Newspaper Page Text
America Sets a World's Record in Meeting
Emergency Demand for Soldiers in France
117,000 Sent Across in
April, 224,000 in May and
276,000 in June
High Development of
Transport Explains It
Artillery Accuracy and Speed
of Infantry Shows Troops
Are Without Peer
By Hilaire Belloc
iCopyrlcht. 1918. by Tti? Tribun? A**ocUU?i) I
THE memorandum issued by
the government of the
United States upon the in- j
itiative of Secretary of War Baker
on the eve of Independence Day is
one of the most remarkable mili
tary documenta to be found in the '
history of the world. Some of the
points in which it is astonishing are
obvious and were everywhere re
marked. Others seem to have been
overlooked, and it is to these that
I would call the attention of my
readers this week.
The magnitude of the effort ac?
complished by America struck every
one. Over 1,000,000 men trans?
ported across 3,000 miles of sea in
twelve months! Every one noted
the remarkable success of the Amer- '
ican navy in its immense task of
I need not delay my readers on
these things, because they are mat- :
ters of common knowledge, but I
would like to recall to them the
confident prophecies of the enemy
that the maritime communications
would prove the breakdown of the
whole Allied scheme of war once
the United States became a great
factor in that scheme. The Ameri?
can system of convoy has entirely
upset the enemy's calculation here
and has gratefully disappointed
those?I confess to error myself?
who thought the peril lay there.
The Factor of
Elasticity in War
The mere numbers, then, and the
security of their transport overseas
are the obvious points in the matter,
and they are exceedingly remark?
able ones. What seems to me to
have been less noticed and to be, if
anything, more remarkable is what
we may call the factor of elasticity.
In all military calculations this
factor is of supreme importance, and
the degree of its importance is one
of the first things that one has to
estimate in judging the military
It is the best possible augury for
the Allies that this factor of elastici?
ty should have appeared in so high
a degree in the American effort.
The word almost explains itself,
?. but a brief definition may be use
1 ful. We mean by the factor of
elasticity in a military situation the
power, both moral and material, of
changing over from one set of plans
Go to France on the most
important win-the-war job,
next to the fighting man's.
Work to keep up the fight?
ing morale of our boys
abroad in Khaki.
The success of our army
depends upon the morale
of our troops, and the
maintenance of that morale
depends largely upon you.
The Y. M. C. A. wants
men over draft age to train
and sail for France at once.
It's a man's job?the big?
gest job that a man can
Mr. E. D. Pouch
Sift Madison Ave.
Hardman, Peck & Co.,
433 Fifth Ave.
11 ? "? WS ". "?' '?? i " ?
WH?RE THE AMERICANS ADVANCED
In the series of attacks carried out by the French and Americans, northwest of Ch?teau Thierry
since July 1, they have recaptured from the enemy the territory incl sed between the solid and dotted
lines on the map. The dotted line i ndicates the fi-ont before the advance, and the solid line the present fight?
to another set. The moral power
lies in shifting the point of view, in
making rapid decisions, in thinking
out quickly new problems that will
be presented, etc.
The material power lies in the
handling of transport in a new way
and with a different object; of re?
routing or "recanalizing" the supply
and in handling all the rest of the
material of war. Ultimately, of
course, the whole thing is moral
rather than material, but there is
in any particular case both the
moral and material side.
For instance, when the great
General Carnot, founder of all the
revolutionary and Napoleonic sys?
tem of war, bodily shifted his re?
serves from his left to his right dur?
ing the night of the second day at
Wattignies in 1793, and therefore
as much as any one man decided the
history of the world, it was a mag?
nificent example of elasticity. The
whole battle had been envisaged
from the point of view of th<?
centre and left becanse the French
generals had at the opening accept*
ed the enemy's plan of battle. Gen?
eral Carnot, somewhat like Genera
Foch on the Marne, determined tc
snatch victory by changing the cen
tre of gravity suddenly. It meani
a vast number of new orders, ever
on the comparatively small scale o1
fighting inherent to the size of th<
armies engaged; it meant a vas"
amount of cancellation of plans, o1
rapid study of new ground and al
the rest of preparation for new bat
tie. The great success that followet
was proof of the value of the facto)
of elasticity in war.
Multiplied by Three
Now, if you will look at the statis
tics published by Secretary Bake
you will see how this factor of elas
ticity appeared on the American sid?
of the alliance and why those t<
whom it promised victory are so im
mensely gratified by it. From las
September to the end of last Feb
xuary the sending over of Americai
troops to Europe proceeded alonj
what we may call a normal curve
The curve was not rising very steep
ly. If you give to the co?rdinat
of time such a space for one mont!
as you give to the coordinate o
numbers for 30,000 men the curv
rose, as far as I can make out, a
an angle of about ten degrees. An?
it did not do this without fluctua
tions. For instance, between th
oS.OOO sent in October and th
?18,000 in December there was
slump of 23,000 in November, an
allowing for the different numbe
cf days in the different months, th
December rate was virtually mail
tained until close to the end 0
The great German offensive, w-ith
? its very considerable success, came
^n March 21, and almost imme
i diately the whole curve changed in
?character. March itself, of course,
?only saw the kind of shipment be
i ginning at its close, because the
German offensive concerned only
the last third of the month; never?
theless, March saw nearly 84,000
I men embark before Easter day, the
! moment which corresponded with a
check to the Germans in front of
Then comes the really startling
information of the whole affair, cov?
ering April, May and June-?April
giving 117,000 men, May 224,000
and June 270,000. In other words,
after the German offensive had
started and showed the extreme
peril to the Allies by the-extraordi?
narily rapid transportation plan of
the Americans we had the winter
rate of delivery multiplied by six.
Another way of putting it is that
the end of March more than doubled
the beginning of March and that
June multiplied the March average
much ?more than three.
I It is really an amazing piece of
? work. It means that the whole enor?
mously complex machine responded
immediately to the unexpected, sud-1
I den call. If it had been mere dead
| material which was thus transport
; ed with such astonishingly rapid ex
; pansion due to the unexpected need
it would have been wonderful
enough, but when you are dealing
with men it means infinite problems
of supply to keep the stream alive,
and not only alive but equipped.
I say again that nothing like it
I has been known in the history of
men sent How America met the Call for. men.
The heay black line shows how the shipments increased
the total sent, 70 june 30 ivas I,0I9,115men.
war. The presence of this factor of
elasticity in the American effort was
! seen before in this war, when the
! rapid and immediate decision was
reached to brigade the American
?units with the French and English;
but the transformation in the whole
scheme of transport in what was
really but a few days was far more
One cannot discuss the most in?
teresting point of all in this matter,
which is the rate at which the
men thus landed in Europe passed
through the "bottle neck" of special
training and appeared on the battle
line. My readers are acquainted
with the importance of this element
in the situation and the handicap
under which the Allied effort suffers
on account of it. We cannot in this
war, as in former wars, train men
where we will and then send them
immediately ready to act to the the?
atre of war. They require first t?
be made acquainted after landing
with the special conditions on th(
Western front. But though we can
not speak of this at any length oi
in any detail, yet it is sufficient tc
know that the rate of delivery a
the front itself is far in excess o
anything expected by the enemy o
hoped for bv ourselves.
The Proportion of
A word may be necessary as to
the proportions of fighting men rep?
resented by the figures given. There
i:- at the beginning of any such ef?
fort a very large proportion indeed
of non - combatants. Communica?
tions have to be made ready and all
the auxiliary forces are in excessive
proportion to the combatant forces.
Then, as events proceed the pro?
portion of combatants to non-com?
batants gradually rises until il
i caches a certain fixed percentage
which it retains throughout the cam?
It is a "gratifying feature of the
present situation that the Americar
combatant forces are already 70 pei
cent of the whole, which is verj
near to the maximum proportion t<
be attained. In other words, thi
very rapid delivery of men durinj
the last two months has already ver?
nearly eliminated the original ex
cessive proportion of non-comba
tants. There were in Europe at tb
end of June over 700,000 comba?
tants from the United States, and the
delivery of men was proceeding at
a rate of far over 200,000 com- ?
b?tants a month.
In the absence of any military
movement on a considerable scale
we may conclude this article by
noting two local actions in which
American troops were employed. The;
first of these was at Vaux, near
Chateau Thierry, with the French
on the left and ritfht. and the second
on the front before Amiens, in con?
junction with the Australians and
I British. The second operation took
? place on Independence Day and was
1 in the main carried through by Aus?
tralian troops, althoueh detach
| ments of American infantry were
I used in support. Its object was to
' make firmer still the hold upon the
plateau of Villers-Bretonneux, which
! overlooks the Somme and which is
the last high ground before the
i gradual fall to Amiens. This pla?
teau has been as to its western part
in the hands of the Allies for many
i weeks, but its flank below on the
Somme Valley, around the village of
Hamel, was weak. The action of
July 4 secured Hamel and confirmed
the grip of the Allies upon the pla?
A Potent Factor
The attack on Vaux was on a
larger scale, and especially interest?
ing as being entirely conducted bj
American troops. It took place or
July 1, and resulted in the capturi
of many hundreds of prisoners am
was remarkable for the ease witl
which the German counter attacl
the following day was broken up.
The village of Vaux, which wa
the scene of this operation, lies oi
the high road from Chateau Thierr;
to Paris, about three miles west o
the former town. Its name mean
"the dale," and the village stand
at the point where the national roa
dips into the hollow under the gie;
rounded hill dominating Ch?tea
Thierry and the Marne and know
to the soldiers from its height i
metres as Hill 204.
If we put together various ai
counts received we find the mo:
striking feature of this exceedint::
successful piece of work ihe arti
lery preparation, the accuracy ar
volume of which astonished even tl
men who have been following tl
development of artillery work fro
the beginning of the war. It co
firms what I was told in Fran
when I visited American headaua
ters recently, that the facility ai
rapidity of the new artillery tacti
acquired by the American troo
were of particular moment.
Another feature in the affair w
the strikingly short time in whi
everything was accomplished. T
infantry advance appears to ha
achieved its objective in only foi
Albania Pins Her
Hope on Wilson's
"Key to Adriatic," Now an
Entente Ally, Long Has
Been Buffer State
Valuable to Italy
Recent Allied Advance Indi?
cates Rome Is Strengthen?
ing Her Protectorate
By Ralph Block
WASHINGTON, Jury 13.?The Allied
advance in Albania ia regarded here as|
having more importance than would j
attach merely to a fifteen-mile advance
on the scattered Eastern front. The
Balkans have a way or putting them?
selves into the news. The Albania of?
fensive is another reminder that the
Balkan question is not a negligible is- i
?sue, however much the fighting in the
West overtops it in the strategy of
The obvious importance of the last
Austrian offensive and its failure has
helped to hide the significance of
Italian operations across the Adriatic.
But its significance is not hidden in
Italy, where the great value of an
Italian foothold on the Albanian coast
has been established in the Italian j
mind by a long process of education in j
A.banian misadventures and a subse-I
quent familiarity with Albanian ambi- I
The presence of Albanian troops in
the Allied forces under the command
of Essad Tacha recalas the whoie trou
bled history of Albania in the last foui
years, its integration by the powert*
eariy in 1914 as a state under the
kingship of a German prince, the flight
of Prince William of Wied from his*
palace after a three-months reign an
the subsequent occupation by Italy o
the port of Avlona and the later dec!.?
ration of Albania's independence b.
Italy last year, under a guarantee 01 |
Now an Entente Ally
Essad Pacha, a powerful Albanian
chief, at one time closely associated
W'th the Young Turks, played an im?
portant part in these events. It was
the potential threat of Essad Pacha's
power that drove Prince William from
Durazzo. and it is now his alliance
with the Allied powers, rather than
with the Turks, that makes it possible
for Italy to make secure her A.ban ?an
protectorate when the war has ended. |
Aviona, which was the western ter- j
minus of the present Allied advance, !
and which was seized by Italy early in I
the war, is not merey the most irnpor- :
tant key to Constantinople from the
Adriatic. Eor Italian hopes and am- ?
bitiotis, the possession of Avlona and ,
control of the eastern Adriatic coast !
is a matter o? life and death. The j
old Italian fear on the Adriatic was ?
the fear of Slavic encroachment. This j
lias passed, with the passing of Russia
as an actual integrated state owning
a developed programme of ambitions
in the Near East.
But it has not in any way changed
the essential importance of the Adri I
atic as an accompaniment to Italian
progress, Ita.y and Austria have been ?
the two European nations most inter- j
ested in Albania's destiny, and both ]
of them agreed to the suzerainty of a '
German prince as a protection ??gainst !
Russia. But that was before August, |
1!U4. Austria is now Italy's great ene- \
my, and Italy is faced with the ne- j
cessity of great:y strengthening her j
hold on the Adriatic to compete
against the Austrian hand, with its I
fingers stretched out at Pola and Cat
Necessity for Italy
The Adriatic always has spelled the
difference for Italy between a status
as a first class power or dependency.
This was recognized so clearly in the
days of Venetian primacy that Venice
strong" y fortified certain places on the
A.banian coast. Venice is now useless
as a great naval base, gradually filling
up with silt. Bari and Ancona are
open roadsteads, valuable chiefly for
commerce across the Adriatic, and the
great Italian naval harbor at Taranto
is across the heel of the Italian boot
and so shut off from command of the
strategic straits of Otranto. The pro?
tection of the Italian hold upon Avlona
is therefore essential.
The political implications of the Al?
banian drive again point to the ab?
sence of any concerted political action
with respect to the Balkans between
the European Allies and the United
Albania is pointedly one of the
"small nations" that looks to the
United States for moral and political
encouragement in its struggle for au?
tonomy. It is a nation of vigorous,
energetic people, with an ancient lan?
guage; a race derived from the oldest
Aryan stock among European peoples.
Gibbon called the Albanians "vagrant
tribes of shepherds and robbers," but
in Gibbon's time little was known of
the Albanians except t))iat they had
fought off sqecensive wavec of Roman,
Turkish and Slavic forces for 1,500
Awaits Wilson Benevolence
The last decade has aeon the con?
scious awakening of a coherent na?
tional spirit among the Albanians and
a growing familiarity with modern
culture. The result is that Albania
is one of the suppliants awaiting Presi?
dent Wilson's benevolence to small
peoples who long for the opportunity
i for self-cultivation and self-expression.
There is a general tendency among
i observers of the Balkan field to grant
Italian benevolence toward Albania as
! the most effective means of maintain
j ing her own Adriatic security. It was j
Ismail Kemal Bey, president of the
(Albanian national government, before!
i equilibrium of European power made j
I it necessary to put a crown on William
of Wied, who said:
i "Italy of course wants a friend and
i not an enemy on the other side of the
Straits of Otranto." And Italy had not
' failed to win the friendship of Essad j
Pacha when his authority in Albaniu
Long Cultivated by Italy
Italy's claim to the Albanian coast
has some of the authority of kinship. I
Many Albanians have crossed the Ad-1
riatic to Italy to settle in the Abruzzi
and elsewhere. Italy has not failed ;
to use this as a road toward Albanian ',
Austria for a long time carried on
open propaginda through the Church,!
supporting the Jesuit school at Scu- ',
tari by funds from state coffers in
Vienna, and by a marked attention to
trade relations with the southern hill
tribes. Italy combated this in her
own way, but with a success that was
as much a tribute to Italian under-1
standing of the Albanian character as
it was a criticism of Austrian lack of
The strange result of the present
situation is the point of departure for
a new friendship between the Albanian
hill tribes and the. southern Slavs, who
have always been hostile. Both of
them now sec in Allied victory over ?
Austro-Bulgarian forces a guarantee;
of their own future satisfaction.
Schwab Names New Aid
George M. Brill to Handle All
WASHINGTON, July 13.?The crea
ion of a requirements section to
handle shipyard supplies, with George
M. Brill at its head, was to-day an?
nounced by Charles M. Schwab, di?
rector general of shipbuilding. Mr.
"It will be the purpose of this sec?
tion to keep in touch with the ship?
yards and learn from them in a gen?
eral way the amount of materials, sup?
plies and equipment required for ex?
tensions, so that a proper schedule may
be placed before the War Industries
Board for survey, and if necessary for
allocation. I think you will appreciate
that during this time, when the de?
mand for many materials is so far in
ejttcess of the supply, it is most essen?
tial that a charing house be provided,
so that the needs of different govern?
ment agencies may not conflict.
"The War Industries Board consti?
tutes such a clearing house, and it is
in my opinion a very essential instru?
ment in the conduct of industry under
Roberts Is Ordnance Chief
Virginian Will Have Charge
of Production in This District
WASHINGTON, July 13.--George J.
Roberts, of Richmond, Va., vice-presi?
dent and general manager of the Pub?
lic Service Corporation of New Jersey,
was to-day appointed ordnance district
r.i??,-f ?f ihe NoW york district. His
offices in New York will be in the Albe
marlo Building, Broadway, at Twenty
fourth Street. The appointment com?
pletes the Pst of district chiefs who
have general administrative charge of
the ten district offices and supervision
of production of ordnance material by
all contractors in each of the ten dis?
tricts into which the country has been
Dutch Ask Damage
For Allied Air Raid
THE HAGUE, July 13.?Tho Dutch
government has charged the Nether
lands Minister at London to protest
against the violations of Dutch terri?
tory by an airplane on June 22, when
the machine dropped two bombs near
Ouderschans. wounding one person and
causing material damage.
Examination of the fragments of the
bomb, it is said, established that the
missile was of British manufacture.
The government also asks compensa?
tion for the damage done by the ex?
?Vienna Denies Rumors of
Offering Peace Feelers
AMSTERDAM, July 13.?A semi-of?
ficial telegram received here to-day
I from Vienna says:
"There have been many rumors lately
| to the effect that Austro-Hungarian
| agents in Spain and Switzerland have
been seeking to establish contact with
Entente emissaries with a view to mak
;?*?- overture f~- r""'ce. All such ru?
mors are unfounded."
At the Request of the
War Industries Board
Washington, D. C.
E ask our patrons to kindly as?
sist us to help the Government
eliminate waste by complying: with the
following requests :
| The restriction of deliveries to not
?*? more than one trip a day over each
O Limiting to three days the time a
** customer may retain merchandise
in possession in order to enjoy the
O The restriction of special deliveries.
MOTOR SERVICE DAILY TO ALL SUBURBAN POINTS
Mail and Telephone Orders receive prompt attention
PHONE 6900 GREELEY
franklin Simon & Co.
Fifth Avenue, 37th and 38th Streets
Abandoned by Crew
George L. Eaton Later Sunk
by War Vessel That
LONDON, July 13. The American
steamship George L. Eaton, from an
American ort for Brest, according to
Lloyds advices, sprang a leak owing
to the abnormal hot weather and was
abandoned on June 22.
The crew of the vessel was trans?
ferred to a warship, which afterward
sank the Eaton by gunfire.
The steamship George L* Eaton,
which measured 2,008 tons groas, was
r??ported on July 2 as having been
sunk, presumably by a German sub?
marine, in European waters.
Commission Off With
Relief for Persia
AN ATLANTIC PORT, July 13.?To
make a ftudy of conditions in Persia
and help alleviate the suffering there,
Dr. Harry Pratt Judson, chairman, anti
Dr. Wilbur FJ. Post, of Chicago, and
Maurice Wertheim, of New York, of
tiie American Commission for Relief
in Persia, have sailed for England on
the way to the Persian Gulf.
The Commissioners carried with them
grain for planting, motor trucks fo.
the transportation of food from the
harvest fields of India, and medical
supplies. The American Committee
for Armenian and Svrian Relief has
cabled $2,271,570 to Persia for relief
Dr. Judson is president of the Uni
veriity of Chicago; Dr. Post is affili
ated with the same institution, and Mr
Wertheim, a son-in-law of Henry Mor
genthau, former Ambassador to Tur?
key, has been identified actively wit,:
the war savings campaign.
Lafayette Fund to
The French Heroes' Lafayette Me- j
morial Fund has made public its an- j
nual report in the form of a year book j
prepared by the chairman of the fund, j
Mrs. William Astor Chanler.
The fund was established in 1916 as j
ALL CAR? TRANSFER To
50?h to ?-n?, st.. I^-tln-ttoi. to M*?,
Varief/s fne Spice
of these S u ra?
ni e r Dresses;
9 ? c h a fasci
of styles in a
?n floral pat?
te r n s, c o i a
spots, all - over
effects ; one
illustrated a t
Scores of equally prett??
models at this price in styles
to jilease miss or matron.
Other wash dresses at
$5.95 to $16.95.
OeMtJala Bas???i? DaT5kT~\
birthlay of French '.-*,.
ILbbb-bBLOOMINGDALES-, B9TH ST.
?IIB'RTY BONDS B30GH.
PRESIDENT* INSTITUTE 2KZ. ?5j?^?
*r*~ **-"r Bun &M...? cd-h
| an outgrowth of the relief work among
j women, children and disabled soldiers
I conducted by the French periodiesi
"La Vie Feminine." The salient fM;.'
ures in the two years' activity of t}>
fund is the purchase of the b rthplac?
of Lafayette, the Ch?teau de Chavffi
Lafeyette, in th? prov.nce 0f Au
vergne, about which all the efforts o'
the fund will henceforth centre
Foundations of a Lafayette Mnsemi
which will house archives of the
French and American revolution! srd
of the present war have been laid A
school for sons of Frenchmen ki^ed in
he war has been organized, and ?,?
children will be given a thoroari
training in the English language
BACK UP THE BOYS IN FRANCE
BUY WAR SAVINGS STAMPS REGULARLY
ranfelin Simon s? Co.
Fifth Avenue, 37th and 33th St-.
WOMEN'S SILK HOSIERY
At Special Prices
Pure Thread Silk Hose
In black, white, or shoe shades,
spliced heels and toes.
3 pairs for $2.75 ,*)o
Hand Emb'd Clox Silk Hose
Pure thread silk in black with self
or white, or white with black hand
embroidered novelty or plain clox.
3 pairs for $5.15 x.i?
Openwork Clox Silk Hose
Pure thread silk in black cr white
with broad openwork clox.
3 pairs for $8.75 2.9o
Openwork Instep Silk Hose
Pure thread openwork silk hose, in
black, white, cordovan or gray.
3 pairs for $11.60 3.75
WOMEN'S HOSIERY SHOP?Main Floor
Hand-made and Hand Emb'd
For Women and Misses
Philippine Hand-Made Nightgown
Square neck model of sheer nain
sook; embroidered in floral design. 2.9o
Philippine Hand-Made Nightgown
V neck model of nainsook trimmed
with , drawn-work and hand em?
Philippine Hand-Made Chemise
Straight model of nainsook, em- -
broidered scallops, ribbon trimmed. \?yd
Philippine Hand-Made Chemise
Envelope model of nainsook, em?
broidered and scalloped, ribbon -
WOMEN'S LINGERIE SHOP -Balcony Floor
A New Step-in Model
"Vanity Fair" Chemise
Of pink or white glove silk
For women and misses, of heavy qual?
ity glove silk, trimmed with hem?
stitching, ribbon through picoted eye- n~
lets at Empire waist-line. Special 4.UU
WOMEN'S UNDERWEAR SHOP- Main Floor