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THE SLAV LION IN THE KAISER'S PATH
86,000,000 Oppressed Peoples in Dual
Empire Await Coming of Polish
Legions to Unite Against
By Caroline Dawes Appleton
?j>ROM the Baltic and the vast
plains of Poland, through and
spanning the fertile valley o?
the Danube and anchoring finally in
the ancient fastnesses of Serbia and
Montenegro, extends a mighty^.chain.
Welded by suffering, oppressiontand
the indomitable fraternity of race, it
cuts in twain the dual monarchy of
pan-Germany. In this chain of
Slavic nations which lies across Cen?
tral Europe, in the very heart of the
enemy's country, is no crashed, shat?
tered -weapon for reforging, but a
twe-edged sword which is ready and
waiting to be grasped and wielded
t? the confusion of the tyranny
which threatens the world.
These Slavic nations, Secretary
Lansing reiterated only Friday, are
to be made free before America will
consider the war won. This is the
story of their own efforts toward
winning that freedom.
Of the 180,000,000 inhabitants of
pan-Germany 86,000,000, or nearly
half, are anti-pan-Germanist slaves,
and 59,000,000 of these latter inhabit
the enthralled territories of Central
These figures and others are pre?
sented by Andr? Ch?radame, faie cele?
brated French military critic, in
recent articles in "The Atlantic
Monthly." Referring to the recent?
ly agitated insurrectionary move?
ment among the Slavs of Central
Europe, M. Ch?radame says :
"These regions form the most in?
dispensable and, at the same time, the
most vulnerable strategic base of all
military pan-Germany. In fact, all
the rail and water lines of communi?
cation which connect Austria and
Germany with Russia, the Balkans
and Turlley traverse these regions.
Three an! a half years of'war have
demonstrated that without the troops
and divers contributions of the Bal?
kans and Turkey, to which are now
added those of Southern Russia,
Austria-Germany would long since
have been powerless to continue the
struggle. In reality, therefore, any
serious interference with the Austro
German communications with the
East (Russia and the Balkans) will
be enough to make the situation very
. difficult, both morally and materially,
for the armies concentrated on the
Western front by the Berlin General
Staff?and this with remarkable
A Sleeping Sword j
In Central Europe
It is justifiable, then, to say that
the vital regions of pan-Germany
? are occupied by people who are some?
thing more than passively anti-Ger?
man, and who in the face of new and
added cruelties, cut off from the rest
of the civilized world and the possi?
bilities of direct and immediate sup?
port and assistance, are ready and
willing to cast themselves into the
lion's mouth, if by so doing they may
insure the freedom of Eastern
Europe and, indeed, of the entire
Uprisings and rebellions have
risen for centuries and been crushed
with "efficient" promptness by the
German and Austrian governments;
swift chastisement has descended up?
on the first patriotic head to raise
itself above the restrictions imposed
with such care and forethought that
the would-be patriot was dashed at
the outset by the apparent futility of
But these uprisings, In which great
national heroes have starred and
fallen, have now assumed the dignitj
of organised insurrection. The great
nations of the world, leagued to com?
bat the enemy of civilization, recog?
nize that in the midst of torture and
devastation the Slavic countries oi
Central Europe hold the balance oi
power which may liberate the world
The voice of their mad longing foi
freedom and a worthy share in th<
world combat has penetrated th<
walls of their prison; the answering
word of encouragement from theii
exiled and emigrated brothers hat
*ounded back to them; arid now, at
last, the United States and the AUitxJ
governments add the weight of their
promise of support.
Slav armies, Polish, Czecho-Slovak
and Jugo-Slav, have been recruited
in America, France and Italy and
have fought individually on many
?' int.- for the liberation of their peo?
i:o Polish army, brought to life
by a decree of President Poincar?
of France on June 4, 1917, has met
with the approval and sanction of
the United States and other Allied
governments. Over and over again
small Polish forces have been prac?
tically exterminated and have risen
again with indomitable courage and
constituted themselves a force to be
reckoned with. The organization in?
spired and fostered by Ignace Jan
Paderewski, the Polish Army in
France, has recruited in America a
considerable force which has been
and still is in training in the United
States and Canada and is trans?
ported constantly by contingents to
the Western front.
Poland, for generations crushed
beneath the upper and nether mill?
stones of Russian and ?German au?
tocracy, has flamed steadily in tire?
less, incessant but unaided rebellion.
At the outbreak of the war, again
ground exceeding small beneath the
fair promises of both countries, Po?
land maintained the spirit of her na?
tional ideals. Thirty thousand young
men died by hanging for refusing to
enlist in the German and Austrian
armies. Polish women, struggling to
keep a foothold upon the land of
their fathers, battered and torn by
fluctuating warfare which swept
backward and forward across the
plains they worship, clung desperate?
ly to their children, doggedly prefer?
ring to die with them by slow starva?
tion?which, after all, held the glory
of martyrdom?to selling them into
German slavery even for the vast
sums of "150 marks for a boy and
100 marks for a girl." These terms
appeared recently in placards upon
the walls of Warsaw, signed by Gov?
ernor General von Beseler.
Of European Culture
Out of the blood drenched plains
of Poland (the name is derived from
the word "Pole," which in the Slavic
tongue means afield")?a country to?
day falsely regarded as a "small na?
tion" and which in 1772 consisted of
nearly 300,000 square miles, or al?
most 100,000 square miles more than
the present German Empire?have
risen constantly the living remnants
of an ancient and unsurpassed cult?
ure. The four great universities oi
Poland, the first of them Cracow and
Vilna and subsequently Zamosc and
Lemberg, are among the first o?
Europe, antedating by a year thi
University of Vienna and bj
600 years that of Berlin. In j
Poland in 1505 was applied a demo?
cratic parliamentary system, when
for the first time in the history of the
world kings were elected as presi?
dents for life terms.
In the same year the Polish Par?
liament declared absolute religious
freedom over the entire republic
and Poland became what America is
to-day, the haven of all oppressed
people fleeing from political and re?
ligious persecution. Serfdom, the
bitter humiliation to which Poland
has so long been subjected, has al?
ways been abhorrent to the ideals of
the Slavic race. It is interesting to
note that among all the generals v/ro
fought so gallantly in the American
War of Independence the only one
who had no slaves was a Polish
Since it has been the policy of the
Central Powers to exterminate what
they could not assimilate, Poland has
suffered the slow torture of national
death, unarmed and defenceless.
But the weapon is about to be
given into her hand. The germ oi
the idea for a vast Slavic army
originated among the Slavs in the
United States. The enthusiasm oi
these has fed the recent small re?
bellions throughout Central Europe
The tireless energy of these has
brought about their recognition bj
the President of the United States
who has formally announced hi:
approval of such an organizatior
emanating from America.
Aa to U. S. Plans
The Senate Military Commute?
has recently adopted a resolutioi
which renders formal the Unite?
States' acceptance of the plan fy,
a Slavic contingent %i the Un'te<
States army. But somewhere, jb
the interpretation to the public o
the exact meaning of the Militar;
Committee's resolution, or in tb
presentation of the idea to the coni
mittee, th^sre has been an error.
THE POLISH MILITARY MISSION AT THE CITY HALL
First row (left to right)?Mr. Sieminski and Colonel Martin *f the French Military Mission; I. J. Paderewski and Major J.
Kozlowski, Chief "Polish Military Mission to the United States.
Second row?Major J. Wagner, Polish Military Mission; Lieutenant Poniatowski and Captain Grodzki.
The original plan, emanating from
Slavic leaders in America and in?
dorsed by M. Paderewski, Dr. Mi
losh Trivounatz, president of the
Serbian National Defence League
and member of the South-Slav Na?
tional Council, in Washington, and
Czecho-Slovak leaders, among them
Gaza H. Mika, member of the
Czecho-Slovak National Council, and i
others, comprises not only the vol?
untary enlistment of men exempt
from the draft, but also those
draftees already in training in
American training camps. The lat?
ter, fervent Slavic patriots, live,
many of them, under the technical
stigma of "enemy aliens" by vir?
tue of their Austrian sovereignty;
furthermore, their imperfect knowl?
edge of the English language ren?
ders their training with American
troops difficult. High ranking
American officers, dealing with this
foreign element and the attendant
difficulties of its training, have-con?
curred in the opinion that it would be
more practicable to form these men
with those of voluntary enlistment,
and thus create" a Slavic army un?
der American control; or a Slavic
contingent of the United States
army, to be at least partially offi?
cered by men speaking the Slavic
If, as the resolution of the Sen?
ate Military Committee would indi?
cate, the approved plan comprises
merely the enlistment of under and
over draft age Slavs, it is doubtful
that any large force could be raised.
Poles, Czecho-Slovaks and Jugo?
slavs would prefer, it is considered,
to enlist in such legions as would
distinguish their service by the spe?
cific designation, Polish, Czecho
Slovak or Jugo-Slav.
But however the diversities of
the plan may become organized, it
can be but a matter of time, and
little time at that, before the strug?
gling hordes in captivity will co?
ordinate beneath the influence of a
free Slavic army. |
The mighty chain of rebellion
begins to writhe beneath the iron
beel, waiting with ceaseless, pas?
sionate vigilance for the moment
when it may rise up and bind the
oppressing giant against any possi?
bility of future tyranny.
j For the Light
Interspersing the three most
definite links in the chain, Poland,
Bohemia?or rather the Czecho-Slo
valr nation of which Bohemia is but
one province?and Jugo-Slavia,
which comprises the expatriated
Serbs of Serbia, Bosnia, Herzego?
vina, Croatia, Montenegro, Dalmatia
and the Slovenians of Istria clustered
about Trieste, are Ruthenia and Ru?
mania. The Ruthenians, or Little
Russians, are a Slavic people speak?
ing the Slavic tongue, and although
it would appear that Austro-Germany
depends upon their instability in the
event of an organized revolution, it
is doubtful that even the careful
snare of German propaganda will
prevail when the beacon light of a
free Slavonia shines before their
Rumania, apparently spared by
her peace terms from the devasta?
tions which have been inflicted upon
other conquered "territories, still
suffers acutely and unheard. Peace
loving, picturesque, an agricultura:
country of fine national spirit anc
much culture, there can be no doubl
of Rumania's allegiance to hei
Slavic neighbor's cause, althougl
she alone, of the chain, is not Slai
but of Roman origin.
Moreover, these two somewhat
quiescent states arc dominated a
either end by two of the most po
tent powers of the Slavic chain?
the Czecho-Slovaks and the Jugo?
The former, a nation of scholars,
scientists and patriots of high intel?
lectual order, has struggled against
the encroachments of Germany since
the fifteenth century. Through all
the pages of a bloody but magnifi?
cent history the Czecho-Slovaks
have intensified the artistic, liter?
ary and religious culture of Bohe?
mia, sustaining its claim to the
standard of second to none among
the world's centres of learning.
It was the University of Prague
which gave forth the indomitable
spirit of John Hus and the crusade?
like period of the Hussite Wars.
John Hus gave to Europe the hope
for freedom of individual con?
science; not only religious reform,
but the philosophic platform which
inspired the French Revolution. He
was burnt alive for heresy, and the
entire Czech nation arose to avenge
his death. What originated as a re?
ligious war quickly assumed a na?
tional character; Germany attempt?
ed an invasion of Bohemia, not once
THE BARRIER ACROSS "MITTELEUROPA"
- t ?in? n <? mn,i> . i, l
The shaded parts of the map show how a complete barrier against '
Germany's dreams of reaching the East, either across the Dardanelles or
via the Caspian Sea, will be erected when the nations that have been
enslaved by Hapsburg and Hohenzollern have been put on their feet
The numbers indicate the chief divisions of these peoples.
but many times, and since the fif?
teenth century these struggles
arainst the Germans have never
In 1526 Bohemia entered, with
Hungary, into a defensive alliance
with Austria against the advancing
Turk. Here began the series of
false promises which would appear
to be the animus of Central Euro?
pean diplomacy. Gradually Bohe?
mia discovered herself to be bound
hand and foot by treaties which
she alone held sacred. To-day she
finds herself?a country once the
i. . _
scene of the most inspired Christian
martyrdom?the helpless, impotent
ally of the abhorred Mussulman,
whose westward progress she sacri?
ficed her national liberty to impede.
One Hundred Regiments
Desert in Battle
Despite the frantic and subse?
quently carefully intensive efforts
of Austria-Germany for the Ger
manization of Bohemia, the flame of
Slavic nationalism has burned as
steadily there as throughout the
Slavic chain. The Slav language,
spoken in the streets of Czecho?
slovak cities only at great peril;
Slavic industries, schools, churches,
and, above all, political centres,
I were crushed beneath such oppres?
sive vigilance as rendered their
j existence impossible. It is due to
! just this cautious distribution and
dissipation of community spirit and
effort that the Central Powers have
maintained "efnoient" supremacy
over so vital a race. j
But there was a slip in this ex?
cellent policy, based, as is said by
Andr? Ch?radame, upon German
, studies of politics other than their
own ; upon that friendly diplomacy
whose abnormal concern for the
; politics of other countries has been
so startingly and painfully revealed
by the present war.
The Czecho-Slovali regiments,
mobilized at the outbreak of the
war for the defence not of their
own beloved territory but that of
entire pan-Germany, quickly real?
ized that whatever the outcome of
the struggle Bohemia must forever
lose the last vestige of her national
' life. Whether or not the Austro
German governments reckoned with !
the dangers of this sudden coordina?
tion of Slavic influence in the inti?
mate proximity of regimental or?
ganization, it is impossible to say. It
is known, however, that in an ad?
vance upon the Galician front
nearly a hundred regiments of
Czecho-Slovaks deserted in their en?
tirety to the enemy's side.
In 1916, during Rumania's tragic
stand for justice and liberty, 36,000
Czecho-Slovaks escaped to the -Ru?
manian border and there fought
with the Rumanian armies; of that
gallant number 34,000 fell at the
siege of Dobrudja. Of the 33,000 who
deserted to the Serbian forces in
the preceding year only 4,000 sur?
In Poland, Bohemia and Jugo?
slavia alike the crime of desertion
became a heroism. The standard
tragedy of our American Civil
War, when brother fought against
brother, has been magnified a thou?
sandfold in the seething turmoil of
Crowds thronging the streets of
Polish and Czecho-Slovak cities,
watching with anxious eyes the
posting of war bulletins, have seer
no proclamation, no news whicr
would do less than add to then
agony. The bitter notices whicr
France read, "les pertes ?normes,'
which were wfung from them in the
first great German drive, held &\
least the sublime panacea of pa
triotic unity. To the Slavic race th(
report of "enormous losses" in ar
advance, or a retreat, on either sid<
meant the same avalanche of grief
The starving millions in Galicia; th<
terse, fearful news that there nov
exist in Poland no children undc,
seven years of age; that 22,000 vil
lages had been wiped out of ex
istence; that for every hundre?
births in Poland there were tw<
hundred and forty deaths?thes
cool statistical tidings, and a thou
sand more, calculated to terrorize
the civil Slavic population of Cen
tral Europe, but inflamed them th
more. Countless desperate sacn
fices, the literal casting of thei
bodies upon the spear points of th
enemy, have been the only outle
for the desperate misery of th
Slavic race. ,
In Jugo-Slavia, throughout the
colorful, lands of Bosnia and Her?
zegovina, peopled with the vivid
legends of Southern Slavic allegory
and sentiment, the crisis is supreme.
Here it was not only Slav who
fought against Slav, but Serb
against Serb. Here in the heat of
battle brothers and fathers and
sons in different uniforms flung
down their arms and clasped hands, !
to be trampled underfoot by ad?
vancing Austrian4 hordes.
Here in the foothills of those
mighty mountains among which
Montenegro still keeps her place
with godlike magnificence and the
surefootedness of an antelope,
campfires flickered amiably upon
mixed gatherings of Austrian uni?
forms and Serbian, and the cliffs
echoed to the rousing hymns of
Slavic liberty and the endless lays
of deeds of ancient heroism.
These naif meetings and their
marked nationalistic tendency?the
tragic, epic consorting of enemy with
enemy?did not appeal to the Aus?
trian sense of either the humorous
or the sublime. The firelight would
flicker upon the inspired face of
some massive Serb, attired in the
dull gray-green of Austria and sing?
ing resonantly of the keenness of
the blades of his ancestors and the
sublimity of their combats with
Turk and Magyar, the unquenchable
flame of their patriotism, while clus?
tered in the darkness at his feet was
a fervent audience of his brothers in
Organizing of Their Power Would
Rob Kaiser of Best Strategic '
Military Base for Pan
the red and tan of the armies of j
Serbia. And out of the darkness j
and the obscurity of the towering j
hills would descend Austrian skir?
mishing parties, to stay a while in
swift, terrible action, and leave be?
hind them the lesser number, torn
i by the brief, ferocious combat, lying
? among the echoes of thei# glorious |
The battle line which divided Ser- !
bia which sang of Monastir and
Prizrend?that aged fastness an- ?
chored among the cloudy peaks of
! Old Serbia?from some millions of
? her loyal sons in Bosnia-Herzego?
vina who dared sing, but not aloud;
that battle line was drawn between
Serb and Serb and by Serbian blood,
not in civil war but in the most
frightful tragedy of unwilling
: fratricide the world has ever known.
In some instances the Austro-Ger
man governments considered the ex?
pediency of saving ammunition and
energy in quelling Jugo-Slavic dis?
turbances otherwise than by actual
slaughter of the civilian population
and the wholesale execution of such
soldiers as proved to be a disturb?
ing element in their organizations.
They conceived a thorough plan for
their incarceration in prisons and
internment camps. Here their grad?
ual extermination could officially be?
come a matter of "accident" and at?
tributable to the "exigencies of war."
Due to the "unavoidable" condi?
tions, calculated to appear so favor?
ably in a final reckoning, Serbian
prisoners died with obliging rapidity.
In 1916 spotted typhus ravaged the
internment camps in this section of
Austria. The military authorities
ordered the instant closing of the
barracks. Not until a week had
passed was a regimental surgeon dis?
patched to investigate the conditions
and if possible localize the disease.
He arrived to find a vast Serbian
grave. Nine thousand Serbians had
perished within the week. They
were buried by the hundreds in one
grave. When the earth was levelled
an inscription was placed upon the
site: "Here are buried Serbian
soldiers who died of wounds received
in the Austro-Hungarian-Serbian
war provoked by Serbia."
Under this epitaph lie nine thou?
sand Slavs, men of that race which
once stemmed the tide of Turkish in?
vasion before which Western Europe
trembled, and which is now encour?
aged and inspired by Middle Europe,
with a firm mailed hand upon the
helm of Turkey's, ship of state.
A "Natural Death"
Devised for Leaders
As Austria-Germany first de?
scended upon, and fancied crushed,
the learning and leadership of Po?
land and Bohemia, in bygone ages,
so systematically to-day are massa?
cred and imprisoned to die a "nat?
ural death" the scholars and sci?
entists of Jugo-SIavia. The civilian
internment camps are packed with
professors, lawyers, doctors and the
more educated of the women.
That these tales of misery and
oppression have escaped from the
prisons of the Slavic race is due to
the indefinable, almost wordless com?
munication which exists between
Slavs in all parts of the world. Slav
leaders in America, who are work?
ing tirelessly for the cause of their
nation's ' liberty, receive constantly
frail messages, slight vital details,
flashes of light, from behind the bar?
riers overseas. Truly and courteous?
ly concerned with the personal ob?
jects of the United States in this
war, loyal to its aims and war proj?
ects, they are yet intensely Slav. In
this very indomitable, unassimilatcd
quality of race the United States has
come to recognize how potent and in?
dividual an ally may prove the coor?
dinated millions who are already
seething in the heart of Central Eu?
That the condition in these coun?
tries is pitiable in the extreme is
entirely separate and apart from the
tremendous force of their strategic
possibilities. The Slavic chain is
not a weak, impotent one, despite its
private agony. It requires but the
anchoring of an end in the strong?
hold of American democracy and
that comprehension of the ideals of
all races which has made this coun?
try the haven of the oppressed peo
pies of the world.
Emerging undaunted from the
dark portals of the prison of the
Czecho-Slovaks is Masaryk, that in?
tellectual, scholarly type of patriot
in whom the Czecho-Slovaks place
their hope of freedom and the re?s
tablishment of a triumph of Slnvir
genius under oppression, of th?
world-famed artistic, literary and
scientific preeminence of Bohemia.
Himself under sentence of death
his daughter a political prisoner ii
an Austrian jail, Professor Masaryl
?"that pitiable and miseraMi
Masaryk, who 13 unfortunately ns|
the only one of his species in tfa
monarchy!" as Count Czen?n bittes?
ly observed?has brought to Am?^
the definite, visible knowledge of tfc?
fiery, waitng weapon which his ?ma.
try represents. "Not the only ?a?
of his species," Professor Masaryirg
presentation of his cause to the
American public, freed and cnhas*
j>ered by the meshes of German di?
plomacy, is gall and wormwood ta
the Central Powers.
Musician Strikes Note
Of World Harmony
Out of Poland, heading Poland8?
long, proud list of artistic achieve,
ments, is Ignace Jan Paderewski
Quietly, with military efficiency, the
great pianist and composer has laid
the foundations in America of the
forthcoming Slavic army by his care?
fully recruited Polish Army in
France. The latter has so dista.
guished itself in combat that even
France, who is sparing of certain of
her more delicate compliments, has
christened this Polish force as
"trc .pes d'?lite."
In a recent address made before aa
American university, M. Paderew.
ski makes a logical and impassioned
j appeal to American centres of learn?
j ing for their organized participa?
! tion in the great movement which,
I after all, involves not only the free?
dom of a vast race, but the re?stab
lishment of those ancient mills of
education with which the world can?
not well dispense in its post-wa?
j struggle for rehabilitation.
In part M. Paderewski says:
"You are here in one of the great?
est power houses of the United
States. You are concentrating here
the heat of thousands of young
American hearts ; you are generating
here the light for hundreds of thou?
sands of American minds. You art
laying and establishing the sohd,
round foundation for public opinions,
j Vou are sanctioning ideas, conge
j crating facts.
"Give us some of that precious
heat; give us some of that pricelesa
light; warm up the indifferent; en?
lighten the ignorant ones; help us t*
break these humiliating chains bind
ing up an ancient and highly civil
; ized nation, a nation which has beea
j for centuries, and which can h
I asrain. one of the vital organs o
"Take your share in this work.
Help those who have already started
the gigantic enterprise and then the
ancient Polish republic, which has
been murdered by three autocracies,
will rise again, revived by the gen?
erosity of American democracy."
M. Paderewski in speaking for the
vast ramifications and complexftitt
of the possibilities for world freedom
which will result from the final Hb?
eration of Poland speaks also for the
remaining millions of the Sit?
population of Europe.
M. Andr? Ch?radame goes farther,
from a standpoint of mflitar/
strategy, and points out the indi*
solubility of the Slavic chain in coa*
prising also the at present tentative
attitude and condition of Ruthenift*
Rumania and, on the extreme north,
the Letts and Lithuanians, who, al?
though not Slavic nations, may eas?
ily become involved in the gigantic
insurrection which will hem in the
Central Powers from any possibility
of dangerous expansion. ?*
M. Ch?radame indicates the terrifie
menace of an Austro-German al?
liance with the East, which, even ad?
mitting an unqualified Allied victory
on the Western fronjjwould still con?
stitute a threat to the civilization of
Christian Europe. That the entire
world may escape the centuries of
agony which the Slavic race has en?
dured as a living barrier to the bar?
barous advance of the Ottoman Em?
pire, M. Ch?radame says:
"If the Germans had been in our
place, would they not long ago han
made use of the anti-German ?le*
mente in pan-Germany, considering
that in Russia they have derived tai
enormous profit that we all know
from elements favorable to their
cause, although they were much less
! numerous than those utilisable by
the Allies? .j
"Under these conditions, can thfc
latter refuse to adopt, at last, th$
strategy of the political science?? j
"Far from working to the preja*
dice of the Western front, it woaH;
work altogether to its advantaga?,
for nothing could afford greater T?*
lief to the Allied troops from the ter?
rible pressure that they are having}
to withstand on that front tban *"|
uprising, scientifically ?rgaained, f?f|
til? liberation of Central ?uwpi/ v'