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TRADE SCHOOL ATTACKS DRAGON
OF LOW WAGES FOR GIRLS
Manhattan Institution, Which May Prove (ho Forerunner
of Many of the Same Kind, Seeks to Equip \ oung
Women with Such Skill as Seamstresses
or in Other Lines as to Make
Them Capable of Gain?
ing Readily a Fair
IjK it i- Ion wagei 'liai cause o
women i" succumb to temptal
(few Tork ? it y ??t i.ast ?baa d
? omethlng t?> modlf) the pow? r ??i
The other ?lay ?Vrthur D Dean, chl?
Um division ??i vocational schools ??f
?State Department of Education, m
-nun .us;.. aiks regarding <
tain si-h ???is which .?in? to improve
?Monomtc condition <?i Industrial work?
in tin- eouna of lus discussion lu- s
that the Manhattan Trad?' ?Schools t
-ui- canebk of earning $? s week, i
aft??r a year's training enabled them t<?
.?ut int.. Bweatehopa ??t a wage ol ?*?'?
added; "But we understand it coati
mri r? a week t?. Uve in New Tork
ait know when the other $i com? fm
il? stirred up a litti?- hornets' neat
certain ?educational quarters? tot ?be l
attacked ?the one school in the fraai s
tea eonducted bj ?the Board of Bducat
which deflnttel*. does something that
. vu a living wage an?t ?to k<
f tii- aweatshopa i"">m this ?ach
approximately Uve hundred j;iris ^?? i"
every yeai preparad to begin their stn
gk v,itti i ? ?>i earning a Itvl
upon a nttl- higher level than they uth
\? ? could do, and equlpp?ed t" progr?
i?. bight r plan? a Moreov? i. th? t-tt]
?planning to enls v. |? ? plant to acco
roodate one thou and I ? i hap? sonn.- ?i
the ? it> will hav? a numb? r ??i alml
:?? h" - sad then th? question of wa|
win tend t" ?settle It? If without the .
plication of pana? ?sa ..it ti? lal In tii
A SCHOOL FOR LITTLE WOME
it ?s an unpr? t< otlou - building on t
noctli si?)" of - d ; treet, !?? ?tw<
an?! ?Second aviiiu's, which bo
I, in?i? ? ?i. one would n?>t think ??f
?at .?. school it ii.iiV.^ sj if it ?bad tx en
??ne tiiii" an oUtee building with stor?
th?? ground Boor. Once Inside, howev?
,. , dlSCOVOIS Hi it it is alive with Hti
women "f ambitioua countenance rangli
In age !T"oni fourteen t?? aeventoen veoi
must i?f them under sixteen ?and weatti
skirts reaching only a short dlotence fa
Ion their kne?s. They am as ?busy
1 ?sea The advent ?if strangers seams
disturb them not at all. Thoy app? II
bo bo linbvird with tin necessity of ma
ing tho most <?f every merman! that m
has difficulty m realizing that this is
school. Thon ta nothing !?> r'tnind 01
"f the "whining school boy ? ? ? creei
Ing like a snatl unwillingly to school.
lei tiv extet_al appeannce ??! tt
?building ami the ?unwonted concentr?t!?
? f the Students upon their tasks, th? i
are other things that rob tho place of a
'Uggc'-tion of a public school There at
no desks, few blackboards and i?racticall
no books. Instead there i? tho 1?U/./. ?
machines, and rough tab!? s and a cunou
? qulpment of hcadl?"-* and heartless im
man forms ?take th?' play of the desk
??o up in th? litti?- tio\-hki elevator i
tin top il?.or and enter the <io??r at ih
left Vou aie m a spacious room, Hghto
.?n ?m?: vid. by a TOO Of large wlndowt
?Croaalng It le sen led racks aw kmg s. u
ing machine tablea On elthei ? i ? I ? - ??
tbeae an seated ?raws ???" ?girls In thd
?."??i ly t?n na
A VARIETY OF RACES.
Tins is in. exclusive school There an
lepreeeutallves of several different rac?
including th?' negro. Over at the left -y
? ?ne ?.i tin? curloue straw braM seartni
machines, there is a girl with a somewhat
more matara look nan that of mo
those around her. Mm is untangling tl
strami of straw hanging from th?- wind?
.up mechanism above her head. This ac?
? onipllshed, th? m.?? hin. i>. ?ins t.? im/,/,
like a ?large ?bumble ?bee. With deft and
?-ure hand ?die gUldtO the straw hiai?!
under th.? In visible needle The dark hau
..?ii?-?i ?about the crewa <?i the shape?)
load, the d.U. at. ly tinted oliv.- skin ?and
?he equally detteete ?features and form
suggest that she i an Italian.
At the ma? dine opposite sits a s?-? niiiig
l; vouiiKcr ?girl. QHmpsgg caught a- si.?
turns at her Work lev.al features of a
noie stolid type, l|.?r natty blue sailor
inn tail? i?? mask Um lent bj govern!
Inches. She Is busily measuring her string
"f finished braid b? ttvecn th? buttons on
UM edge of th?> machine. Nothing can
draw ?kef attention from her task. Mm Is
learning how to tigur.? out h< r pay in
th* future Having reaetaed the end ??*
her String grho takes a pencil and papvr
and bending over her table perform? a j
?low calculation aa ahe niaken up her ac
counta. The heavily built body and face I
phi) r? ??i J? n Is h mil Is a ix? >? ''?
in the i-? l.l
Directlj in front, at th? end of a table
upon which , are ?Mattered garments ol
white muslin and blue gingham, there is
a little maid whose old-fashioned golden
ringlets drift ovel hei shoulder In an op?
pealing faa B ? stitching patna
takingl) b) hand. ?Slowly but ?jurel) the
small Ili ?-?? ? ? ??i aa the a hite Ihn ad
through lile clean muslin Somehow ahe
suggest i hint/, and oi?i lace, the
house* Ife ol otliei da) h
A ?bell rings. The girls all rise and plae?
i .m- upaid? down ovei the ma?
chin? i ?m i he tel le topa ti.? - et trat l
small paper i?a? k.?^. end cardboard
boxra and handbags from hidden placea
At a algnal thej Me through the ?door
and ?town th?- si;?iis. Clear ?down Ihej t"
te i'"' ground door, -,\ flights. i'.nt of
them descend one tii?tit more to the base?
m? ut. wh< i< .n tlfldal li^ht Illumin?t?
large number of rough board teM? Thei
qulckl) gath? i uboul these and open the
?puckagea containing almple lunchea \l
Hi?- fronl ?ml i- .? ?board which announces
that here, it least ?? way has ?been found
to ?? in? ? i ? cool ??i living. ? ?in- would
lik?- t<? come everj da) foi luncheon, when
one discovers thai an ample cup ??f clam
.chowder, ??i s good aised Bah rake. "'
iii-ani'?i potatoes ma . i??- had fot t centi
A test of th?- vianda offered Indicate! thai
th? -;ii l? w ho are taking advai tag? ??'
the opportunit) offered to learn to cook
making ?good," ?and foi t?nate will be
h? who haa the a listenoe ol any on? ol
iii? m in making a i ome ?some da) In th?
I ?It 'ire
'i h< not? ? -i- ? m - m in. big
i nom u huh ma) 01 ? ? hi ? ? i?? ?i .? nor?
catch the ? ai Tin r? can '?? n?. ?mlatal
ing the fa. i that It la dan? ? mu I? The
mi?- sup-' in?, aa ??i sand i haken In
eve, i ? ? ? ii the fact thai s i n ?>-> t? p
Is in progresa Taking .? ?point ??f vantage
on the landing ol th? Iron stair? i ?
Ing midway i?ii\n.-?h the il??nr ami th?
high celling, ??m- forgets oneself in the
< i ni. m h? ai t frae enJO) rm ni a hlch the ?
glrla i min iid tenement districts era hav?
ing. Kvidentl) this i.-- to ?be a war m
their lives which will be remembered f??i
a long tim?v a stately minuet brings
many from the row of sente around the
nail i" the door. Then follow the gra ?
fui ?ait/, and .? twii-.-tip. Ivon? the ?ad
ami amllei and Laughter ru.
never auppose from the lightsome ati
p|. ?re thai th? m it-sal looking ?-? i
from h..m. r in which sacrifie?? wen
made t" ? nable th- girl to t.,k. ?
training One would not Imagln? lhal In
the throng wen ? ? I ?? ? i(???
. ronomlc condition >.i nboa? famlil?
au? b thai th? | would be obliged I
int.. tin sweatshop? with ?." training w?er?
ii no) i"i in?- acholarshlp fand, with Iti ?
and 13 ?? w?reh foi
ah good thing iv?
tn the ?phot il Th? i ? i i itl??n b??
?? fot?/ in ?he
)oinin_ i?i"in. which is iitt???l up as a]
g> ninasiiiin, come.?? a thump, thump
arhtcb, ii la soog dlsooverod, arises from
sudden ami unevp? ?I? ?1 contait? of kii"<
??ilh tin shining 'loor upon which a has
ketball game is b? Ing pie ? ? <i
These are happy hours: Th?'V 1..1. tone?
m. in bouse life ??t stuh? of Its humdrum
? i.aract? r. They i???ntribiit?' t<? democratic
r-o??lahillt? al.s... for in the throiig are I
aids of Italian. Jewish, (?crinan, negro,
American and miscellaneous parentage. |
t.?? short. ? ??im - in-i close, and the girls, i
refraebod for anether m? at the leaks]
whi-'h He befon them, return t?> their !
?'lllllb Hie stalls WillI Hum and \ Isll
s. m?' <?f i tie other rooms, in one then '
a group of this we'knit; upon aha genrns
of silk ami satin, in another guis ni?
modelling ?with Mghl touch the Mmj i ik
rlcs <?f waist.- ? nwlopli.g iiu-lasiii an?! i
heartless forms. In olheis still more girls |
are shaping hats, or crimping lampshades, j
I l'.'f? .1 group ir.iiidim ahoiit lal.ins,
I Englhib in ?bualneas, and industrial goa*
?Utloi... ami BUCfa ?n ithnii tic as they will
need in know m ro?aerllon with their
in the course which Ande Its baadquar*
i? is m this teem thai learn ni?game
menta, the making of gauges gad Hum
cards, i he cahiiiating of the soot of gar- !
m?lits and the manner of making out bills I
and personal account?. They arc Initi?
ated Into the ?polling of all the term? |
material*, garmentt and patte of .? ma
chine, and ft??- mysteries of the writing of
?X'U? i, orden for goods, money orden,
receipts, notes regarding appointments
with customers, complaint*, deacrlpttons
..i gowns and letters about th? rondltlona
th. ?. m,i?, und m a working place To
ii. i Imparted Information regarding
i.ii.ndltlona Th< storj of the r?volu
lion ? rough! through the harnessing ol
steam, ih> Introductl.I macMnerj
.uni the effeci apon labor conditions to.
da) Ii " in sraed The? ar i Instructed .??? '
i?, in.? physical effects of long hours, i.'
ventilation, ?bad Hoora, Impure drinking I
wit? i .?mi m?prop, i aanltnry comlltlona
THE FACTORY LAWS.
i.a? i? girl receives a copy of the factory
laws, smli as should In lounl in cv.-ry
factory, and the meanlni of the legal
phrsseolog) la itti ?\ all id. The dangers of
certain typ.?i of lira eecapti and the i*stn of
th?- in.- tower are Indicated Th?w are ?ad?
?.i-.'d ?as to the eft'eel ?>f gweatabop ?work
upon tluir ???An winking COndUlO?S, an?!
have the opportunity to le.irn the hhttoi*)
?.i trade unionism, so that they will on?
deratand Hi?' subject when ii arises later
m their experience.
The girts an required t?> keep account
of their personal fUndl and submit a
iii'.?tl\ written Itemized statement. In this
wa>* 11 ? ? ? > arc cxpei te<l In learn how to
make their earnings ser?,o them well when
the! are launched upon their modest
1 grOOf? They are advls??d regarding the
best channels for the expeodHun of their
money and the proportion which. shouM
How through each.
The following is the weekly a?'count of
one girl in the Intermed?ate sewing ?lass,
which shows how a wholesom?? glil from
th?' tenement district actually spends her
money. It was written In neat fashion
, ., . .??,?? ...?,. | pUrel tit W! '"' "?
papel folded over eoce. Etefor? i??ng the
???H pr?.v.iie blank hook- ospeclall)
designed foi Uns u--. On the outside aba
Wrote her name. ih. ?v???U ii ' lud. d and Hie
motto "Spend >"iu mono) wiael) " la the
m -i . olumn h ? Ida were named tin
..mount, i. ? p.??i fron her parents from
.i?? to da) for expenaea These ranged
from is cents te 36 renta, in the eent
-. i . - of columna sh'? t<?l?t what she did
?Mill then The items were .arfar?', lunch?
eon, candy, "saved" and "benovolents."
To ii-i credit be H sud the w..??i "save?)"
appeared opposite Marl) ever) date, while
"candy" am? set doom only throe times
A MODEL ECONOMIST.
Heading between the lines on?? dlacov?
.!??.1 thai the reagon she sa??d II canta
.m one da) was thai it w,-?s ?Saturday,
?li'ii he di.I not go to S'h""l and there
???.s m? carfare t.? be paid ? ' indy ??as her
on!) expenditure that day, On Bunday,
when she received '-'"? cents, ihe eras able
i., put aside i.? cents, spending in cents
?in "benevolent*?." Her t?ital ri'celpts for
Hie week were $1 .... In th?? columns for
? lasslaacatt-on it was ?hnwn that she bad
.pent ?ii? cents for carfare. "S cent?? for
luncheon, nothing for am?is??nient or for
rlothlng. i."? cents tor cand) and i?? cents
for benevolence, and she saved ?._ rents.
Thai gnl Will know ??oniething nl????it the
expenditure <>f money when she enters the
ti??i i of the working gtn
This is not all that the school does t??
tit the ?irl for an ???eupntlon that will
?am f??r lui a living wage In onler that
She ma) not fall m her work, hut have a
reasonable opportunity t<? meet the oondl?
lions "f her environment aucceegfUlly, aha
must be tit phyelcelt) ??Then she is an?
ioii.'I sbs is eaamlned, and the kind of ex
?c is, she will reqalre in order to put her
in g?.???! condition i* prescribed. Imprea*
si?in.?i are tak??n of the bottom <?? her feet
to ?lisi'over If she has anv temlen? y to
llntfootedness. for man? of Ihe girls \? ill
he .? Ii_.,l to spend much time on their
i?, i This h corrected i>?> her teeth
ii?..1 attention " If s... she Is dtNCtCd to
Ihe dental srhool next ?I.'. ?vhere the
can have the work ?lone for practically
nothing. Dogg She take Laths r??gularly ?
If not a weekly bath is ??rdired.
REFORMING THE NAIL BITERS.
I toes sh.? bit?? her nails' Man) Of the
girls have this hahit. If sli. finds it ?llf
n? ult to ov??r???m?' she will he assisted b)
lUeaaa ??f an application of a eonci.ction
that will lie decidedly unpleasant in tli?'
mouth. She will he taught the value of
keeping her talla in good condition. A
manicure make? regular visit? to the
scliool to talk to th.? girls about the ?-are
of the nails.
Tin? record of her ?lefleiencle?? is kept gg
a white "follow-tip" card. When ahe has
tlie good fortune to have cleared her ree
i?nl the card Is torn up. The dsy on
which this occur? 1? one of which to be
proud. It means that a girl has been
made over In many respecte and given a
?? ri ?? I '"h ?? pi <<i-\ fart ?'n r-??-t??e?
than She would otherwise _'.. it is gi
her a real ? banco t?? "mak<
A litti?? Italian girl. v?.
g"!.ut from the school t?. ?mk. i
trates what the nie ,- doing ?r t
girls. W'h'-n she first '-au?
sholt ana very din M had ? ? i
?poorly nourished and was no
her fa.-. looked mon hk?- thai
key than a normal Inn."
?father was ?i?.i?i ;?n?l her n
t.i ?are for light children II?
pla??' wus . [?.??I ?i.-.?upi?'-l
all lying CfOOOWlOC lUu SO I
pina The family ?as trying
three i"??ms on Bast Houston sl
B WOO?, which an untrained si-' Ml
teen yean old, was ?earning, ?
?shirtwaists. IVhen aske?i wha --lie
to ? ?t she replied
A CHILD OF POVERTY.
"\\ a u'ct might) little, h) ich
a little Pre;?.I -
When she appeared her B|
la described by thos?> t" whom ordtg
Knglish la not sufflctenl i
A ?Tien pair ?of -?ii"? - a a pn
?,?! tare and lun? heont w? re I
first Hi.? girl, w ho v.?- licking in
for co-ordinating her ?movements, Ml
at the end of the |
would "go to pi' oaf' befon the fl
movement was completed, loot howev
ihe was able to maintain '< ttt Ml
through a movement Then ? bagas
work her way up through t ? I
developed int.? ?? ??>...> ask ? II piar
The monko) ?look disappeared trot? ti
t.v ? and sinii?'- w? re 0? ?? 't. S
stalled in th.? .-la-- m m ? - ?" .king, lJ
n b. ing found thai she WO "t do 04
then ?she was transferred te the ?.i?s
machine operating In wh h the wot
eras leu* ?'xa.?tin^ She t* ?now earning
? greek, or mure than hei r, ui *raia?
sister. The SOhOOl Peeks 10 fit f)
to? the occupation in which abe can ?i
?beat, ami as all .?t the wori ' indtvMS
H i i practicable t?> o?> this.
Hut the work of the school is not eel
limit tO giving girls a h.-tt? r cal. Oiti
tat. physical and economical '-?lUipmen
it ?betpg then? after they htn HgMH
th? ir work in tin- gthool It has a it
partea? ni which obtains employment I?
tii? in snd watches ?iv.i their welfenH
tw?i yean after they have received the!
cei tlfleatea ?>t" proSi lency
FOLLOWING UP GOOD WORK
Through a eorresponden?M lysteM I
keeps in touch with th? pirls ?Mi ?*
tains from lli?>in reports of the i ondl
tions . f their . niployment. It helps th?I
to ?secore positions With flr?t ?1? - Ml
?some when Ihej win ?bave an oportunis
to oeeun higher wage.? gg time ?to - on
with the ex?paetatton thai by the tim?
they reach an ag' when they sh ukl B
rooelvtng a living ?wi ge they will ?**
Mane ol the glila an employed In 'fitb
lishmenis ?i"inc exclusive work for 111
?Fifth avenu?? dressmaking ami million
trail? If ?tries I" '"I the ne. ?is "f both
employ, rs and worker- Nor are th?? ?gin*
forgotten sociall) aftei they I? ive the
school The) have an alumni aaaoetaSta
which arrangea for frequeni dances ts_
entertainments ami koepe alive tl . Mend*
ships that ?raw formed during the >'*?'
when they live.l together In the ttm?
I??..'.s ii actually bring t?? the -? rl? ?
living wage'" < ?ut of f?>rtv ?.-.?-l- pMMj
in the dreeamaklng trade th's year SP
mi? started at lews than $?*? ??. week, tn?
nineteen received above Hist amoent m
the start Twelve ?received K and two fl
In ??in? place there ar- live girl? wll? JJ
receiving H .? week They we? Mgl
?able befgn i<? receive as much M V- ***
average Inrrrosrs in weekly wag?'* ?**
?SetVOd I? UM girl? wh-? hav.? b? en out of
the school a year were: I)re?amakigw
$1 so. operatltiK on clothing, I'"?"- ,i,,*
?being ptece work, operating on "?*"*
?braid, *t *'?. ah,, piece work, machinet*_\
broidery. $3M. by pi??- work. ssmPJ*
mounting, |1 t.; novelty making. tf*'
millinery and lampshades. }! 00
t)ne seventeen-year-old girl ?'ho **\
been at work In dressmaking for a t**M
und a half is now ?arnlng $1'* a **_W
She Started at *'?. Another girl nlnet?**?
years old who left the school two t**__
axo to take a position In a mlUlnMT ?**
at |6 I? now receiving flO. A sevcnteM*
fmmpnmm? ?n .?-ttt ?'???