they were i alled
upon. anioncr other things. to .juell a
serious revolt In the .Massachusetts state
prlson and to act agalnat Hpanlsh plrat.-s
| ln the West Ir.dles and Malays in Su
I maira, ar.d to guard public and prlvate
l property at tne tlme of the gr-at flre in
New Vork ln lS3o. for which t'uy tOBmO .1
a vote of thank.-i from that clt>.
|VOLUNTEERED AGAINST INDIANS.
1 When In.llan hostllitles broke ..ut in
Georgla. in lS-tj. the di*io--al*le force f
the army belng found Inadequate, Colonel
Cotnmandant Henderson promptly volun
teered hla aervleea and those of tha corps
serving on shore. In the Eveiglades they
usslsted in the arduous campaign of <Jen
l eral Jessup agalnst the tteacherou*
1 Creeks and Seminoles. Besldes, two com
! panles, 130 men. servfd with the mosqulto
fleet on the west coast oe-eparat-Bg.
The corps was engaged In th. war wlth
Mexlco from 18-16 to 1818. where lt flgured
from every quarter and made a most
excellent record. Several detachments
were on the Paclflc slde, wlth Commo
dores Sloit. Shuhricic and Stockton; oth?
ers on the east coast wlth 4'ommodorcs
Connor and Perry. ar.d at ttmes wlth tha
army under Generals Scott, Taylor and
They were present at the capture ot
Mohterey. 8an Franclsco and Maxatlan;
fought at Los AngeLs. San Dlego. Ban
Joe-e. San Gabrlel and Guaymas. wlth
such credit that Commodore Shubrtck
recommended that the government double
Coatlauea ? n ee-entli page.