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New York's Bakeries Excel Those of Any Other American City-in Filth
a cellar. In these cellar bakeries the
commlsslon, in Its Investlgatlons, found
condltlons of fllth and uncleanllneBS that
are Indescrlbahle. A cellar bakery, un
lighted and imventilated, cannot, as a
general proposltion, he kept as clean as
other parts of the house. t.'ellars contain
most of the plumbing, plpes and fixtures,
and are in proxlmlty to breedlng places"'
of flies. So far as exlsting cellar bakeries
are concerned, the closest supervlslon
Bhould ba exercised over them and their
ventllatlon and lightlng shouid be re?
quired to be greatly improved.
"We have repcatedly polnted out to the
New York State Ansoclatlon that lt la one
of It. Imperatlve duties to go after the
dlrty fellows and make them clean up or
ehut up. The city and atate authoritlea
would be only too glad to BO OBOtBte wlth
the ma.ter baker. ln thi. raepeet, and In?
stead of being an unrecognlzed, unlmpor
tant and little accompllshlng assoclatlon,
the same would at om <? BBBBBM a power
ful factor, honored by all offlclal. and the
communlty at large.
"It would certalnly be a 'whole hunch
of feather.' ln the association'. aap lf the
- "sl_> . '
- r; ?? -<S
A8RAM I. ELKUS
Chicp Coomsel N.V. State. Factorv
Investigation of State Factory Commission Re
veals Nauseating Conditions in Many Cel?
lar Bakeshops of this City and Furnishes
Basis Upon Which Abram I. Elkus,
Chief Counsel of the Board, Will
Urge Remedial Legislation.
BBOga so that the dough nmr "ilse." Add
to thlB the low celllna, the lack of ventlls
tlon, the artlflclnl lllumluatlon arul s<>mr
Ile* U obtftliml a. io the temperatui"
thal Is found ln bakeshops,
Abrani 1. ElkiU", f'hlef OOUBBal Bm the
KTeW York state ractory Invaatlgattng
Commleeto-, when nsked by The Trlbune
t.i augaeal aome iiiaaaiirtia te remady ti"
unwholeao?te eoadltleua dlacleeed by the
commlaalon'a Inveatlgetleue, sald:
"No Industry ls more eloscly related t'
the publlc health than breadmaklng. It
Is inconcclvable. therefore. that l .
rlble condltlona of fllth and uncl-nnllness
n? the commlaalon found in I
should he permltted t<> aslet Of our?e.
every once ln a whlle when a bue and cry
la raiaed Inspectlona are made aad bakan
are compelled to clean up. but t: .t la
not las*!ng, and very soun tho old i .:*?
of ladUfereaoa and negleel la reeun ed.
"The flrst tliing to b< ione la to plar*
the r_iponsibiiity for tha malntenance of
clean and .aiiitary condltlona ln
shopa with the Department ,,f Health ot
Baicery im Markj&t St . Baker.
Smovelimg Coal with Pan of
r.ous near.qy ?
ARE?"KNT examinatlon of the bak
eries ln thla dty reveal. the fact
that preeeal measures for the pro
tection of the publlc health. through the
lnalatence of aanltary condltlona where
food |s prepered, ara a farce. Inspec
tlon. aa ln the case of Inspectlon alming
to guard tbe pubtte against flre periis, ls
totally lnadequate, The condltlons whleh
the New York State Factory rnmmissloti
has found wlll, lt is reasonahle to BUp
poae. be thought by the reader to be in
tolerab!e. The thought of eating food
prej ared in such a way Is shocklng
enough. while the danger from apread of
diseaae is sufflrient in itself to juatlfy the
_iklng of vigoroua mea*>ures. The plty of
the wholo affair, accordlng to those aa*
ga^ed In baklng and selllng bread, 1. that
the New York State Association of Bak
ers ls neither strong enough nor Influen
tial SBOUgb lo eradlcate the aore spots on
the trade before they become known to
On Aftil lt BB-, Raymond li. J'osdick,
the Cominlssloner of Account. of New
York t'lt; , laaugi a report entlt'.ed "On
the Banltary condltlona of Bakerles ln
New Tork." the reault of an lnspt-ction
of 145 bakerlos mado in conlunctlon wlth
the Coiiaumers' League. Later an In
-estlgatlon was undertaken bv tba State
Factory .'ommlsslon to determine exlst
Ing condltlons and 10 reeommend re
Accordingly. an Inspection of 4*5
bakerles (#1 individual shopa) wa. made
by thls eommlsslon's staff of lnapectora.
The Inspections were made chlefly be?
tween the hours of I and II p.m. Although
aome visits were made during thi- earller
houra of the day. With the exceptlon or
aix large factorlea, the bakeries Inspectea
?were all located ln cellara.
The impectton of bakerle* was conflned
to the cltlea of New York and Yonkers.
more tspecially to the borough. of Man?
hattan. Brooklyn and The Bronx. Prac
tlcally all seetlons of the.e borougha were
The Internatlonal Bakera' Union and Its
locals ln the city closely oo-operated wlth
the coinmlaslon. and ln a large number of
cases aunt thelr representatlves to ac
company th* lnspectora.
Beeldea the sanltary in.pectlon of 497
tftheries. a ataff ot phyaiclana engaged by
the commisslon made physlcal examlna
tlona of 800 bakers. These examlnatlons
were made <!urlng worklng houra, whlle
the Inspector. lnvestigated the senitary
condltlone of the shopa.
The latest figures .how that there are
nearly 2.W0 bakerles in New York Clty,
and. accordlng to the report of Mr. Fos
dlck, "excludlng the ao-called factory
bakerles, of whlch there are less than
one hundred in New York, the great ma?
jorlty of bakerles. lf not all. are located
ln cellers and baaements." Even .ome of
the factory bakerle. do thelr baklng ln
cellars. Of the 485 bakery cstabllshments
Vtatted by the Htate InspectorB 479 were
located ln cellars. Most of the bakerles
lnspected were located ln cellars of tene
mentB and dwelllng houses. That these
cellars are unflt for .uch purposea ls, of
courae. not taken Into consld.ration. ao
long a. the rent is low. Any cellar ln a
tenement can he converted Into a bakery.
with the almple audltlon of a brlck oven.
The depth of the cellar below the slde
walk or adjoinlng grounds depends upon
the sltuatlon of the hou?e. Mo.t of the
cellara occupled for bakerlea are quite
The height of the cellar cellng from
Ita floor dependa alao upon the orlglnal
conatructlon of the house, the average
height being ebout TVi feet. although
a large number may be much lower.
ln 1*96 there were 1.048 cellar bakerlea
lnapected, of whlch 7U were ? feet high;
2M. 7 feet high; 173, 1\i feet; Ut H toot:
69, g feet, and a number Ulll lower, and
there were ? cellars W_ feet high.
A cellar la deflned ln the tenement
houae law aa a Btory more than one-half
of which la below the curb, while a
baaement la e atory partly, but not more
than half. below the level of the curb.
Comparatively few basements are uxe.l
for baking purposea. Tliis ia partly be?
cause the rent of the baaement ls high,
and partly because of the dUBcttltjr of
building an <>\en in s baaament rioor.
What are the perfla (.f thls locatlon of
bakeries ln cellars? They are many and
BSrtOUS The following ia fln eiiuni-ratlon
of the evlls due to locailon In cellars.
Def< live di dnsge.
Defe, t!Ve Veritliat lim
Proximity of plumblng.
Condltion of surfaces.
Wsshing f:.. .lltles.
Cleanliness of utcnKlls.
flandllng of product
CleatdlneBB of product.
Sl.f plng on premlsea
Preaence of domestlc animals.
I'resence of vermin and inseots.
Bafety of product.
lt is only within the last ten years that
tenemenl houaea have beea buiit with
compulaory damp proo_ couraaa la tba
foundations and sides of the houae. AU
housea prevloualy com-tructed were bufll
without any protectlon againRt dampness.
so that many cellars are not only damp.
but aetually partly fllled with water. Bb
ptdally Is thla the caae ta the cellars of
housea aJtuated upon marshy ground, or
upon fllled In ground, as ln streets near
Ing the river front, where most of the
cellars and bakeries are flooded during
storrn and high tide.
Th' cellar floora are UBuaUy very damp.
Although lately thLs hos been lessencd by
the concretlng of floors, the Btate In
spectors found 132 cellars where floora
It is obvlous that a cellar cannot have
Dakery m kjhry _r . Coal
and /Aiier PllED on rtoon__?
IWtfcY in MoWROt St. CaT fttplMO ON
OUT - iNSPgCTOS. fOUHP CAT SLtgP?NC
BfNCH - UPON V/HICH
ON rf* BREAD ?
Bread Dov?h ? Rolied
.ufflclent natural light. Mo.t of the cellars
get their light from .mall borlzontal grat
ed opening., and only a few have any
vertlcal wlndow. to the outer light and
alr. Wherever auch wlndow. are found
they are very small, and their usual eon?
dltlon i. unfavorable to the admlasion af
Buffklent alr. It ia hardly neceaaary to
polnt out that the alr ln cellar rooma can?
not be pure or abundant.
There are few cellar bakerle. where the
oven la aeparated from the rest of the
bakeahop. The temperature near the oven
ls naturally high, and there 1. alao a need
for high temperature throughout tbe baka- *
the City af New York. The dupllcatlon
of autborlty between the city Department
of Health and the atate Department of
Labor that now exlsts shouid be com
pletely done away with
"Heretofore the Department of Helath
has In the main relied on inspectlons by
the Btate Department of Labor, which has
never been able to do thia work properly
becauae of an Insuftlclent number of ln
apectors. Hreadmaklng being so closely
related to the public health, ia an Industry
that sho'ild come under the supervislon of
a city department of health. partlculaily
when that department ls m w?U arssnl-sil
ns ours Is.
"The Department of BB?ith should then
be glven the peWer to adopt a sanltary
code for bakerles whlch shall pr.scrlbe
mlnlmum r.-qulrements of height ar.d size
of bake shops. thelr llghting and ventlla
tion, and the cleallne.. of the bake shop,
the baklng utensil. and the wearlng ap
pitrel of the |>aker?.
"All bakers should be requlred to submlt
tn a physlcal examlnatlon, and thr.ae
found sufferlng from tuberculosl. and
from any venereal or skin dlseases should
be excluded from the industry. The dan
umx XroA thuae aourcea ia u?t an Imag
Inary one. The commlaslon conducted a
physical examlnatlon of elght hundred
bakera In the City of New York, the f.rat
examlnatlon of the klnd over made ln
"The results showed 177 oases of tuber
ruloals and bronchltls, 1." cases of skln
illseases and 3 of venereal diBeascs. The
bakers handle tlie bread hoth before and
after It ls baked. and the food product ls
therefore Biibjeet to contamlnatlon.
"Bome health oACOfS take a pecullar
view of thls flltu.itlon. They can see the
danger from Infectlon, but are lncllned to
belleve that lt would be a hardshlp to ex
clude those sufferlng from tub.rculoals
from earnlng a Ilvelihood ln thls In?
"I hnd occaslon to examlne a health
ofllcer of one of the necond clasa clties
of the state about a week ago, an.i he
aald that he was Inellned to doubt the
advlsablllty of requlrlng tho bakera to
aubmlt to a physical examlnatlon. Yet.
when asked whether he would purchase
bread knowlng that it had been handled
by a baker euffertng fiom tubereulosls he
" 'Oh. no. certalnly not*
"AU bakeries shouid be licensed by tho
Department of Health. A Ucense shouid
be granted only after a careful tnapection
shows that all of the requtrements of the
sanltary code have been complled with.
"No new bskery ahould be permltted ia
Al $U TOP or flxo frEDf
TO THE 0AKER.Y lf A CjRATING
iMTrtE STREET S.DEWALK. ?
AsFC/ff .f CONSTANTLY
DR.OPPIM0 OOWH ON the
Caket Y &R.EAD ? ? ?
top Of. tr
"Perhaps the most important polnt to
be cmphaslzed In this connectlon la the
necesslty for B frequent and systematlc
Inepection of baaleiloa, No bakery should
be lnspectert less than once a month reg?
ularly. In some OBBOB, partlmlarly where
cellar bakerlea are lnvolved, there should
he an inspectlon at least once a week.
The provlslons of the law relatlng to
aanltatlou and cleanllness shou'.d be vig
orously enforce.l, nnd in the case of a
perslstent wrongdoer his llcense should
be revoked and the bakery closed up.
"There. were a number of bakerles found
in good eondltlon, and It is only falr to
them that all the others should be re
quired to be malntalued ln the same way.
"Some of tho requlreraents I have out
llned may ?i;?m to be a little severe, but
all of them are reasonable and are neces
sary for the protectlon of the health of
employea ln bakerles and of the million.
who daily consu.no the bread and pastries
that are made therein."
In a reeent edltorial that appeared in
"The Hakers' Weekly." the State Asso?
clatlon of Master Baker. Is crlticlsed aa
"Wa know that the leading aplrlts of
the New York State Assoclatlon are
rather thln ttklnneJ und cannot bear to
hear the trulh, but even at the risk of
offondlng these gentlomen we repeat that
the New York State A.aoclation has been
utterly remlss in its duty and haa failed
deplorably to fullll Ita inlsaion.
fdaily papers would rep-rt from tll
; time that. 'at tl.. iBBtaBf. of tha S-w
i York atate Asso. iatlon. I
i unsanitary bakeries arara closed ?? the
jautliorlMes.' An actlon 0_ thla Und would
have the hoarty IndofBOEBOnt of the c.im?
munity and would eonalnce the ... ??
that the ussociation is ln >'
wh.-n it says: 'Our motto 1 i I
"The argumert that the ns
no jurisdiction OTOf bakeshops outslda "f
those of its own members is not well
j taken and ts lllogi.'al. for the oi^aii-u
i tion ls founded prlmartly for the protec
! tion of the trade, and thara CUB ba no
| better serviee to the trad.i than to dlffi
the dirty fellows out of bus
DRIVING OUT UNPROFE3SICNAL8.
"Other trades ar.d profsaatona
it, and there is no valld reason v*.hy the
ABBOCiatlon of .Master Hakers abOUld r.ot
I do the same. The bankers aa .U'.on
I keeps a sharp lookout for flnati. lera of
doubtful practlces; the medi<a! ? -??:_
tion ls ever on the watch for BjUaCBs ar.d
lllegal practltloncrs; the ajrocers, too,
wiii not tolarate any dlaajraoa i""ing
brought on thelr trade, whlle tha BlVJBaV
ers, cont'cctloners, etc, all have rlg'.d
.tandards for their .alling. lt ls true
whenever there appears a storni . '? IM
horizon the New York State Association
gets busy, too, but only for a few weeks
at most, and soon falls back Into the old
rut of lndlfterence and lneomp.t.
? We have only the klndllest f-? lngs
toward the New York State .\->- .'Uillon
as such, and lt la an aapteaaaan taah Ii
have to tell them the naked truth unca
In a whlle Wo mlght do BthBTWlBa ai.d
tell them what great, grand and lmpor
UuM men the Ieaders are. but we da BBl
beluve In Inslncero flattery of this klnd;
besides, we nre In hopes that some day
at least 50 per cent of a!l the New YerB
bakers will belong to the asaoclation, bv
atead of tha miserly hanrtful that Bl at
present enrolled under the New York
State Association of Master Hakers.
"We are extremely sorry thal
conditlons in New York make tt peauftk
for Bttah a report as that just issued by
the State Factory Comnnssion ta be the
outcome of such an Investigation. In the
Interest of the b.iktng trad. of the largeat
city In the country It ls to be bOftOd that
the report wlll not be publlsh.d ln the
metropolltan papers, for the phOlUfiaaBJ
-taken from life?are certainly net con
ducive toward tnhaiu ing tl e a tMBfli
confldence ln b.ik.r's bread "
Conslderlng the source, the above conv
ments are certainly strong.
"Th.re ls hardly any Industry where so
little precautlon ls taken ln the bandlhsf
of the product." BBsd Dr. iJ. N. Prlce. who
aubmltted a report on bakeries to th*
"It ls recorded that ln ancient tlmea tha
alaves who were baklng bread for their
Roman masters were compelied to wear
cloths tled around thelr faces and nccks,
in order that thelr persplratlon shouid not
fall Into the baked product. Thara sceros
to be less objectlon agalnst eating our
bread llterally mlxed with the sweat of
the brow now. The profusely p-rsplrlng
bakera have not the time nor the incllna
tlon to wlpe off the beads of sweat
which, as a. result. fall Into tho dough. It
Is not rare to see bakery workers pl*<*
the dough on thelr nude bodles. or mak?
lt serve for a pillow to rest thelr heada
upon. In only one bakery-and that a
model one-have the workers been pro
vlded with gloves for handllng ths
It ia fortunate. no doubt. that rouen
that occurs ln bakeries ls not observea
by the consumer. otherwlse the oonsurap
CaaUnutd ?a aeveath .-!?.