Newspaper Page Text
Transatlantic Airship Can Be Built
To-day Says Great German Engineer
Dr. Johann Schuette, Whose Name Is Grouped
with That of Zeppelin in the Designing and
Building of Aircraft, Believes All Tech
nical DifficultiesOpposing the Aerial
Passage of tiie Atlantic Have
Been Overcome, but Study
of Winds IsStill Needed.
DR. JOHANN rfCHVKTTK. inventor
and constructor of the Schuette
L_n_ airshlp. the latest develop?
ment c?f the German dlriglble. arrived ln
town a few days ago from Mannheim,
Germany. aiv! talked frankly to tbe Trib?
une man at the Waldorf. Dr. Schuettes
ahlps of the alr are not experMmental. He
has already built and successfully navi
gated one of the most perfect German
dlrlglhles. This ship was flnished in 1911.
and has run perfectly through storms and
rain from Mannheim to Berlin. over 340
miles. The vessel holds 600,Ooa cubic feet
of gaa and travcls forty-flve miles an
hour. The lar.est diameter is M to?t and
its length 450 feet. The carr-o welght ls
Tive tons. It cost *_-.__ marks, or $162,J*00.
Zeppelln. Schuette and Parseval aie the
great destgm rs and bulldcrs of BUCCeaa
ful German alnhlpa. Dr. Schuette is the
greatest airshlp bullder wbo has tttt
vlslted America. Zeppelln bulldF the rigld
aluminum type. Schuette thfl rigtd wooden
type and Parse.al the mo.-t succcssMl
Dr. Schuette ranks among the greatest
of German engineeis. Kor a period he
waa naval constructor in the North Ger?
man Laoyi aanrlea H? rta-a1 nccupies the
chalr of !;aval construction in thfl Ro**_1
Technkal High School of Dantzlc. He
lirought a httcr from the mllltary dt
tache of the American Kmbassy at Berlla
to Hrigddier General JaflMfl -Mfl-i rl'ief
of the Cnlted States army *iKnal corps.
lt belng under.tend that Dr. Schuette
would soon build a new airshlp. to bfl the
larsest ln Germany, and whlch lf it at
taius a certain efflebwy. the German gov.
emmer.t wlll purchase, the Trlbune man
bought him at his hotel.
Me ls an impuhivc type nf the Germaa
engineer. Hls whole appearance sUKgests
the man who has arrived. He brlstlee
Wlth Prusslan alacrlty. He received tha
Tribune man ln the Palm Room _1 tht
When the reporter stated hls misslon
Dr Schuette seemed to fail to under
Kt.ui'I. He said:
?What is. the proposition?"
Aa well as he could the reporter re
stated the object of hls eall. The great
Inventor thereupon motloned to a -eat at
table, lnqulred "What beer will you have'"
and, taklng a clgar from hls leather case,
he curefully cllpped the end and stowed
the exnenslvely constructed weed between
hls teeth. The walter lit it for hlm.
Dr. Schuette gave a gutteral of deep
enjoyment and again said:
"What ia the proposition? You want
to go Into the alrship business, yes? Well.
if not, what Iss? It is a gnod buslnesa,
but no foollshness. Vannlman, Weilman,
"Are you going to brlng an alrship to
America?" he was asked.
For why?" he inquired. "Why should
we brlng it over here?an airshlp? For
the money? Why should we brlng an alr?
ship here?simply to send her up for tha
amuaement of the people to look at and go
away and talk about it?
"Tell me. why should we do it? We
have lt a_ many aa we need. and we need
what money we've got to develop mote.
Dr JoK-aj-cnScK-uctfce , .nvercfcor o.
tKe ScK-uebte-la.TL3 Airskvp ,-u/Ko
Kecs just ret-u-rrted to Ccrwoj-vy
after o. short visib ko -His
.ScK-aette - L_.ni- Air sH.p
?r_e of- Ker
THe tJcH-_e&*-_ -.-.toi^
eamejaAjejek diVmeVe-r to& 9k.
cpced. 45 3*n.ilesr:_v*n. "hour..
"Of courae." the reporter hastened to
reply. "Germar.y does not need to aend
an airshlp to the Unlted Statea, but
among aeronautlcal students here there
la a strong hope that somehow, aome
way. we wlll be permitted to learn by ob
aervatlon of tried and proven alrshipa to
develop thelr uaefulness in America."
"Bah! We aubsldlze alrshlps ln Ger
many." replied Dr. Schuette. much as a
profeasor would chlde a dellnquent
pahalar. "The German nation helps Zep?
"Well. our Congress as yet has failed
to aubsldlze any scientlfic development tn
aeronautles," he was told.
"But your rich men. your private en
terpriae. would do lt for a few mlllloas,
yea? I cannot understand lt. Surely, lf
I go out and I talk wlth rich men and
they aee what In Germany we are dolng,
la lt not ao? What beer will you have?
Dr. Schuette's friend. a Mr. Schacfer.
of Dantzig, who had accompanied hlm
from Germany. here withdrew from hls
pocket a large leather case fllled with
clgar*. choae one. carefully clipped ita
end and deposited the weed. ln appear
nnce much like Dr. Schuette'a, between
hia tceth. Throughout the Intervlew the
friend. who aat at the dootors left. aald
no word. but appeared to obtain genu
ine aolace from hla dark beer and smoke
To lead the conversatlon bark to the
fatherland, Dr. Schuette waa aaked how
Mr. Lana waa brought Into the name of
"By the very good reaaon." Dr. Schuette
promptly replied, "lhat he and hia famlly
put 2.Cs?,000 marka Into the buslneaa."
Aaked for hla vlews concernlng the fut?
ure of aeronautics, Dr. Schuette aald that
wlth three to flve yeara more of develop?
ment the alrship wlll easily cross tbfl
"There are no technlcal dlfflcultles ln
the w.v of -_ll_in_ an alrship to-day
Looicirt^ tkrou^k fckc Airskip in.
ifc*? K_kT-'i?-_'r *a.b.M?-*n.rwKeir?y
that will cross the Atlantic," he added.
"All that is ncded is money."
"The reason that such a shlp ls not bullt
to-day," he continued, "ls the lack of
meteorologlcal Informatlon about the
movernent of the wlnds from the west
eastward across the Atlantic."
The dally exchange of our weather ser?
vice, says Dr. Schuctte, wlth those ln
Kurope nnd the icc-civing of dally
weather reporta from shlps at aea are the
all-lmportant neceaslties for navigatlon
by alrshlpa acrooa the ocean.
The reporta from shipa on tho water
should glve thelr locatlon by longitude
and latltude, wlth the temperature, preas
ure, dlrectlon of the wlnd and the tlme of
"It Is easentlal," he added, "that we
ahould poaaeaa a dally weather map of
the Atlantic Ocean, aa the speed and
direction of the prevailing winds over tha
Ing around Penmark or passlng through
"It would bo a very wlse thing for the
l'nlted States to have aeveral big alr
I ships. both on the east and weat coests,
! to guard loth approaches to the canal
: The alrshlps can scout to sea and dlseovcr
! a hostile fleet when It Is stlll 200 or SOO
miles away. giving the navy plenty of
tlme to transfer Its fleet from either
coast The alrshlps can also make splen
dld observatlon <>f the enemy's fleet whllo
Mgh ln the air and can act as destroyers.
?"i'ou need not any more fear raln or
rough wather. We do not fear these
things at all In heavy ralnfall, or fog so
thlck that we cnuld not see one hundred
feet away. against a wlnd hlowlng fifty
feet a second. we went ahead for ten
* Thf maln thing I would llke to em*
phaslie Is that we were golng ahead all
the tlme agulri--t thls wlnd. We steered
the ahlp perfectly. we went up and we
went down at will and we went on the
rlght ilde and on the left slde
"And all thla tlme the wlnd was ln?
creasing, and whlle we were landing In
Ootha, 1S0 soldlers of the aerlal hattallon
of the German army. the whola flre bti
gsde of Ootha and perhaps 100 specta
tore-tn all. 360 men-Just could handle the
shlp and get Into the hangar.
"Jt was Jumplng up and down awfully.
But nothlng was broken."
Dr. Hchuette explalned that of course
thla waa extraoidlnary weather. Ordl
TKc Sck-.tte-Lt*----. K-a-r-^e-r; **_*-_; -_.orlc.Kop
__fe. K_-n*rxbA\T--- ?
"True, but can you do It, la what our
flnanelers want to know," auggeated the
"Sure, we do it. It ls so eaay if I bring
the parts over to put them together in
Chlcago, or New York. perhaps. I don't
care-Plttsburgh," he replied.
"In a few days we got together the
parts. We turn'on the machlnery; we go
up. The po-pellers make a nolse. Over
here everybody, when they hear, looks up.
"ln Berlin, when the po-pellers they
make a nolse, the people say, 'What Iss?'
" l/gh,' Bomebody says, 'it ta the air?
"They don't look up any more ln Ger?
many. Every day they hear the po-pel
ler. Alrships is nothing, for why? From
Hamburg to Berlin, from Frankfort to
Dilsseldorf. from Mannhelm to Cologne,
all over. all the tlme, they could not do
nothing If all the tlme look up."
The big war airshlp that Dr. Schuette is
now building wlll have 1.000,000 cublc feet
displ..rem?nt. be torpedo shape, will travel
flftv-live miles an hour, its largest dianvter
wlll be 62 feet and its length M feet. The
ship wlll be drlve n by four englnes of a
combined 800-900 horsepower, carried in
three cars, auspended under the keel.
The cars will not sway while in the alr,
hut will give elastlclty if the ship
.trikea the ground, thua protecting the
hull from shock. Thls ls an Innovatlon
of Dr. Schuette's.
The war airshlp also has a fourth car?
a navlgatlng car forward, closer to the
bottom of the hull and nearer the bow
than the other cars. whlch are s.spended
at regular Intervale.
Tho entlre belly of the hull ia a com
panlnnway. reachlng from bow to stern
and built Into the frame of the hull.
On the forward top of the hull ls a re
volving guy turret wlth two long range
machlne guns. These are uaed to flre
stralght up Into space or sldewiae. mak?
ing an are of about 80 degreea. One of
the ohjecta of thls arrangement ls to pro
tect the ahip against aeroplanea or other
airshlpa that attempt to get overhead.
A big Innovatlon is a machlne gun
spnnson upon the side of the hull. It
contalns one machlne gun that can be
flred ln either a horlzontal are or ln a
vertlcal are. These guns are all ao
nmunted that they cover all polnta ln
The ship wll! carry two llfeboate. each
holdtng twenty-flve persons, ln the event
that they are needed for oversea scoutlng
and flghtlng. The cargo welght la twelve
to thlrteen tons
The faet that Dr. Schuette bullda hla
hull of preased wood makea the total
welght of the ahip much llghter than an
slumlnum frame. Thls aaving ln welght
j enables lt to carry more useful cargo ln
| the ahape of englnes, men, gaaolene, guna
and ammunition, dynamlte, fuel, life
1ie-_r_Endme- c-a.rof.tke Sck-iette-l/e-nj, Avr?ki*p,
?watpr alone control the courae of tho
alrshlp over the open aea.
"Most of our bad weather comes from
the west: that ia. the bad weather ls orig
Inated over the North Amerlcan contlnent
and the North Atlantic. The great eaat
ern drift of the air, carrled ln that dlrec?
tlon hy the eastward motlom of the earth.
ls responslhle for the dlrectlon taken by
all our storms.
"ln iny ofllce at Mannhelm, what I would
llke to know ls all ahout the maxlmums
and mlnlmums tliat are on the way across
the Atlantic. We should have thls In?
formatlon every morning to supplement
our own dally weather reports from sev
erul hundred statlona ln Germany.
"Kxact knowledge of the weather and
what ls comlng dlrectly Is the heart of
alr navlgatlon. It la much better that the
Marconi wlreleaa should glve us thls than
that some llttle klng ls dlnlng on hls
"Mr. Vannlman'a method of attempting
to crosa the ocean wlthout any weather
knowledge reveals the foolhardy thing
that lt la."
To an lnqulry aa to the place that the
L'nlted States will occupy In aeronautics
ln the near future, he replled:
"I believe that the United States must
go ahead In aeronautlcal mattera to pro
tect Ita west coaat agalnat Invasion or
surpriae. "Wlth your Panama Canal you
double your fleet, aa we would aay, and
aa we do wlth our naval channal from
Kiel, on the Baltlc, to Wllhelmshaven, on
the North Sea.
| "By thls means we can make use of
our armored fleet without loslng time go
narlly, the alrshlp's own crew lamia the
craft perfectly, as done many times dur?
ing Its voyages aggregatlng 8,600 miles ln
July and August, earrylng flve hundred
passengers. But the weather ln Oermany
ln August laid up many of the Rhtne
"You ahould run alrshtpa In America,"
aald Dr. Schuette. "You should have
aeveral hangars hare, perhapa ln New
York. Philadelphia and Waahlngton, and
two or three alrshlpa. Also, perhapa, four
or llve hangars on the Paclflc Coaat and
four or flve big war alrshlps or more."
"How much capital would be needed?"
he was asked.
"What do you thlnk?" asked the Inven
tor, tn turn.
"One million doilars," hazarded the re
"Ugh! If you have 11,000,000 It would
only pay for two or three alrshlps," tatd
Dr. Schuette, a llttle Impatlently.
"You want hangars, you want a gas
factory, beat hydrogen. expert captaina,
traltied crewa; you want meteorologlata
all tha tlme-nlght and day.
"Your propcllers break; you need work
shops; you need many duplicate parts.
You need a new shlp, perhaps, altogether.
You need all the tlme many things.
"If you have only 1,000,000 what you call
dollars-don't do lt. Save your money. If
you do lt llke foollshness, It ia no uae.
If you are serious, and, what you aay,
meana on the Job?why, 12,600,000, at the
"For why do you thlnk of less money?
Two and a half milllons, everybody
knows. ts nothlng at all to a rich man ln
the United Statea." ?
boaia, wireless. searchllghta, water bal?
laat, inatrumenta. etc.
It la well known that wood uaed ln
strlpa, aa Dr. Schuette uaes lt, ls about
one-alxth llghter than alumlnum, and that
the tenalle utrength of wood la one-half
that of alumlnum. But the alumlnum ls
brlttle and snaps much more easlly than
wood. whlch ia elastic, and poaaeeses,
therefore. about three tlmes the strength
falr airshlp purposes.
Thia has been demonstrated by atrlking
the ground. The Sehuette-L_n_, ln aev?
eral accldcnts, has not been Injured,
aa In the case of the Zeppelln ahlps, four
or flve of whlch have been broken by
atrlking thelr sheda during heavy wlnda.
Dr. Schuette haa Invented a new klnd
of ahed that enablea hla ahlps to enter
or leave the hangar without dlsaatroua
reaulta during wlnds. The new ahed wlll
have four doora, one at each end and one
on each side at the centre.
The ahip, for lnatance, can paaa through
the ahed by obllquely enterlng an end
door and paislng out a side door. Aa thia
can be done from either end and through
either side, lt enables hlm to dock the
ship ln a wlnd from any directlon.
Thia la the solution that has been awalt
ed ln the matter of docklng alrahlps.
One of Pr. Schuette *s greateat Inven
tlons ls a aecret devlce for conaervln. the
auatalnlng gaa. Thia devlce la auch that
when the gaa expanda and oegins to blow
off. the action atarta pumpa that auto
matleally compress the gaa Into reaervolr
No gas la lost. When the gaa ln the
auatalnlng chambers cool. and ahrinka,
the compressed gas can *_e returned to
the sustalnlng chambera. Thls glves th*
alrshlp a very certaln endurance aad
lengthens its voyages, enabllng lt to covir
In ahort, lt guarantees remalnlng afloat
for flfty hours. or as long as lt has fuel.
These Improvements begin to put the
airhhlp on a practical basls, llke stsamer*.
Dr. Schuette MJW he expects, wlthin two
or three years, that much greater alrshlps
wlil be earrylng cargoes of thirteen and
fourteen tons, either in pssaengers or mu
nltlons of war. The greatest useful cargo
now carrled ls flve tona.
The rapldity with whlch the site of alr?
shlps ls lncreasing is shown by the fact
that the present Schuette-Lana is oafy
450 feet long, whlle his new war alrshlp
will he 100 feet longer.
Thls also applles to the Zeppellns, tha
largest of whlch, the Hansa. ls 537 feet
in length and makes 49.6 mllea an hour,
whlle the new naval Zeppelln, to be cora
pleted in November. will have a length of
;?3 feet, capable of remalnlng ln tha air
forty-elght hours. whlle earrylng a carge
of nine tons and maklng flfty-flve mllea
an hour, to fulfll the government con?
tract. The naval Zeppelln will carry a
llfeboat and will be statloned at WU
helmshaven, on the North Sea.
The great naval Zeppelln now being
buiit for the German Admiralty will ba
dlfferent from all former Zeppellna. It
will have no navlgating cars: englnes and
crew will be carrled Inside the hull, along
wlth the gas chambera, giving the alrshlp
a perfectly smooth under surface, wrltaa
T. R. MacMechen ln "Alrcraft," whlch
of course, will make the craft much
swlfter. as the outer hanglng cara cause
some drag. lt also increases the alrshlp'a
aeroplane effect. ln other words, it adds
both to the 11ft and speed of the craft.
According to apeclflcatlons, thls ahlp
must make flfty-flve miles an hour. but lt
ls confldently expected that lt will make
sixty. It wlil be recalled that. according
to apeclflcatlons. War Zeppellns I and D
were expected to make thtrty-elght mllei
an hour, but developed forty-seven and
a quarter, ao it la not too speculatlve to
expect a speed of alxty mllea from the
new naval Zeppelln.
The experiences gained from the Vlk
torla Lulse In her seiles of trlps over the
North Sea and the Baltlc Sea have sup
plled the Zeppelln engineers with data
that wlU enable them to Increase the
llftlng capaclty on the naval alrshlp over
water and furnish the knowledge neces
sarv to Improve its steering devlce ta
take advantage of great wlnds.
The tests of the Vlktorla Lulse and the
Hansa over the Baltlc Sea have proved
these important polnts:
Flrst-That the alrshlp can travel per?
fectly ln complete darkness, ac-iulrtng
knowledge of its locality at all tlmaa by
atmospherlc locallzatlon. That is to say,
lt holds its position ln the wlnd of known
speed and dlrectlon at a tixed height
above the water. flnda its latltude and
longltude by the atare and followa ltt
course by the compass.
Second-It haa demonstrated that lt
can descend and scoop the water from
the sea. therefore lncreasing its weight
at any time that lt ls txpedient to do tro.
Th!id-It has demonstrated that it eaa
take gaa and fuel from a steamahip on
the ocean by lowerlng gas malns or cable*
Fourth-It has been learned that th?
ahlp flles much steadler ln hlgher wio<a
over water than ln lower wlnds over laod.
Ftfth-It has been aacertalned that t??
gaa ls much less affected by flylng o-rar
water than flylng over land. whl'**T
perfectly natural when lt ls remembert*
that the heat thrown off by the earth B
much greater than that from the water.
Slxth-All theae demonatrations h??
corrected theory-in reallty, they Ssta
turned theory into fact-and are pro*dn_
that the ooean la the most s-iltabla lor
the alrahlp's best performance.
It la Intereatlng. ln view of Dr. Schu*
ette's plea for the co-operation ot tha
United States tn the exchange of ?*?**
teorologlcal Informatlon for use ln aero*
nautlcs. to note the stand taken by Pro?
fessor WllUe __ Uoore, chlef of tha tmW
States Weather BureatJ
"Avlatlon ls largely indebted to ???
teoroli.gy for Its ex'.stence," taye ?**?
feasor Moore. "The aeroplan* ls only w
klte of the meteorologis* wlth power aJ?
rudder attached. and the art of aen?
navlgatlon and that of weather *?'***[['
Ing wlU be more cloaely allled ln ??
"In fact. the maklng of auch navlgam*
posslble may depend moro upon the m
teorologiat than upon the conatrucuaa
engineer. I forecaat the future when
aay that the tlme may come when w
two hundred statlons of the United suw?
Weather bureau and those if aaaa
weather servlces wlU be equlpped w
avlators and flylng machtnes.
"The klte qn wlndy daya and the ??*?"
plane on -qulet daya will carry Inatrumea
aloft and brlng back the pressur*. wj
perature, dlrectlon and force of the wi
whlch. when telegraphed to the ct-n
offlce, will enable the forecaster to taj
atruct a weather map on, say, the
mlle level, wlU enable hlm to vw .
horlaontal dlatrlbution of preaa-are
temperature gradienla up in tM fr" J
where the energy of the atorm ?"?*j
tha moat Intenae. and, what la oi m
greateat importance to the pHot* m\m2
craft, to determine the regiona of >
ble equlllbrium, where gradlenU *mmM
revarae and awlrla are treqtiebt.
flnally, by cdmparlng the weather
of the high level wlth the one ?'
level, to map out the * vertlcal 1""*?
of preaaure and temperature.
"It ia no wlld fllght of fancy t0 ***^.
that In the near future the weather rf
caater wlil dally lay out the ^ut*V|k
the shlps of the air; when. for ln"?
there ahall fly from the roof oi ? ^
weather atatlon a falrway ?Um* -^
that advlaea cautlon or ona that P*TJj
torily ordera all craft to come do* ^
be tled up; when. for tnatance,, tne
caater of the United BUtea shaii sa.
Continued oa eevtath paf**