HOW CA?ABA IS DOING HER PART IN THE WAR
Women Organize to Do Work of
Men Who Want to Be Soldiers.
Collect Funds and Help Stir
Infantry ready for business.
Furnishing Haifa Million Fighters,
Dominion Is Recruiting Them at
the Rate of a Thousand a Day.
By Frank Yeioh.
CANADA is at war. An army of half a
non men is bei.-..
as her human contribution to the cause
In which >he I t!'c
The Do- ne vast training camp,
from the citadel lortrcsi ol Hi liiax to the Pa?
cific-bordered Vancouver on ths -Aest.
cities have ar.M : a night on plain and
prairie and mountain valley; the streets of al
__OS1 ever] city and town echo the trc
marc hin?; men and the challenge of the bugle;
everywhere the a ?': list is S9 familiar a I
He who travels through Canada will find at
evaiy turn evidences of a country at war. I
chanced to be in I'rin.c Edward Island when
war v.a> dcc.ared. i'.iving over a country road
of this most rural of provinces, miles away from
even the little narrowgau - iy,a Sabbath
tstillncss enwrapped the landscape until the eye
?.aught sight in the distance of a group of
men gathered on a farmer's lawn. The first re?
cruiting meeting it proved to be. after the
church hour, where Sturdy sons of the soil
listened to the appeal of the local colonel?the
colonel who had known only peace time*. Not
many day- after a shipload of brawny island
isds sailed horn Charlottetown to gu?id the
wireless stations and shore towns of Nova Sco?
tia and Cape Breton.
A few weeks later a great camp suddenly
sprang Into h'e at Valcartier, a few miles from
Quebec, v.here, among the foothills of the
I__ar_ntiu . the first Canaduin contingent of
35.00J men foregathered from every part of the
country At historic Kingston snd Niagara?
each redolent of early Canadian history, of the
French regime and the I nquest?other
thousands came for drilling and training, men
who during the present winter are billeted in
many cities and towns, 04.4Upying armories,
exhibition buildings, halls, schools and even
churches and hmnes Toronto is once more a
military city, as it was in the '60's, when th
old-line British regiments added a note of ga
life to the town. Park-, university campu
and avenues a'? ted as drilling ground)
V-'.e strident and imperative voice of Ser
? t ml Wl - ova the roa
of the street traffic. So in Montreal and Win
nipeg, so in every city from Bj ney to Vic
.. so in the far-flung outpost towns of th?
SOLDIERS ARE EVERYWHERE,
One observes the man in khaki at every rail
wav bridge and tunnel, at every canal lock, ai
every elevator srith its stock of precious food
at every industrial plant where the twenty
million shells arc being inadc. Tort Arthur
has its training camp at the head of Lake
Superior; I ? baa its 11.000 men encamp?
ed on the plains; Alberta at the Sarcee Camp,
near Calgary, where Cree and Blackfeet once
warred and roamod the prairies unchecked. In
the nv untaJna, too, the aoldiera of the empire
arc found, and as one reached Canada's baby
of Prince Rupert, within :??,ht of the
Alaskan boundary, a youthful sentinel, ride
over his shoulder, area 6 entry-go and
helping to guaid the wharves bur] trie new
two millio.t-dollar al ng plant.
Truly Canada is at war. From many remote
corners cd tins empire-dominion are the fight?
ers coming. A battalion is beins raised in the
i River district, hundreds of miles north
'mont?n; "the last greai West" it is
called. But recruits hava 1 from far
more distant points. Prospectors have
"mushed" theii [rom Yukon
and Mackenzie and Hudson's Lay. : net Ser?
vice is driving an ambulance car at the western
front, and his is the tale of many a sourdough
of whom he wrote In more peaceful days. Many
a man has travelled from five to six thousand
miles to reach the firing line f^r his king.
An English girl drove seventy five miles to
the Edmonton market. "Are you alone in your
Peace Rirer sbaikv' she was nsked. "I atr
now," was the reply. "My brothers have gon?
to the war. My sister is a nurse, and so I'm
-t.lying by the stuff." And she is the kind ol
stuff Canada possesses In her people.
If any one had foretold in July of 1914 that
by January 1, 191f5, Canada would have 275,000
men in uniform and a total of 500,000 called
for by the government he would have been put
down for a fool prophet. This rapid growth
in the military strength of a peace loving and
living people reads like a romance. Within six
weeks after the declaration of war the first
contingent of 32,000 men sailed from old Que?
bec for the training camp In England and the
new cockpit of Europe. The force represented
n larger number than had ever crossed any
ocean to any war in the world's history; rep?
resented, too, a greater f?">rce than Wellington
had of British troops at Waterloo. It was nu?
merically greater than the entire British force
In North America that met Wi'hintrton in the
Revolutionary War. The thirty transports
made n remarkable marine procession. As to
how many are left, let the carnality lists make
To-day 60.000 Canadian troop? are In
France, as many more In England and 150,000
is "Recruits Wanted!" Billboards and stream?
ers flaunt the message; war pictures fill the
papers and windows, battalions advertise In
the daily press, a page at a time, for additions
to their ranks, as they send their brothers over
seas?Princess Patricia's, Pals* battalions that
belong to a certain city or county, regiment*
from the wr-t, fiom the east. Many have
characteristic nklmainee. mich as the "Little
Blach Devils of Winnipeg and the West."
who-c glory at Ypies shall not boon fade.
An American battalion is in process of for?
mation m Toronto, the members of which are
t.iking the oath of allegiance for the duration
of the war. It is interesting to recall that
48,000 Canadians enlisted in the American Civil
War, among whom there were 18,000 casual
WAR COSTS MONEY.
W<?i. Ii';?- 'nme other luxuries, comes hi*?.!,
and war is costin.; Canada many millions. The
government's war expenditure had nearly
teachrd the $1 .SO.dOO.OOO mark at the opening
of 1016, and it may cost two hundred million
a year while it lasts. The national debt in?
crease during 1915 represented nearly $139,
00, while the total stands at the tidy sum
of half a billi'in.
Canadian artillerymen ?rooml?? a big gun.
in training in Canada. Sixty-live thousand
married men are in the rankn, and recruits
are coming in at an average of a thousand a
day. Half a million from *n eight-million pop?
nation is Canada's contribution. It i
mated that the maximum fighting force of the
Dominion, of men who are between eighteen
and forty-five, would number 750,000; others
make the estimate a million. The industrial,
commercial and agricultural interests need
men as well, and already plans are being made
for t!if release of fighters by workers who
But, in the meantime, the universal slogan
This represents a heavy strain on an elght
miliion country, and yet it is being successfully
and cheerfully met. When the Finance Min?
ister floated a S per ? en, $50,000,000 war loan it
was oversubscribed to twice thit sum In ten
dayt1 time, and the other fifty millions were
ret lini i to as-ist the Imperial Government in
financing its purchases of war supplies in Can
ids Fortunately, the national revenue is
growing while the outlay is lessening, the gov?
ernment thus settini; a national example of
The country is experiencing tve new sensa?
tion of wir taxes on certain imports, on letter-.
A road makimj lenson In camp.
Members of American Battalion, Eiv
listing at Toronto, Take Oath of
Allegiance for Duration of War.
postcards, railway tickets, proprietary medi?
cines, checks and drafts and through scores of
other channels, with satisfactory results ft
Swelling the revenues. Not only is there na?
tional taxation of a special character but pro?
vincial and municipal war assessments are be?
The large munition orders cominj to Can?
ada, not only from Gre.it Britain but the Allies,
totalling, i; is estimated, half a billion dollars,
are heir ing the country to finance itself.
iNearly four h mdred manufacturing establish?
ments are busy on shell and other orders, with
the result that the national tra ?e figures are
swelling to unusual proportions.
Soon af:er the outbreak of war each of the
nine provinces sent many shiplcads of food
supplies. Since then comparatively huge war
gifts have been raise). During the first year
of the war the Dominion rai ed $5,000.000 for
what is known as tiie Patriotic Fund, for de?
pendent wives and children of enlisted men,
and In January, 1916, an additional $8.000,000
was raised. This is in addition to the govern?
ment's pay to the men, ? separation allowance
to the tamilies ani a pension system. Already,
I he Minister <>t Militia. Sir Sam
Hmthes, bidding nurses gOO?b) .
under this Patrio'ic Fund. 25.000 families sr
being cared for, and the number, may iscns?.
to as many more within a year.
VARIED SERVICE OFFERED.
The Canadian Arrr.y Trsn port Services*.
of necessity, called into being with ?tnc
dinary rapidity, and it is able to boast that!?
first 100,000 troops were sent overseas wtr
out the loss of s Ths Dee-kb
through governmental and private aid. si
supporting, late in the fall of 1915, 10.000 bed
in sixteen hospitals in England, Piancs,Oh
and the Dardanelles, and sines then the Or.
tario government has opened a 1,0O0-bed h?i
pital in England. Some of the great ?naii*.
universities, su?h as M.C:1!. Toronto in:
Queens, are supporting and mannin. ba?ehw
rit?is, which are cr?dite I with being o: t
highest grade. Already Canada hai sent ovr
two thousand of her doctors and several hx
dred nurses as uv.t of the national contrio.
In Canada itsell internment camp? art .
corollary of the contest. Thou.ar.ds of me
bers of the enemy lands who are under n
picion. are coralled in large encampment?
some of th?:r being situated in the wild? c
Quebec and Ontario, where the meniribiu..
in* roads and clearing land. The mea of U
internment camp in the Kocky I|SSJ___I_N
constructing a mountain road from Calory
The sacrificial spirit marks the asjsjtsj
Canada, as mi^ht be supposed. Their pn:
tical activities are legicn. Women's ?atnct.
leagues, Ked Cru s sUJ?lisries, Daughters.'
the Empire. Women's Canadian clubs, -hur? ?
organizations and women'a ;o'.iucai ettep
wording to the one end. A p?pate Caniiu:
song is entitled "Kmtt.n , and it is sur.,; H
the music of million-. - Women hiv?
tag days, collecting bands for war fund? an
even recruiting leagues, and now th<y art
organizing to release qtsalihei t.gntin_ ir.?"
trom certain occupations ,md to rspasM t?=
by women srorkera, The women of Canada )
are at war as well _l the men.
fe the Matter with American LigliV
Nothing Much, Answers Hungarian Author
of "Sybil." Except That Our Composers
Devote More Energy to Medleys than
to Stories Set to Music.
AMERICAN composers must stop turn?
ing out medleys and be^in putting
stories to music. They must reverse
the eye-ear-brain order, setting for themselves
a more dignified lace. They must go about
their wore mor? re slowly. They
must become 'infatuated" before they 6et
down a single D must abandon their
<herished "nur. < tag it impossible for
?scores to be inte ?
That is t:ie wd.v-r. ips more -
ly and with moi i iia reservation?that
Victor Jacohl sa;r s i?? the i tustion. And Vi.
tor Jacobi, who ; ? I," one
?f the musual COUM ? eases of t: -
son, ou^ht to bf e he
comes straight from l'u-iRarv, whete some of
the best music of the ) ; produced.
"Vour composers ver here," he ?-aid, "p: ]
most no attention ? the Storj
tutes the real difirrer.,.
lignt opera and light op? With
tta?or with those of us who labor toward the
production of something more artistic?the
story is eery important II and the music
must be wedded There must be constant ac
4 ord between them. Whr raks dia
r.ue there must '. e ? distinct reason for i?
The mucv. ill Othei words, must simply carry
Ofl the r-tory. It must never be interpolated.
? to the European point pi view.
? But with the m ij rity ol the A-riencan mu
?i<a! shows ? HI V I ? . I find thern gei
erally quite charrning) the relation: hip be
tween book and lyrics la the slenderest pos?
sible. Instead O? ? .ore there is genera!!.
set of '? one, two, three, four, live
perhaps up to twenty. These nstnbei
."? 'i the popular fancy, ml]
It juggh ' i '' ?"<? prodacer'a will
The BUI ll 'numbers' of one light oprr
might | ' fened boduy in many
?ases to simo i any othei light opera witl
af acting y te ploi ? '? -
What a becomes, in the
band? of most of your popular composers, a
mere string of songs."
"But why is it." Mr. Jacobi was asked, "that
America, with her jassion for music, doesn't
produce artists of the calibre of the European
The composer erased with a gesture all the
opprobrium suggested by the question.
"I am not sufficiently familiar with your
composers," he said, "to comment on the light
opera they produce In other than a most gen?
eral way. 1 find much of your pop'dar music
charming. I enjoy i nanvr Broadway show
immensely. And Arr.eri an
meet with ? cordial rek'tt
especially in Budapest, w..eie the songs of
sers, like Irving Her
lin for Instance, ??re quite familiar to the pub
"1 don't think there is. arv .;reat fault to be
found with the brand of musical comedy manu?
factured hete. It ser.es its purpose and its
day. That should be auffident And you have
? - . ei n, you know?Vi:tor Her
l>e*t I could talk f?>r hours and hours about
Mr. Jacobi still refused to say anything de
rogatory. hut, t? ed to elabo?
rate his idea of the imdr' erencei He
stoutly maintained that he was enthusiastic
er the Am? school of musical comedy,
but he also answered the vev.n ? questions.
'I think," he went on. "that the natter of
economics enters into the equation. In Eu
as in America, the consideration is to
B the public. No producer, however
re to stage a
? ir. r foi ?
The | extent
the COndil I here In America .?re
"American pr? leUght in equi].
musu i the : ander
they can ?itvi-e Money i?, not spared The
Victor Jacob!, the Hungarian Composer, a (jood?\attired Critic of Our
Lin ht Opera.
more lavish a production the better, as a gen?
eral thing, appear its chances cf success. Daz
/ling the eye is t'.ie first consideration in Amet
? . The productions in your theatre? a-^
simply wonderful. They go beyond anything
attempted abroad, unless in London.
'The next thing is to please the ear. For
tin purpose the music must be tuneful snd
swinging. Also the piece must abound in fun.
Unless it is a laughing hit it is hardly a hit at
all. Last of all, the intelligence of the audi
etive must (it is not certain but he said "may")
1 a sppealed to. The people are not supposed
to waste any time thinking. The plot must
be simple and as slight as possible. This leaves
the attention free to revel optically and orally.
Victor Jacobi Finds Most of Broadway
Musical Plays Quite Delightful, Though
Designed to Dazzle the Eye Rather
than Charm the Ear.
"In Europe the order is reversed. We ar-:
more economical than you. We do not sink
huge sums in the production itself, but depend
first of all upon the appeal of the story. This
represents a tremendous saving in dollars and
cents. An operetta of the better or more rep
rcsentativc sort must he capable of standing
quite on its own feet. So with us the tirst
appeal is to the brain.
"Of course, within the last few years we
have developed beautiful staging for light
opera. The European settings aie far from
being gauche and uni nely. They are esteemed
highly important, though not of supreme im
portance. While American producers relv
largely upon on Indulgence in the spectaculat,
we have three sources fiom which to obtain
effect?the brain, the ear, the eye. In one
word, it is our constant effort to gain the in?
terest of the audience. We believe that for
the first night SOC ess of a lii'.ht opera the story
is almost a deciding factor. But the music has
its vital infiucnce. It deepens the impression
of the story, and, if good, will preserve an ini
tial success, keeping a play fresh and young."
Mr. Jacobi explained that the IEuropean type
of musical comedy naturally required m re
time and thought on the part of the compose
than the type we are accustomed to look upjn
as distinctly American. A good operetta could
not. he said, be slapped together any way. It
could not be arbitrarily manufactured to fit
the demands of this or that star and delivered
almost with a moment's notice. Good light
opera is art, just as good grand opera is art.
It must be lived with. It must be evolved in a
thorough, musicianly manner.
He searched for a word?the word which
should exactly express the composer's atti
tude toward his work. Quite a bit of unintel
ligible Hungarian was aired, and whrle the ?n
terviewer was himself groping about in his
own Blind the fugitive word sprang to Mr.
Jacobi's lips. He spoke it with a ring of tri?
-Infatuation? That is r A <-***[ "?
be infatuated with bis subject ?
enough to turn out so many PU*"? .
scrip?. The story BUI I be absorbed. ?? J
about with one ccejatantly?and l? *
course, many stories TanuS
Mbilities would not lend themselvea to
treatment. The most suitable -tory rru?.
be decided upon. Then it must re
moat m the mind of the ?I ?? - ? ..
he is at work iron his operetta.
never set it as.de. BOVCf lei ? ^?rafCI !
?This method noeessarU. involves a W
?enod of concentrate I g
tibie for European CtUsmoeOTS to ti n
quantity of material which^the Amer***
arcan Por my part. I awbata.arm
Ing a mmucal comedy?
-Of course, with the Arne;'.?.an typ?
aka] comedy no im* degree aiicss
and elaboration is required. A I? _
of comedy 'musical number? and ism ^
plot to hold the per.orma.ue tog? J ^ ^
turned out in a very shoit Bine,
signed to conform to rules o: art _ -a ^
no pretensions to be what I >?' .
sa.d to fall abort of any ideal ??
llTta of muaical comedy, d?pendu! .
upon superficial e.t.ir..t.on ^ n .
achieve art.-tic l?KCOafOa. J fin.ti
often charm. They do not create an/
atmosphere, nor have they aHth- s?
any gaema of permanence .,.
And so. m his own way. -w.bu^a^ ^
names or aaauming ? ??gg .h- aasstt-*
m,ghtines<. Mr. Jacob, answered th*W
comedy' and Why do the imported I
joy the longest itawf
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