Newspaper Page Text
m:\v-york, sunday. november 8. 1012.
Dr. Parker Says Nation Must Lean on Sehools to Check Crime
t has been a mad. bad summer and
Iearl' fall- Becker and "liyp," Zellg
ar,d Reeautbal. ""Whltey" this and
-u-fty" tbe other, not to omit one
^o," aunuUBMd Krank. have put New
Tork in ,np front rank as rank thinKS ga
*estern towna have ploaded that they no
^er be comp_red wltb New York, urg
v_r that. as they are not in the same tJUVBt
t|th the metropolla when it oomes to fcun
_v. they do not aspire to unearned
Jonors They say that when it comes to
crime tbe) cannot compete with us either
naatatlvely or quantltatively.
nl murderoua assault on Mr.
Roosevelt t-mpoiarlly at least enables
the Mlddle Weal to ocoupy an unenvlablc
prominen. <? in the dlscussions now golng
oVrelatlvc to the possibility of estah
jlshlng a uiore effeettvo control over per
tona of crlmlBBl potentialitles. Various
projects are brought forth, many of them
to meet Bearcblng crlticlsm for a day or
too then to be heard of no more.
Having eought out Dr. Oeergo M. Par
kcr ehlef of the cllnic for nervoua and
mental dhwaeea at Pt. Vlncent's Hospital.
M York Clty. The Trit.une ls able to
_ive Its reedera the npencd vlews of a
man who for the last five yeara has
handled eaaea ln the Toaaba Ib the same
ny tha' he has conducted ? clinie. and
-hose constHK'tive criticisms are. there
fore of great value at such a time as
thls' Dr. Parker has also recently been
made one of the board of managers of
th* neiv Btate Hoepital for M.sdemean
Xumerous half digested projects are
Ktif brought forward wltb a vlew to the
jMtaatloh or segregation of those who
|h0a dangeroua entl-eodal tendencles.
The lavman recognizes the exlstence of a
Unja class of 111-balanced beinga who
may at any moment become an actlve
, pfrii to the communlty.
What are we golng to do about lt? The
problem la coraplex.
WORK OF NERVE SPECIALIST.
Dr. Parker's practlce ls entirely along
the line of nervoua and mental dlseases.
IDd tbe work tliat he is dolng wlth
crlmlnals. as psychlatrlc examlner for the
Prson Association of New York. was first
of all evolved in private practlce. The
prison Aaaodatlon ls the hub for all the
.iuerent factors in the communlty that
have to do with the oorrectional problem.
The Correctlonnl Department, under Com
migfloner Whltney. co-OPeratea Wltb it ln
In the inspection of the mental cases at
tr,e Tomr? largely among the juvenile
dellnquents. Dr. Parker has been Inti
matelv aaaodated wlth Dr. O- F. Lewis,
generai secretary of the Prison Associa?
tion of New Tork, one of the best known
penologists in Amerlca. who ha> made
numerous specia! studlea in the fle'.d of
vagrancy and crime.
When Dr. Parker was found by a rep- j
resentatlve Of The Trlbune at his offlce. .
Xo. il ITeel 5M street. a few days ago, I
he wa? lakeff fll-UBl ln so many words. ;
ulthough perhepa not qulte so t.luntiy. ,
What are we golng to do about it"
Dr. Park-: la ? rery inch a scientlst-a j
theorist Who provea his theories before;
Bl tries to put them Into practice.
He be'leves we have too many crlmlnals. :
and that the two beat weya in whlch to,
rid ourselves of them are?flrst. to stop
produclti? them, and. second, to eur?
rathrr thi n to punlsh those we do pro
He points out ln the Intervtew below
that the pathologista have been able to
ftaMlfy from _ to l" per cent of our
trimlnals. and are Incilned to vlew that
accomplishna I t - a rather satlsfying
eontrih.tlon to their work.
"lt leave? only about T."> or rfi per cent
t-explainrd.' -,:! Dr lyrker. "The
problem of ta k ing thla 75 <,r 10 per cent
af crlmlnals has been seen wlth coneid
erably more elearnes< than have any re
D-iring the ear Of mental
frowth every chlld, accordlng to Dr.
Parker. is antl- ? lei rather a startllng
?utement, perhaps. H<- tells ln tbia in
tervlew of thi reaulta of lutenslve
methods o/ Bt ly a* applled to the Juve
nlle delinquent compoalng thla large ?0
P*r cent group.
Anana: gi i ..' a ,-? In this group never
faib to show, he says, that the antl-aoclal
attltude to th. outer world ls a projec
tion or development of a fundamental
antl-socia! relatlon to tlie perenta.
IMPORTANCE OF CHILD STUDY.
He argea i *t loglcel wej the i a
beme Importanc. of u contlnuation history
of every chlld, af outlined by him in this
Whlch Bbould, hc asserls Wlth
freat empheala, be auppUed by the De
? of Educatiun.
"Glven a hlatory of this klnd," aaya Dr.
Parker. "in the bandi of th>- prepar re
n_ tor) ma <l you have II.
?I* ffii | ;,d meeeure an.' o_*
? i * a, bt obtalned
?monk- that. 90 |. ? ? ani Juveai-e de'ln
luei't v. i,,,.., t,< d.-.-lKiiate.! as
frgel by The Trlbune to state bl s;,<
dfic term! . t what he had In mind,
Dr- Park. r nrst brlefly toid the story of
tte atudy ol thi crlmlnal. Reeent aden
bficitu.'y had, hi said, really begun wlth
**>?bro.-,. believed, brlefly,
^ Un crlmlnal was aa Bterlana.
"Wallit- to htavlem a la'Ke
"'"nbar of offencea whlch iawyera attrlb
""toguijtj. diBpow|tion8 Atavism ls <le
n*' a* ? >,r tendency to re
to an an . or t? any an
"wtrai deformity oi diseaee after Ma \Vto>
Pi>arar.<. f,,( om- .,r more generetlona."
In ottiti words.' said Dr. Parker,
___**'?eo \as the flrst to undertake tbe
**Wt atudy (,f the , rlmlnel. i.?m
roa?> theorlea have been punctured, but
f* W.-a that he h.u, ,hat th(. (.rlm|na|
** abnorrnal is right.
"jP"n a group of Frenchmen came
0nir ?bo baeed thelr tbeorlea oa degea
?"?.tlon a .riiiilnai was a degenerate.
*?a ha.i b very extenalve vogua for a
tt'k '-"? bui ? a In beredlty and
T?*y ar"1 aH that hav. knocked th???
**>rleg Into pleeee. U'l.ll.- many cririil
*u? are degeneratea, not all are; noftber
ar* all degeneratea < rlminala.
'After tiiat the Herman achool began to
?*?elojj v.-ry rapldly. Their BtUdlea have
?been along ihe lln>- of tlie BBMBt-l
?thology ,,f th, crlmlnal, wlth thla fun
??oientai b?aii that thel InaMe story la
?*> here In the story of dlaturbed mental
?*ctioii inst.a.l of aa in the atavlam
j w*ory of l?mhro?o.
( 'All thla meana," Dr. Parker contlnued,
|?M the Bctentlflc work of a latter day
? been Increamngly paychological, al
"??agh, of eouree, the contrlbutlona of
**Joiogy end th.- atudy of envlronment,
?Wal claasea and the work of blology in
Speciaiist in Mental and Nervous Diseases Concludes as Result of Long Study of Criminality and
of Projects Advanced for Suppression of Anti-Social Tendencies That the Answer to the
Finished Enemies of Society, Only 25 to 40 Per Cent of Whom Have Been
Classified, Lies in Continuous Records Being Kept by Instructors, for
Future Reference, of the Habits, Manners, Impulses, Attitudes
and Ways of the Juvenile Beings Under Their Charge.
the atudy of heredlty have been Impor?
"At this polnt. then, the psychologlcal
thlng ls to xhe front. ln its begfainlng it
had more to do wlth the analysis of tba
flnished crlmlnal product, and 1.BUBC <?'
that has rested very largely in the isola
tlon of certain mental dlseas.d groups
among the criminals. It has answ.iTed,
of course. a lot of questions about a 0OB
slderable group of criminals. but lt Bever
answered in u complete way any quee
tlon of orlglns of crlmlnallty ln terma Ol
"A tendency began to appeRr ten or fir
teen years ago in crlmlnologlcal cir.les of
paylng a good deal more attentlon to the
"At flrst ttiis was quite emotional. lt
began. however, to group a lot of matei lal
that afforded the men working with it
some mlghty enllvenlng ideas. lt waen't
very long before the psychologlcal appU
catlons were made to this group, and
because it was a Juvenlle group th. y just
accidentally began to make their appMOB
tions to it.
"They began to discover that the an
swer to the flnished crlmlnal coul.l be
read out of the early crlminal with a de
gree of completeness they hadnt irnag
ined. ln otiier words, they got closcr to
the fundamental precept that crime an.l
mental pathology were simply two
branches of u common stock.
"Necessarily this made them COW ? -?
trate their efforts on these Inslde stu.lies.
For a long time thes. ineMe Btudlea were
directed very largVly toward tbe detini
tlon of the criminal dispositlon as seen
in the Juvenlle. A tremendous amounl
was eredlted io lnnate qualities h-rci; .
tary queetkme Tbej had to credll II I |
"ln the next place, this u.uk Wai (ITI
charaeterised atmply b) carrylni the llne*
of the eartoua mentaUy dlaeaeed group*
of the adult baek into tbe juveiul. . Iti
other words. al flrat Ibelr answera to
this atory were i i.i deal the aame a
those whlch came frotn tbe BdUlt criminal
study. sav.- that tbe) a re more ??
tenslve and __M
THE MISUNDERSTOOD JUVENILE.
?They had not yet bBgUn tO *tud) '
juvcniie as a developtnj propoali
Thev were .-Imply BaetBg him Wltb a.iuli
area and as ? leeeer niould of the greatei
adult moiild. They. however, have glven
us certain wfll deflned pBthptoglcal
groups that stand al tbe pteeen-"
A change in these studles. Di Parkei
added. begBH along tWC Hueo: The stu.lies
oi hcedity enabled a greater esaetneea
to be applied lOWard tba Ojoeatlon Oi crim?
inal dlapoelUon. II began to ba apparent.
that in a rery large group of eaaea the ,
term "criminal dlapoaltfcur." ormo atmply an
easy chalr. ln vM 9 ">" ",";'1 sil ,ioVV" ,
and rock or;, 'a aell tO sl."l>.
on tbe other hand. it began to bmlate
eertela deflnlte groupe wbere tbe heredlty
had In b hig.i peree-ta*a of
BBBwermMe to a eertaln o-tcnl tor tbe
further d.velopment of the criminal ten
dencies It made i! < l.ar. Dr. Parker
polnted out. that it waa not the crUntaal
tendency which was inhelited, hut B had
Along the psychologlcal llne the ebangea
eemc aboul through e.iriy Btudlea of tbe
noimal ciiihl-that branch of psychology
that w.- caii geaetlc payebolocy. Tbe
applications to the almormal chlld were.
however. made very largely hy the mcdt
cal man. not the psy,'hol<>gi.-t.
? It is from this eariy chlld-ps.vcnology,"
sald Dr. Parker. "that the great advances
are to h- made ln tba d.-termlnation of
the criminal d.velopment.
"II wa take any group of a thousand i
juvenlle delinquents. and 9* glve them
a reaaoo-My fleeant examination, there
i. a pweeait-ge ?f between to, ? an.i II
Whkh will be made up of certain elaBBBB
of mentally dtaeeeed. This pertlcular
group lllustrate. that work upon tbe
juvenlle deMnqueatt whlch has issued la
the isoiation of approximately four o. j
-The percentage of actually lnsane is
sir all although the progressloii Into In
?anlty as yeara go on under oorrectlon,
la,Kciv increase.. The feehle mluded
"J, d0 not form as large a pereeat-fO
aniot.g the juvenlle dcllnquenta as 1. popu
, ir;v auppoeed. Thla ls. of course. funda
?,cntally due to the fact that the feehle
?lnde_ is not antl-social. ile ls largely
I vlctn.i of the antl-soclal mind used by
OtUora His offences. uauully agalnat prop.
crty a.e ofa very slllytype, not premedl
tated, easy of detection.
AN INSIDIOUS DI8EA3E.
"The eplleptlc group are more danger
ous. nere are to be found caae.
JJoN UM usual crlterlon Of epllcpsy-the
itUCk-la misslng. Tne epllepsy kbOWa
It-Olf |? etrange and rapid changea 01
mocKl. ... great Irrltablllty. audden Wjeji
CulneaB, aeuta aggresslveness, largely
???? peraona; aaeeulte, bomloldes, fall
Inrgelv Wlthln eplleptlc acts. They are
,ls? rrequent vagrants. They have a
wanderlust Whieh is Impossible to corre.t.
"Another group of very cons'derahle
proportlons is that whlch we * eli thi
conetitutlonal latorkw. Tbe name rath?
er deeerlbea the imiivi.iuai. He ia Bau
aiiv lnterlor phyalCBlly, Infarlor mentaiiy.
,,?', ll()l fc, 1,1.- min.le.i. Ha OBB-Ol cn
,,?,, s.vere and rlghl iOelBl I equlrements
an.l ls not Bt for any given length .?f
time If ba is kepi withln his glven line
af performance he ls all right. If he Is
puahed entalde ha f_Ua upon his face. His
offences are very largely against prop
II "The largest suh-dlvislon comprl.es the
indivldual tliat we call the psyc.path. In
,,?. peyeblBtrle aenea he la nelther nVah
nor fowl, n.ither aane nor lnsane. an 1
hf. Ih a dengereua ln.llvi.lual at every
stage Of the game. He ls hright, re
sponslvc, reactlve and ln varylng degree
pi-.tty BdapUble for certain perloda. He
ia. however, elther for sudden perloda or
"Among thla' group are found many of
the paranoid rases?tlie asaasslns, tho
queralent, tiiwe who suatala tileiaaeea
Bsalnat tba state, sgatnat sodat* in *en
eraL Becauaa they can, from time to
time, a.i>i]>t UiomaslTsa ta thetf environ
ment, and because a eostUet with thelr
envlronment periodkally appaaia, they
;ir.- cxtr.'niely .lanperoii* cltlzens. As a
Claaa thoy are hard io get hold of becattSl
of thelr quite Buffldeat osental carahin
ti.;i to ilelend theinselves. They are
. !> \. r and astwtc.
"Now thll <ntire trroup, Jrhlch will run
from -". to i'i per ''.'nt, are poiated to liv
patholoaista m a ratber eatlafactory ean*
tlibutlon.of their work. It l.aves only
sboul T.'. per cenl or ?>" per cent iroex
plsined. Tbe problem of tscfcUng tbta 76
..r 10 Ber cent of crlminals has beea se?n
"It asaumea the antl-aoclal as norrnal
In the early period, and Its BTOWth,
development and Biibseqiient charact.r
changes of the criminal only In the Hffht
of a devlation from that norrnal.
*"it is Beedlesa, of eoorae, ta retatad ona
here thal here.lity ls not forsotten ln this
eatlmate, f<>r ta a eertala percentaaa of
caeeo II mttsi present as peraaltth-B
KTSSttei iL-viatlois from the norrnal. but
in a manner Btted t.i asaaajarata these
taastanrisff, ratber than as preeaaittng
some new and orlglnal quallty or ab.?eri< e
of Buch quattty.
"Now, In applyimr thls to the juvenile
dellnquent we etoploy what la called In
tenshe metboda <.f etudr a ajlsea easa
from this large H per cent group ls taken;
a boy, we wlll BSJT, BrhOBHI lioine llfa has
work of thls klnd, applled to the largeTI
Bjronp of the Juvenlle dellnquent, present|
a very difhVult problem,'' replied L>r.
I'ark.r. "A typlcal American query
arOOld be, in the flrst place: D?es It woik
on the casea la arhleh it is appttadf it
must be brtefly stat.d, witiiout dna es>
planation, that It does work, and con
tains ln itself both the gr.atest nieasure
of self-repect In emancipating the indi
vidual from vlcious mental contllcts and
thetr reaalta, and that also it afltorda *o
Boctetjr tba most ootaaiste knowiedge of
tne indlvl.luiil whom lt aeeka to (orrect,
with tha beal manner for thls corr.ction.
"A real dtfflcnlty. however, In the prob?
lem llterally Hea in Ita presenl limlted
range nf applicatlon. Thls llmltatlon re
Btdea in the fad that we have no con
~> ?)v. SeorgcJK.fiarker -~
with consl.lerahly more clenrness than
liave any resnlts.
"i.iiitc largely we have been dlsposed
to aHcril." ,,??? elli.i.nt produeing !|lll"ls
here BOCloiOBlcal OOOdltlona UndOUbt
ediy Bociosoclcal factcTi ara found oi thla
gr..iip, bul tba modern soclotosji li aalnina
ad.i.-d Btaew from | ? "lilt ??
flnd that th. t-i m 'ni.tl I ? ial ClaSSSS,'
whi.'h oertalnly ma* be applled to thla
U ,., 7| per cent, means Bomethina ajora
than a bbibm
"in a Btrlot BodoloflcBj aanaa thla
would linply tho r.latioi, <>r oi.e mlnd to
tha other n_da bn the aoclsJ Bagrssata,
Md aiong theae Unea a araat deai of
Intereet has heen arofffcad oul. Hut tha
question of detcrmlning the meanlng of |
the anU soflsl mlnd witinn tha todrtrldoal
aa a aanetk atudy has oooia asora from
eomparaUvely racanl an rk of the vi.-n
i.eurologist, Slgmund l''reud, than
from any Other BOttTOO.
"r'reiiil'B theorles lnnnot he entered Into
beie hn any general way. There ne. d l.e
ni. liti'.nel only thls fa--t-that the chlld's
Bral aodal adaptathw la ta tha fathar
(.,n.i 10 tha mi.ther; that cunscic.ua attl
todea to the parents are d< moiistrable at
M .aily an age BJ three, and that the
Isstllng of theae relatioiiB nnd the lnt.r
pretstlona devalopod by the chlld on that
hasls form the foundation of hlH lat.r
mental growth and hlB character fortna
? As applled to the point of the antl
Moclal mlnd, lt ne.d onlv he said that
duiing the early stag.M <>f mental growth
every chlld ls antl-aoclal- the contrary 1b
Inip.osible. Tiaining and e.iucatlon have
Biiasfl to eombat thla. Hanos, tba answer
to ihe question Of the antl-sorlal tendency
In the crlminal must ba .xpressed ln
teiniH whkh wlll explain why lt has p.r
Histel. ratber than by the old method of
how lt began. Thls may B00__ af small
| value at llrst glanee, but, a> a matter of
favt, Its impurtancc la tremendoua.
heen good. who has endure.l no strcss or
straln, has no vlcloim fapilly history. <x
eelleni home and school condlth ns. t'har
?eter rhwg? have baajun le appaar; ut
titudee to tba family. te tha taa tber, to
the out Me world bOCO-llBg WrODgi Of
rencaa <>f the erlmlaal lype ara beglnnlng
to show, Qutte iik. iy prote *ed al Irat.
untn th. graelrj of the laal aet bi suf-,
ti.i.nt lo put him asi.l.- from s"dety.
"it 9 latpoeolble to laotata any form or
type of mental .llsord-i. Ha _ well 80-1
reloped phyalcally aad meatally. ""?>
yel you have here a daagarOUl Offl nder.
Th.- atudy of tbia case Hterally maana a
pelnateMnB aaalyala by deflntta naethoda
requirlng rlgld tralnlng on the part of th.
medlfI man before one can urrlv.i at
-bai wa used to call ln physics the '."tn
posltlcn ef force..'
"Hut such an analyls, prop.rh con?
ducted, iicvr r;ill--i to dlsplay the fui.da
in.iilal fa. t that the antl-soclal attltude
totheoulet world is aprojeettoaord.vei
oi.ment, altber dii.ctly or In tba way <?f
a reactlon, of that fundaiiiental antl-so?
clal relatlon to the parents.
"The tntlmate hi.torle. thus obtiilned,
the Intri.a. |.s of the analysls. make it B
matter of foollsh endeavor to lllustrate
tli.se facts at thls moment. The substan
tlatlon of this work, however, ls thorough
and afforded bf a number of lndlvldual
workera at different polnt.. One can see
wlthout dlfflculty where thls ls leading
Dr. Parker was asked at thi. polnt how
such a sy.tem could In the face of all the
cllfflcultles ba adopted wlth any hope at
all of succes.. Such Intenslve work a. he
had heen descrlblng. applled to the vast
number that are ln such sore need of It.
would, the Trlbune man auggested, be a
tremendou. Joh; especlally In view of the
axtreme amount of tlma erttaatty re
qulred to be spent on one man.
"It la, of course, apparcnt that lntenalve
tlnuous hlstory of the Juvenlle delin
.Hient'a life. There Is no background
agalnst which ba standB on which the
tralnad mlnd eo_1 UaUugBlah Aeteran_t?
Ing mental factors.
"i'|e;irl>, then, we need some such Con
tlnuoiis hlstory of every youth. The ques?
tion ralaaa Itself, Where shouid such a
'The family is too uncertaln a source,
io I..- coiisid. red. eapedally sithla the
trora which the JmraaOa dettnojoant
i, .ii.iwn. Tha Chureh oaanot s.-rve, be?
cauaa there ls no ftxlty of relatlon here.
1 . i .irtnients of health cannot be us. d,
for tbelr frank lntentl..n la the hamllin^
[onlyof tba slck. Dep.irtments of charlty
aie rircumscrlhed, both as to the BOdal
| condltlona, < omprlalng really a limlted
I group, and by reason of the eplsodlc
j handllng of the chlld. It laoka contlnuity.
?Tha one department to which the chlld
! ls OOna-SBOd hy alatute la the Oepartment
j of Kdui utlon.
I'lompulsory educatlon makea the chlld
th-- w.uil of the state IVIng the flrst
i BJtap fiom the hom", Its relatlon to the
| home Is most Intlmate. Heeause of tho
contlnuity of oba.rvatlon, from the slxth
I to the fourteenth year, lt haa a super
vlslon over the mental growth of that
chlld. Moreover, the attltude of the chlld
to the school ls natural. The school
serves aa a suhstltuted authority for the
parent. The collectlve Ufe of the chlld
peimlts It to present a falriy natural
picture for observatlon* Clearly, lf any
one department has to deal with the chlld
and curnes to know the chlld. It la the
achooi department. If any department Ib
to give a contlnuous hlstory of the chlld,
lt la this Bame school department.
"It ls worth whlle pauslng for a mo?
ment to Inquhe Just how far such a con
tinuous hlstory Ib posalble. One can Im?
medlately hcar vlolent protests that It Is
Impos.-lble becauaa <>f the vast number of
children within a achuol deuaxtni?t uX a
large city. But thls Is really no excuse.
Numbers must not be permltted to excuse J
improvahle defects. We flnd the school
reports ln a large city givlng adequate
reeorda Ot seholastic ahllity, which means
only the results of tests of productlon.
We flnd deportment grouped under de
s. riptlve terms statlng the chlld Is good
or bad or lndlfferent?extremely generai,
in other words. We flnd essentlal ltems,
such BJ disposltlon, permltted an ex
t:cnicly brlef one or two Inches for the
cener.ilizatlons of the teacher. The
phyateal status and examination are qulto
"Hut the story of the development of
the chlld from year to year; his relatlon
to his teacher, to his fellow pupils; hl.
ittltnde to his work; indlvldual dlffer
ences In the manner of work; varlatlons
nf all his quallties as seen ln changlng
leetttone Ib fact, of the whole curve of
.rowth?we get no continuous pleture.
FAULT OF A SYSTEM.
"And thls -is not the fault of the
teacher. The teachers are much over
worked lndlvlduala. The number of petty
clerical detalls impose.l upon them is
, normoits-detatls that dlstract and de
tract. The good teacher has a strong ln
tereet la the chlld or sl.e wouldn't etlck
to the job of teachlng. Tet this interest
ln the chlld ls shattered and dlffused, In?
stead of being made more lntelligent and
cebereet through that atudy of the chlld
whlch extends heyond his seholastic pei
"There Is net a good teacher who could
not at the end of a year wrlte a most
iliiiminatlng, instnictive and vltally Im?
portant critlc,ue on any given chlld in her
elaaareeea. Yet at the end of the yea:
thla v-'.iiiahie materlal is rarefuny dusted
OUt of her head because lt isn't BSBd. II
is then apparent that we have In the
sehools the possihilities of a rar.ly val'i
able continuous hlatory, added to hy each
Bucceeelve teacher along the entlre c.irve
Of n.ental growth.
"Wlthout calling attentlon to the ln
trin.lc value of such a history for tbe
pedagogue. we can see Its usefulness and
?eeeaatty for the atudy of that 60 per
cent juvenlle dellnqueiit.
"Glv?.i a history of that klnd, wlthln
the handa of the proper refor.natory man,
and you have Intreased his efflclency he?
yond measure and enabled a percentage
recovery to he obtalned Whlch would now
I* deslgnateil as B dr.-am. A history Of
this kin.i read by a tralaed min.i would
show the spots BPOB whlch the index or
(letermlnntlon would he laitl.
"And afl this work. generaiized as a
atudy. ls criminal appll.atlon of the antl
soclal ten.i.ncy, its r.actlons and develop
ment. In other words, lt would tell why
criminality came and trac Its varled
steps through the co-operation of tbe con?
tinuous hlatory by tbe teacher and Ita m
terp.etatlon und analvsis by tbe tralned
"Hut how about the preventive side of
thla story?" Dr. Parker was asked. "Are
these appllcations golng to teach us any?
thlng abOUt the prevention of criminal?
PREVENTION. NOT CURE.
"If these factors, built up around tlie
antl-soclal mind, can be distinguished
early. why should their development be ;
jiermitfed? This ls the big story of pre?
vention." repiie.i Dr. Parker.
"It ls apparent now that the child suf
fers from mental maladaptations whlch
ar* posslhle of early detection. If this he
so, what, then. are the means wlthln the
range of the school department to make
poeelble the matter of detection and the
"Right here let me ren.ind you that we
are not dlscusslng the treatment of a llt
erally slck child. It ls not i>roposed that
tbe DaPBllmBBl of Education turn itself
Into a Department of Health, wlth the
functlons added thereby. There is no
,|.i,st!,ui here of handllng in thls 60 per
cent group cases whlch elther tequiie
custo.lial care or demand more favorable
environrnent, than the school can afford.
The flrst necesslty of detection and de
termlnation must rest ln the teacher pro?
ceedlng ulong that llne whlch shall give
a continuatlon history such as I have
mentloned for every chlld.
"The Inadequacles lmmedlately dlscerned
by the teacher through such an analysis
should then fall wlthln the expert advl.-e
ment of specially trained medlcal offlcers.
who may afford thelr dlrectton In Isola
tion of definite types and the develop?
ment of special pedagOKioal procedurcs
iin.l , nvlronments made posslhle by spe?
cial classes and special methods.
"The organizatlon of this department
withln the Department of Education
should be built up In a comprehenslve
manner and permlt of lnllnlte exten
sion. The pollcy of nlggardliness. of pet
tlneus In providlng for the extenston and
thorough foundatlon of luch a depart?
ment cannot be too strongly condemned.
Yet the blame for *uch a pollcy can
scarcely. wlth real justlce, be lald to the
average Board of Education. becauae for
a clear vislon there I. requlted always a
thorough, substantial and .pecialized
under.tandlng of the problem. In the ln
flnlte wlsdom of the appointlng powers
such qualltle. are rarely lncluded.
MEDICAL AND PEDAGOGIC.
"A. can be seen, the handling of thls
preventlng problem la confolntty medlcal
and pedagoglcal, wlth. however, Its foun?
datlon. securely lald upon medlcal pro
cedure. It 1. not unllkely that a certain
mlsunderstandlng haa exlsted ln the mlnds
Of many medlcal men as to thls very
polnt. They have felt, qulte rlghtly, that
the di.tlngulshlng of varled mental devl
atlona was a matter for the medlcal man
and not the pedagogue, and, because the
dlstlngulahlng of these characterlstlc.
has fallen wlthln that department dom
lnate.i by pedagogy. they have assumed,
therefore, that thi. functlon, rlghtly medl?
cal, was in danger of usurpatlon by the
"Thls la not so, and cannot be so. Tf
there is one tbing tha Da-aa-x-* haa
ascertained through sad error It Ifl that
he cannot Intelllgently utlllre medlcal
learnlng in hla own person. It 18 as
sumed, of course, that all thoae casea
which would be bettered by custodlal
care ln proper institutlons would be sent
there, and that those cases constltutlng a
menace to the communlty would llkewlse
be cllmtnated from the school. Yet thla
leaves an enormous mass of casea detect
ed by the hypothetlcal medlcal board
which the school must handle.
"Of the feeble-mlnded group. even
within the atate there la provbilon for only
about 16 per cent. Thla permits one to
guesa about what percentage of other
groups could be accommodated by atate
"Literally. lt means that the school
must take care not only of thoae among
the 60 per cent whom lt may well care
for, but alao of a very conalderable pro
portlon of the 40 per cent for whom cus?
todlal care ia required ln many lnstances
snd yet may not be afforded.
TRAINING AND TENDENCY.
"In tackllng thls general problom of ors
vention. then, the teacher has an Inflalte
amount of work to do, b&sed on the ad
vlsement and determinatlon of the medl?
cal arm. One of the fundamental princi?
ples ln handllng the anti-aoclal youth
rests ln maklng hls tralnlng colncido wltb
hls real deslrea and tendencles. In con?
nectlon with thls, it must be recalled that
the isolatlon and ftxlng by tho teaxher of
these real deslrea come through tho very
procesa of Indivlduallzatton expressed to
her ln the contlnuatlon hlatory of tho
curve of mental growth.
"Among thla 60 per cent juvsnlls de
linquent the observer ls constantly Btruek
with the hlstory of vocatlonal ralstskee
and allps of all klnda. The boy is un
tralned and worse than untralned-not dl
racted. Each fallure accentuatea hls anU
social feellng and attltude. The corree
tlve which he seeka for thls ls la tho
form of a reactlon to soeiety?? protsst
which we carefully label a crlmlnsi set.
\Ve view lt as a sudden appearanco of .
something evll and strasge, when srory
part of Its formatlon can be seen ln the
light of that perverted mental develop
ment which has been ln front of us.
"Thls opens up dlrectly into the relatod
problem of vocation. All schools sre
maklng strenuous endeavors toward the
extenslon of vocatlonal work, and are
therefore greatly to be commended, but
lt ls singularly sad to note how the really
.'mportant part of thls work ls neglected.
By that I mean there ls only the most
rudlmentary attempt to make the voca?
tlonal effort coinclde with the boy's trend.
It ls really not a tremendous Improve?
ment to turn out a perfectly useles.
plumber instead of a hopeless drlfter.
"There are more vocatlonal mlsfits that
l.aw to do with subsequent rupture w|th
f soeiety than we dream of. And lt ia all
due to our own stupldity. Also mark
lhat thls fallure of adjustment with so?
eiety precipitated by this misfU is really
operative because of the underlylng and
i;nrorroct<Hl anti-social feellng of the t*>
? divi-liial. In other words, the systematic
1 directlon of the chlld along the lines lald
i dowa of tteotf gtiarantees the flndlng of
the developed youth In that llne of work
he Is best fitted to pursue. There ls no
manner of doubt that the degree of pre
vention thus B ihleHUd wo-ild be enormous
"Another very substantia! dertvatl*e of
thls work lies ln the extenslon of a men
I tal hygl-ne from thls natural focus. The
'matter of mental eonservatlon ls attract
ing an enormous amount of publlo atten
tion at this moment. Various avenues
for the dlsseminatlon of knowledge have
devised and the various charitable
organlzations have been engaged. It lB
immedlately apparent that a better means
of univeraal educatlon along theae Mnsa
than the school departments could not be
BOtsed. The lntlmite appllcatlon ot tho
nroblems of the lndlvldual chlld ln ths
lndividual family. the Intimacy between
the lndlvldual teacher and the parent. ,
would make for an efflcieney that eould
ba galned in no other way.
"With thls, of course, one reallflOB that
thls national effort has for a mottre the |
stimulatlon of soeiety. ao that lt msy la
turn stlmulate the school-a very aad but
true instance of the tall deslrlng to wa*
?In puttlng the matter as has boss
done up to the school department plssss
underatand that I have no deslro to lea
sen the responslblllty of the other ssjon
cles which have to do with tho juvenlle
.1. lln.nient. both ln hla maklng and ln hla
treatment. The correctlonal departraonts
of the city and the state are Inadequste.
but there exists a programme for a prop?
er development along thls llne.
"If the lmportance ascrlbed to ths De?
partment of Educatlon Beema out of pro
I portlon, lt la aolely becauBe that depart
, ment is the one which possessea the grsst
| sat potentlalltles for the protectlon of tho
youth and the preventlon of criminsl de?
Senator elapp, at a dinner ln Waahlng?
ton. chuckled over the appearance before
hls committee of eolonel Roosevelt.
"The colonel." he aald. "certalnly got
back at everybody. He remlnded me of
"A friend of mine. travelllng ln Ireland,
stopped for a drlnk of milk at a whlte
cottage with a thatched roof, and as he
slpped hla refreshment he noted on a
centre table, under a glass dome, s brlck
with a faded red rose upon the top of lt.
- Why do you cherlsh ln thla way.' my
friend said to hls host, 'that common
brlck and that dead rose?'
'? 'Shure, slr,' was the reply, 'there'a
certain memoiiea attachln' to them. Do
ye aee thlB blg dent ln my head? Well,
lt was made by that brlck.'
" 'But the rose?' aald my friend.
"Hla hoat smlled quletly.
" 'The rose,' he explalned, 'ls off the
grave of the man that threw the brlck.' "
"Sllk Btocklngs must be very cheap In
Amerlca. Nowhere ln the world do wom
en's sllm and supple ankles gleam ln lus
trous sllk as they do here."
The speaker was Robert Loralns, the
English actor. He contlm>ed:
"A marrled man told me tho other day
that. golng into one of your department
stores. he said to a floor walker:
' Tin looking for something pretty ia
"The floor walker Bmlled. and with a
gesturo embraced the long rows of count
ers, with thelr charming saleswomen.
" 'That remark,' he aald, descrlbea, I
belleve, praetlcally every one of our young