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Let _ StooD Down to the Anthill and Study Civics and Social Life
This Multitudinous Race of Moving Dots Has
Developed Through the Hunting, Pastoral and
Agricultural Periods Like Mankind, and
Students Find Ideals of Government
Exemplified in Its Communities.
It HAS thal tb** most ln
hag BUbjeel Ol study among men
,,, hloiot lf Perhapa thta is tin* rea
-..-, .md c blmpai
are likely I
? at< r numbon ol
ny of th. other exhibits
tni thal tb Unj "monk" is bjow proflt
i,.,]. ? tbaa aii ttc
taU< ~ ? method
a new ?
la remlnd blm ot hlmeelf
phyalcally, aad. rleared from his rapartor
i ;. ii funny, or almoal
Hot th. re is little i>sy<*hic
munlon between a man aad a moakey.
: ay b? dressed np in gray
keeper of the* loologlcal park by alt
? table and HBOklng
11 klni '; man. Tbe polar beara arould
oold care. lndeed, he
| hl! way In order to in
? by otarvathm. Thara -
little humanltarlenlam abool h*;m Ha la,
all, ' hiefly animal.
"Oo to tha ant, thou alnggard; conaldei
Whlch havlng no
e, 'cverseer or ruler, letll her
- nimer and gathereth her
f.i in the harveot" That famlllar guo
?; la the trueat arvMenea tli l Bota
mon. or whoever it wa? who arroto the
Proverbo, was a man fall Of knowledge.
it arould nol
tha QUOtattaO to read : "Oo to the ant, thou
Indtvlduallat thou lodallat, thou Demo
? ?? ,i Nattonal Pro
conalder h-1 waya ai d bo wtae,*1
. ti ?
lf woman is t<> share In the govemment
perhapo it woold ba worth whiie for wotn
iffragtata to laqulro int<- tha waya of
ants alao, for Bolomon dei led the
accuracy of ' itlona when ha
arroto "h* T famalo rules la
the onl world. There tho male is only
? haager-on, havlng few tiutie? to perform
tOOl tal i "il at the end
i r.-latior.Hhip wlth the natural resources of
The great proMeaaa of a ooBiniuBlty are
Its food BU| :>ly. maintenaii <? of its num?
bers ajui proteetloa from aauttt ani
other ktadfl of enemit-!-. How has the ant
BOlTed ttiesc soclal problem.- :
The ant Infltflta oa ? UquM dlei B*w
fi > (is -.ii b great n__y auhetaacea, aome
of them solid, but ln tha latt.-r case she
raapfl ofl minute parttclea bj aaeflBa of
thfl lonajitt and prflflflflfl thaa lato ?'
pochel la th.- floor of the month. After
I |Uee___g out the JOBflflfl yhv (xpels thfl
? : into the OUter air again.
The JuJcea are passed back lato ;> Ptei
of en t, win n- they are retalaed either
lor her own use or for that of hnngry
tnenhen of thfl eo*w_p, for aho is likfl a
Ihoapltahle oouatry houflewlffl la tha rnat
! ter of lumlahlai food auppUea from her
Icupboai. w> her aelfhborfl i:i time of
( mi. ss No oaa a~ i aoea hunfry ??* ?'"?
Bllfltle aat colony, for avnry ;<nt to\
Iowa Um teacW?i regardlap the aupplyl*
>i i brother*a a.L rhere ara ao ehar
rgaalaatlon aocMrtlea foi there is no
oood of theotk
The froodoa* arlth which aata disttlbute
to oaa another has beflfl _flCO*Ffl**ed
.. tha nao-tng Leptamlaa. Thifl Ineed
|B often found in tbfl Bflflta ol rartoua
Bt ropeaa ants, ateabna board ;">d h*-f?
ir.gr- Hs lines are such that the ant has
diflkralty in hoidins it. Jaaet aa author?
ity oa ants, dflflcrlhea haelag aeea thaaa
"obeehy" guest*- glldlai aboul bbkh-I
but never l*e___BlB_ in tlielr n^h
ood. He aaw thfl aata threataa and
ev.n Bpring upon th. m. bul .-eldnm hoM
ing them owlng tfl Ibelr agility.
On cne occaslon. after putting snme
boaey lata Ba art_*tolal aeat Jaaet, tfl oaa
l_a own wo (is, obeerved that "from the
[inataat that the tirst fot__era (aata) re
turned to tbe inhabited chamber of thfl
neat, the _epiflB_aa abowfld by ther ex
neiit that they parOfllve. thfl odor of
boaey. Soon a (otiidcrable numh.r Of
J ants were grouped Ifl COUfll? for tbfl PUT
V/orker-' e-y-d. Coc_on*3
of fcKe Ant.whicK pe-.-t_.reS
t_tvd -^u^rd? pLaLT-t-iice
whlch. In quantlty, perhaps fllled the en?
tlre cavity tn the foropatf of the thoras.
? Tli- r. upon the ant agala falls to kck
inp the bOOtla as if to Wtpe its face freo
from the molstur. . and ott-MT Lav-s tli
ereature to its own devtaoi or rogurgt
lat-s another drop. Agaln antl agaln tha
iiiking and feedlng may altarnatOi as lf
thi ant were fasclnat-.l Wlth h.-r p-t aticl
OoM BOt foed and fondle lt eoo-gh. Thls
performance is. in faat, oo fTequoatly re*
peated that I oould aoarly alwaya obeerra
it whooevor i uneovered Um aoot I I tee
rarely wttaeoaod ? ntaro oonti '; '*-',r
ihaii ftie behavtoe "i theao aloader, Mack
inta whlta they ara boMtag tho ehunkjr
itti* red an hins ln tbelr pawa aad pour
the nest. to be stlll further hashed and
sucked dry by groups of ants. Or. the
solid food may be stored away In special
chambers. as lf lt were being stnred ln a
tMPflbOtMfl nr s!lo.
In the liaglnillBf ants were carnlvorous.
Thls ls against the dev.-lopment of soclal
life. and they have gradually changed
their habits tn those of the vegetarfan.
In the cases of some of the ants whlch
stlll remain carnlvorous wayB have been
d'-vclnped of carrylng on c^mrnunlty Ilfe
ln conjunction with the nomadlc form of
exlstence whlch dependence upon animal
fOOd Imposes. Among the carnivoroua
ants are Ibfl fl*Ofl__**_- drive;- ants of
Africa and th. *_flj|Q*~_t*. ants of the
American tmpl' s Tbflflfl ar>- eainivorous
to tti>- laal flflfljflfl. _o_ have beea known
to kill not only monkeys and fowla. but a
In These Colonies the Female Not Only Has the
Suffrage but Rules, and Such Mfghty Prob
lems as Food Supply, Maintenance of Num
bers and Protection from Disease and En
emies Appear to Have Been Solved.
meroua other vermln that lnfest houses
in the troplcs.
What ls deemed to be one of the earllest
departures from an exclusive animal diet
Is the food whlch many ants ln temperato
North America and Eurasia derlve from
plant lice. ecale insects and tree hoppers.
These insects llve upon tree sap. After lt
has pufsed through them lt ls exuded ln
tho form of tlny d.ops of s.weetened water
contalnlng a llttle nltrdgenous matter
Many ants are so gluttonous for thls klnd
cf food that they not only become tntl
mately acqualnted wlth the habits of -he
aphids ai d scale Insects. but a"tuaily col?
lect and store the eggs of these plant
Insects over wlnter ln their nests in urd-;r
that they may redlstrlbute them the fol?
lowing sprlng over the nfots and follage
of the plants. When those hatch they
aupply food for the ants much as the cow
does for mnn. If any one has attempted
to ralse a vlne on the side ot hls house.
only to flnd lt covered wlth plant Hcfl und
tlny dops of honey due, surrounded by
ants, he wlU be quite likely to exclalm
when he read* thla. 'The llttle vlllalns:"
This ls the way the "llttle villalns" milk
their cattle on a thousand vlnes as de
scrlbed by an observer who watched a
company of ants and another of aj/nlds oft
a thtstlo branch.
A single brown ant waa aeen to "crawl
over some aphids wlthout pauslng and
wlthout dlaturbltig t'.cni; hut she soon
halted near one of the smallest and
seemed to caress Its abdomen (perhaps as
the farmer strokes the udder of his cow),
vtroklng lt alternately flrst wlth one and
then with the other antenna. I was sur
prlsed to see the llquid escape from the
aphld's body and the ant seize and lm
blhe the droplet at once.
"Her antenme were thereupon applled to
another much larger aphid. whlch, on
belng caressed In the same manner. volded
a largOT drop Pt tlM nutrient llquid. The
ant advance.! tO seize it. and then moved
on to a thlrd, which she caressed ln the
s.ime manner. The llquid waa volded im- ?
Anta have gone a step furt'.er In thetr
soclal evolutlon by becomlng agricultural
in some speciea. The Attll, a tribe com?
prising more than a hundrei
ot whlch are to be found in Am.
nearly all ln the troplcs, Ilve on fungl
whlch they cultlvate on beds of leaves
they have chewed Into a pulp. or Insect
excrement. The large species take plecea
of leaves from tbfl tr.?? these ln
size and plle them up on the tloors of
their nests. Over the.e piles a dellcate
white fungus grows rapidly. To the
smallest ants in the colony (ara thev
children and Is thls child labor?) is dele
gated the task of weeding the fungu*.
This operation Ifl practically contlnuoua.
the fungus belng prevented from frultlr.g.
Instead small. gllstenlng food bodles
_tyled "ambrosia" are produced The ants
which ilve upon thls fungus have rlser
far above thelr ancestora ln the soclal
aealfl lOd have replaced the uncertaln
supply of animal food of thelr early an
cestors wlth that of an easiiy controlled
and abundant supply of WflfltaMfl origin.
Another ant cultlvates fl globe of earth
formed In a tTflfl and sald to be BBfldfld by
itself. lt Is arguert from thls that the
soclal instlnct ls so far auperior to that
of supplylng the n.-eds of the stomach
that they have gradually changed thelr
methods of securing food and thelr dlet
In order to enjoy the advantagea of \
permnnent urban home.
The stages In the social progress of
man have been named the huntlng. the
pastoral, the agricultural, the commercial.
the industrial and th.' intellectual. The
ants, apparently, have passed through ?h?
flrst three, the predatory. or carnlvorous,
ln whlch the food supply ls depeni-nt
upon the chase, the pastoral, or shepherd,
and the agricultural. Some ants, even,
have reached a stage of development -
where they rely upon slavcs tn do thetr
work for them. They are consi*'.
be a degenerate type, however.
The. central object of this soclal Ilfe
seems to be the production and care of
-*-??-"-?*? ?"--*?*-?" Tff^'-^f-?-'??? ???-?>*--?-?-? - -*.-?,?-??*-**
th.* qw f ,*,s i:\. fteea y- ara
and tha femah workera havo a HCa period
Th. red fla^j of the
ao-1 ehtata arould never
ttt tbe ant cotn
munitit <--, if any such could be found.
they llve ? PUI- form of an
arohlatlo Bodallam, "havlng no guide,
overeeer or ruler." Therfe a.*<- no bos?es
in tlu anthills. but all work together for
lha common good, exhlbltlag many flhar*
rtatica of *i payehleal nature. Th-?
M to whkh they have risen In the
Of life ir Indicated by the fact that
they hnve deveioped a more selentlflcally
. * ? ? aOOtal system than indivlduallstlc
has yet done.
lf tbe arthropolds suggest man by thelr
phyatcal appearance. the ant Interests
hlm thtough psychlcal attrlbutes that re
le Ua own ae c losely that he ls ah'e
to i-iurpret the ant ln some measure for
himself, when he turr.a up a stone on a
i June day and Hes down on the
fteafe green grass beslde lt to watch the
buey ants scurrylng about conveylng their
"eecs" tc safety They do not look like
man, hut there ls aODMttdag about thelr
?ray Of doini; things that sugrests reason
motKe force. So he learn* something
about himself ficm a new angle. Proba?
bly thls is the reason why there lt* more
In'.erc-t In watching ants than ln obae.-v
ing any other Insect. In the words of
I'rofessor Wheeler. of Harvard, "they
(man and the Insect) are the only two
ooaafttl and drmlnant animal types of
the preooct age. and. po far as they are
1. not only have had to encounter tlio
same ohMacles, but have learned to over
corn.* tnsny of them ln the same manner.''
THE ANT A COSMOPOLITE.
Th*re are two grcit Kroups of soclal in?
sects, the Hymenoptera. whlch Includes
the soclal waspn, soclal bees and ants,
and tho termltea. All ure lnferior ln io
t lal qunlities to the ants. The ant world
1k a ureat one. It extends from the tlmber
line to the seashore and from the Arctlc
to the Antantlc. The ant makes the best
Of whatever part of the world provldence
has plaaoatl 10 plaea her hl, belng no more
trOUttled by the necesslty for llving in a
?Jump forest th(jn by that whlch confronts
Ivr aaada of the d.yc.xt desert.
Bha thrfvea everjrwbere. it is said that
v.:,i:* f.*w-*r ppoetoo Of ants th.in
? f many otl.<--r insccti- there are probably
more lndlvidual ants than indlvlduals of
all oti.er tcrr.-strlal anlmals. The house
wlfe probably will be wllllng to accept
this assertion without question. She has
hud ixular demonstratlon. In order to
;t for one's self lt ls only necessary
to attempt tO eouat the number of ant
ntao ln a gtvaa Bald. Included among
the roaaom fet their great numbers, thelr
dominatlng posltlon, ls the stabllity of
thelr soclal life. Thelr workers llve from
four to seven years. the queens from thlr
ic flfteen years, and a single colony
will aometlines outlaat a generatlon of
in.-ii. The ants hnve comparatlvely few
tho chlef belng other ants, Just
as the ehlef enemy Of man i- man. They
have learned how to get on wlth other In
and how to use them. They have
dteoefOPOd waya of utilizlng vegeta
tion Juat as man hus deveioped Intltnate
Anb of Fke
other). They elevated thelr **od*Ofl
sll^htly and often ralsed thelr forelegs,
thus leaving a vacant space under thelr
hends. As soon as the Leplsmlna came
near such a couple. it thrust ltself into
the space, raised Its head, suddenly
snapped up the droplet that was passlng
ln front of lt and made off at once as If
to flfloapfl merlted pursult. But the ant*t
standing face to face are not free enough
in their movements even to threaten the
nudaclous thlef, who forthwlth proceeds
"to take t dl from another couple. and
contlnues these tactics until hls appetitc
The ant In some cases is not averse to
supplylng guesta not of her own kln wlth
food, for she ls kindly dlsposed toward
a certaln beetle havlng golden yellow
trichomes scattered over a portlon of its
body. Professor Wheeler put seven of
these beetles In an artlflclal nest wlth a
colony of ants and noted how the hos
pitable feellngs, or whatever lt wns
prompted them to be sollcltous regarding
the welfare of the beetles. The atrangers
ln the house lndleated that they were not
at all backward ln making thelr wantB
known, but would "sit np" on thelr hind
??BB A Pa-rt of a. Colony of Componolua Arr-eric^rvu- L?_
T^ THcrr. are four Virgin Qu_?tv_ CThc on&s wdth vjngs) _.*__ Irv f
J cru_ l_ffc-ke___ upper corruer ?rve \_-_>rk_*.r __-_: ia _o_i_._ly 1
.^?|| F-ge-i-n.^ __.r-_.K_-r from Kar _-r--erru_._ gupply of food. fr******
A portion of _.
slt_ve - m_._-.ng
Tne two large
Ants _re Queen..
v/K-ch. Kaue lo.b
.__-*?-__ v ?/?
mediately and received by the ant She
moved on; a fourth, probably already ex
hausted, refused to rtapond to her aollcl
tatlons. and the ant. probably dlvinlng
that she had nothing to expe.t. qultted
thls aphld for a llfth, from whlch I aaw
her obtaln a further supply of food. A
few auch repasts are rjulte sufllcl.nt. and
the satlated ant retums to the nest.
Thereupon I watched the other anta that
had remalned behlnd on the thlstle, and
they were seen to present the same scene.
"lt sometlmes hflnpatM that ants are so
numerous on B particular plant that tiie,
exhaust the aphld s wlth whlch lt is cov
ered Under such circumstances they
strokes the bodles of their nursea m vatn
and are compelled to wait 1111 these have
pumped up a fresh si.pply of sap from
the stems. The aphlds are by no means
parMmonlouH, und lf they have anything
te give n.ver fall to reopood te the ants'
solicitutions. I have repeatedly seen the
"ame aphld yield Heveral drops ln succes
.slon to dlfferent ant-< that M-emed very
ttSM lor the syrup."
Sometlmee ants in their own peraona be
OBM great pantrles to whlch any hungry
..ed t-rcc. At_-8 -repa-iyirt^ o_ rerib i-n. _V.e_r N"esb
Otjt. bri^'Ajda Ho-ds* tKc edges bo^etHev urlvile -_-v-.obr.er
Bewa. -anxplcHyin^ bK-e -epmnin-j la.rva.-u fov thje.^uur_aaa__
TKe. fa.mi_v _?koT.--_eK or* replebea of kHe.
Hoytcv. A?vfc of tke 6-,rde-n, of tHe Godg
lega. so to speak, with their front legs
In the air ln a "begglng" attitude. When
ever tho antenn-** of a passlng ant touched
the beetle whlle In thls poature the lat?
ter would begln to wave Its elevated fore
legs as lf seeklng to win attention.
"The ant immediately would stop and
I?eg1n to llck the beetle s head In the most
effuslve manner." The latter would pull
Its head wlthln Us thorax and keep it
there untll the ant stopped foodllag
II, protruded her tongue and regurgl
tated a drop of food on Itr. face. Then It
thrust out Ita head, opened Its mouth,
worked Its Jaws, apparently not wlthout
dtllght. and rapldly absotbed the Uauid.
Ing Ufljfldd Into them as if they were so
many casks. Comical, too, ls the behavlor
of the bettle whlle lt is waltlng to bfl "<>
ticed, with Its head and forelegs Pttrraltt.
At such tlmes it assumes a ridlculous,
cocky air. Often, Instead of r.-celvlng
the caress and food whlch It Is expectlng.
It is lnadvertentlv knocked over on to Ita
flat back by some scuriylng ant lntent on
raore l_apertaat boataeea . . occasionaiiy
tbfl body of a single small caterplllar or
dead ant wlll bfl OOVflTfld wlth bflfltlflfl all
bttaU. feeding. At auch tlmes the ants
often come up, tear them away and f.1
them wlth legurgituted food. Tho befctlflP
str__ht.__ uu i_rd Dati-ntiv .ubmit tu tbe
fondllng, llcklng and feedlng, but as soon
as the ants move away, return to thelr
Whenever an ant ls hungry and wlshes
a supply of nutrlment from the commu
ntty stomach of one of her hospltable sls
ters, she stfcks out her tongue like a boy
anhungered for a piece of bread and mo
laasea nnd makes auppllcatory gestur.-s
wlth her feelers. Other older and cruder
methods of distrlbutlon and storage of
focid aro found among the ants uslng thls
more modern and emclent method. For
Instance. solld foods may be carrled into
the nest to be cut up into small plecea. '
Theae are diatributed to dlfferent parts cf
torpld python. They march ln colurnns,
sometlmes contalnlng hundreds of thou
sandB of members, taklng nearly every
Uvlng thing ln thelr track. They do not
h-'sltate to enter houses ln search of cock
roaches and other vermln. Usually the
IntnateH of the house prefer to absent
themselves when the army enters and be
glns Ita room-to-room aearch. If they
stay to watch the guests they take to
chalra or beds atandlng ln puns of vin?
The Invasion of the house Is usually In?
dleated by the universal exit of rats,
mic-e. li-arda. blapelda*. blattld* and nu
ant may come and say, "May I have a
cooky wlth molasses on lt?" or woids to
that effect, and recelve lt from the store
ln (he ball-like tall section. These ants
are styled honey ants, or "replete**."
Thoy group themselves on the roof of
the nest where they recelve the suppllcs
Of flower nectar and honey dew brought
ln by tther workers and store lt away tn
tbe trunsparent, bead-llke tall untll there
ls a demand for It from any hungry In
divldual who appllaa and <r 3r.**ognlzed ar
a frlend. In otFef wonls, they perform
for the ant colony what the cold storage
warehous'. doea for the large human
the young The tendency ln all formi
of Ilfe ls to propogate so rapidly as to
overrun the food supply. The danger of
dolng thls Is greater in large soclal groupa
than ln suburban living. If avarp -_?**)
ber of the community were permitted to
reproduce ln auch a case lt mlght far
exceed the food supply. It Is of intereit
ln thls connectlon to note that ?' om
panylng the increase in urban llvlng In the
Catted States and elsewhere prices of
food 8tipplles hav* risen. Certflia it U
there Is an Increasing tendency |o regu
late the siao of familles as it b-c^mea
more dlffleult to meet the llvin* ev.en-ei
comfortably. The subject-of c<:. ??nlo",
the questlon of llmlting the propa.atioa
of the human apecies to the l
mind and body, ls receiving a great deal
of conslderatlon ln thls era of high price*
and thls faet may hpve a conn" 'tion wK
the dlfflculty of procurlng an ampl- i-P*
ply of nutriment.
The anta have met thls problem, aad
the solutlon la of marked intere;-'. They
dld lt by reetrlctlng the task of ~a_i
tatnlng the population to a few _ IflfltM
Indivlduals. the work of pt*e*f_-_g tba
food supplles and performlng the other
community duties beirys dfllegatfll to
others. There are three castea an.ongthe
anta?male, fertile females. or queena
and aterlle females, or worker- Only a
llmlted number of maies ar.- .'? veloped.
and tbflf have nothing to do ex.pt assUt
ln multlplying thelr klnd. The worker*
are dlvlded Into those whose duty lt I*
to provlde food ar.d to protect tba n**t.
tiie soldlers being females Bfl Bfl II as tha
workers. whereln they are di**tinctlTO
from prlrmtlve man, who lets the wo__fl
work, but ia wllllng to do the nghtlnf.
The colonlea of ants are, therefore, -*
illustratlon of the soclal eftlci. ney of tn#
N6 RACE 8UICIDE HERE.
Not only the queen. whi. _ furnlahaa tb*
eggs, but all the workets. are "obeeaall
wlth a perfect munla of reproductlon --**
nurslng," accordlng to Profeaaor Wheeler,
the authority on ants. who .1
feellngs on the aubject. Th.
queen, ln her youth. bave wlngl for th*
weddlng Joumcy. At the prop< i tlan th?X
depart on thelr flight, never to return tfl
the old bOBBfl aeat When they allght tb*
queen rubs r.ff her gossamer -Inga?hef
vell, aa it were?against some stone. <-_f*
a hole ln the ground and burlea h*raali.
Here ahe remalna for months, takin. j"*
food. her nourlahment conaiatln. of th*
uaeleaa wlng muscles and the ma_i*? o
fat whlch 8ho atored up whlle ln ?*
larval stage. Finally ahe lays a batch o
eggs. and carea for them until the>' haU
as grubllke larvse. She feeds them *?
her sallva, but, as hei aupply ls llmlt***.
they do not develop into sturdy worker*
They neverthelesa do what they can ?
set the new colony going They op*n !*.
a paasage to the outer air and aee- ?
age. Thia they bring back to their *t? *
ing mother. She la now to spend the rr
mainder of her days ln laying eg.?. ?*"
thls she doea in Increasing numbers.
workera devote thelr energles wlt
_<mt to the eggs and young. The n
bers o. .wkera are greatly augmefl"-*
and ln course of tlme new queena
Coatinued on seventb page.