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COFFEE MACHINES AND HOW TO USE THEM
THE WHYS AND WHEREFORES OF
By ANNE LEWIS PIERCE and LOUISE M.
NO MATTER how fine the gra?.e of cof?
fee is, or what kind of roast it has
gone through, it can be spoiled in the
making. A bitter, muddy beverage may mean
only a careless cook.
There are three well known method.**, of pre?
paring coffee?boiling, percolating and filter?
The Case Against
The old practice of boiling coflee is fast dis
appearing, because science is gradually con?
vincing the cook that boiling the coarser
grinding* in order to bring out the flavor and
strength is a far inferior method to grinding
the coffee bean more finely and filtering it. In
making the boiled beverage a medium granu?
lated coffee is placed in the pot with cold
water and boiled for five minutes. A little
cold water piuire?) into the coffee settles it and
it is then ready for serving. The longer coffee
is boiled the more "muddy" it becomes, be?
cause of the breaking down of the fibrous
material of the beat'. The boiling of coffee
ajaflo lowers its quality, because the longer it
stands on the grounds the m??re tannin is ex?
tracted, the more bitter it is and the moro un
whdlesome it becomes. It is. therefore, a
method to be discouraged in the opinion of all
chemists and most cooks, though some still pro?
test a fondness for the old-fashioned boiled
coffee, made with an i-pfl, and claim for it
more richness, body and aroma.
Many housekeepers use ergs or crushed
shells to settle the boiled coffee. The egg al?
bumin coats the grounds, making them heav?
ier, so that they will sink to the bottom. This
custom ?Iocs not improve the llavor at all, and
the clearing can be more easily accomplished
by cold water and by pouring the beverage
through a .very fine strainer.
The Easiest Way
Is Not the Best
Percolating is probably the most popular
method, as it is easiest. Finely ground coffee
is held in a perforated metal basket, and the
water is sprayed over it, being repeatedly
pumped up through the tube, starting luke?
warm. It gets hotter during the process, but
does not boil. Most authorities agree that the
best flavor cannot be obtained with water below
the boiling point, and chemical analysis shows
that the longer the water is in contact with
the grounds the more tannin is extracted.
Aborn quotes boiled and percolated coffee
as containing 2.21 to 2.90 grains of tannin to
a cup, while filtered had only one-fifth to one
fourth of a grain. The amounts of caffein
(the ingredient that keeps you awake and
affects the nerves) are about the same for all,
Filtration Is the Method
Approved by Science
In the filtration method boiling water is
poured over the pulverized coffee, both coffee
and water being in the best conditions for ex?
traction. If water is poured through mor?
than once the liquid becomes darker, but more
tannin is extracted, and some hold that tin
Use one heaping tablespoonful (two leve
tablespoonsful) of ground coffee to one cupfu
of water, and "one for the pot," as our grand
mothers always told us, for boiled or perco
lated coffee, but omit the allowance for tin
7"u o t\ pcs of coffee gi inders. The upper mill
fastens to the wall and the glass airtight
container holds a pound of bean coffee.
Coarse, medium and tine grinds can be ob?
tained. The other model clamps to the table
and will give pulverized coffee as well as
other degrees of fineness.
pot when using the pulverized coffee in the
If strong after-dinner coffee is desired the
amount of coffee is generally doubled. Many
housekeepers make several flltrations or boil
the coffee longer to obtain the stronger coffee,
but this practice is generally conceded to de?
base the flavor and to extract more tannin,
giving a more acrid or bitter taste to the bev?
erage and making it less wholesome as well.
The Importance of Grinding
Your Own Coffee
Coffee should be ground j" it before making
When ground coffee stands the volatile oils
escape from the ruptured cells, and even i
tightly sealed container, while ' it minimize;
the loss, cannot prevent it entirely.
Therefore it is the best practice to grim
the coffee immediately before making, in ordei
to get the maximum aromatic flavor.
There are certain comparisons for the differ
ent granulations, which Mr. Edward Aborn
of the National Coffee Roasters' Association
has very clearly described :
Coarse granulations, like coarse and fin
Medium granulations, like coarse and fin
Pulverized granulations, like ground an
Powdered granulations, like flour.
The degree of fineness for the coffee depends
on the method of preparing it. Some house?
keepers believe that coarse granulation and
boiling for a short time are two essentials for
good coffee. Science declares the contrary is
true. A freshly pulverized coffee and fresh
rapidly boiling water passing over the grounds
once are held to be the two most important
factors in making good coffee.
It is difficult to give any hard and fast rules
in coffee making for two reasons: First, the
matter of personal taste plays a large part ?
one man's favorite coffee does not suit the
next man at all?and a coffee that is excellent
with cream may not bo a satisfactory brew to
Again, many factors enter into the problem
and interact on each other. If is conceded
that "good coffee" depends almost equally on
the grade and kind of coffee used, the roast
and the method of making the beverage.
COFFEE MACHINES AND GRINDERS
By DE WITT V. WEED, JR.
Engineering Expert, The Tribune Institute
The three ways of preparing coffee by
boiling, by percolation and filtration call for
three different types of "coffee pots." Coal
range or electricity, alcohol or gas will heat
the coffee pot, but those who prefer the boiled
coffee will find the coal or gas range the
most practicable for this method. The pot is
usually enamelled ware, aluminum or tin,
nickel or copper plated.
Percolators may be used on any stove or
be electrically operated or alcohol heated. The
stove types contain a percolating device con?
sisting of a perforated basket, stem and valve
und are usually fitted with a glass cover. They
are made of enamelled ware, aluminum or
nickel-plated copper. With cold water perco?
lation begins in two to three minutes, and
the beverage is ready for serving inside of
fifteen minutes. It requires no attention and
there is no problem of "settling the grounds."
The familiar elec trie
percolator. Note the rc
movable percolating de?
vice, consisting of per?
forated basket, spread?
er, stem and valve.
The popular glass fil?
ter, a I c o ti o I heated.
With the newest model
sim?)ly unlocking the
handle permits tilting
the howl to pour out the
A popular form of percolator is the electri?
cally heated type, which can be used from a
lamp socket, and even beginning with cold
water percolation starts within a minute.
The percolating device is like any other, but
the heating clement is in the form of a small
cylinder, over which the stem of the percolat?
ing device fits.
A precaution necessary in using electric
percolators is not to immerse the entire ap?
pliance when washing, thus wetting the baso
where the electrical connection is made.
The Universal electric percolators are fitted
with a safety device which automatically breaks
the electric circuit when the water has boiled
off and the appliance itself is becoming heated
to a temperature which would injure it. In
this way an expensive machine is protected
from the certain ruin that would result from
The urn style of percolator, which is more
attractive and graceful in design than the
pot type, operates similarly, but is larger in
Different Forms of Filters
The filtration method of coffee making can
be carried out in the coffee pot on. the stove,
or there is a small device which fits over the
cup and gives an excellent concoction if briskly
boiling water is poured over the grounds
held in it.
The Marion Harland Coffee Pot, using the
filtration principle, looks like any straight
sided pot, but has a narrow cylindrical inset,
which is covered at its lower end by a fine
wire screen. The coffee grounds are
placed in this and the boiling water poured
into the inset. A perforated plate permits
this water to drip onto the grounds, and ex?
traction takes place. Only a few minutes are
required, and when the water has dropped
through the grounds the inset should be re?
moved so that the beverage will not become
bitter. A pint of coffee can be made in four
minutes, using powdered coffee.
Perhaps the most attractive form of filter?
ing machine consists of a glass bowl in which
the water is placed, while a covered glass
funnel fitted into the top holds the pulver?
ized coffee on a filter cloth stretched over
the mouth of the funnel. This cloth is tied
over a perforated metal disk mounted on a
rod which runs the length of the tube and is
secured by a wing nut.
The water is boiled by the heat from an
alcohol flame or a radiant electric unit and
forced up into the funnel by steam pressure
at boiling temperature. There it comes into
contact with the coffee, and extraction rapidly
takes place. Upon removing the lamp the
beverage flows downward into the bowl, and
is ready to serve unless greater strength is
desired. It can be sent upward two or three
times by reapplying the heat. z
This type of coffee machine is very popu?
lar because it is sanitary, a delicious drink of
maximum wholesomeness and deliciousness is
produced, and the whole process can be easily
carried out at the diniiig table.
Why a Coffee Grinder?
Coffee deteriorates so quickly after being
ground that an expert coffee tester can de?
tect the loss of flavor and aroma that takes
place with one day intervening between the
grinding and brewing.
Therefore, although the sale of ground
coffee in sealed packages is large among those
who prefer convenience to the perfect product
the real coffee lover will always have a mili
in the kitchen and insist upon the coffee being
ground and transferred immediately to the
coffee pot, filter or percolator.
There are only two types of grinders for
the housewife's choice. They are alilt? in
principle, but differ in style of mounting. The
most common is the wall type, which has '_
glass container of one pound capacity and a
simple device by which the grinder can be
adjusted to all degrees of fineness except a
pulverized or powdered coffee. It has a glass
marked off in tablespoonsful. supported be?
low the mill to catch the coffee as it is ground"
This type provides a sealed container for
keeping the coffee in the bean until used.
The other type either clamps to the table or
wall and may be quickly taken down when
not in use, if prefer raed. The hopper has a
capacity limited to four ounces, and only the
quantity immediately required is placed in it.
It is particularly designed for pulverized or
powdered coffee, but will give other grind
in gs as well.
TESTED AND ENDORSED
COFFEE MACHINES AND GRINDERS
(Price? itubject to channe)
Coffee Pots and Percolators (stove type)
Aladdin. Prices, $2-$3. The Cleveland
Metal Products Company, Cleveland.
i Monarcast. Prices, $3-$4. Monarch
Aluminum Ware Company, 4613
Payne Avenue, Cleveland.
'?? Universal. Prices. $3-$5. Landers,
Frary & Clark, New Britain, Conn.
? Wagner. Prices, $3.50-$5. Wagner
Mfg. Co., Sidney, Ohio.
Wear-Ever. Prices, $2-$3. The Alumi?
num Cooking Utensil Company, New
West-Bend. Price, $3.50. West Bend
Aluminum Company, West Bend, WTis.
Lisk. Lisk Manufacturing Co., Canan
| daigua, N. Y.
j Hotpoint. Prices, $9-$ 15. Hotpoint
i Electric Heating Company, 147 Waver
ly Place, New York.
i Universal. Prices, $8.50-$18.50. Lan?
ders, Frary & Clark, New Britain,
j Westinghouse. Prices, $8-$13. West
inghouse Electric Manufacturing
j Company, 165 Broadway, New York
i Filtr?la (alcohol). Prices, $5-$10.
Crystal Percolator Company, Inc.,
44-60 East 23d Street, New York.
Marion Harland (pot type). Prices,
$2-$4. Silver & Co., 304 Hewes
Street, Brooklyn, N. Y.
j Silex (alcohol and electric). Prices, $5
$25. The Silex Company, 45 High
Crystal. Price, $1.50. Arcade Manu?
facturing Company, Freeport, 111.
Enterprise No. 100. Price $1.50.
Enterprise No. 0 and 00 (pulverizer).
Price, $2.50. Enterprise Manufactur?
ing Company, New York.
Rapid. Price, $1.25-$ 1.50. Culinary
Manufacturing Company, 273-277
Livingston Street, Newark, N. J.
NOTE?See Tribune Graphic for
other appliances tested and en?
dorsed by The Tribune Institute.
LAST year the home canners were cred?
ited with 850,000,000 quarts of vege?
tables and fruits. This year the am?
bition is to go almost twice as far; the high
water mark is placed at 1,500.000,000 cans.
Even if you only put up a dozen cans, this,
multiplied by 20,000,000, would mean the addi?
tion of 210,000,000 cans if the head of every
family in the country did the same. (By the
litad of the family we mean the canner!)
It is just as essential to can your quota of
vegetables and fruits as it is to buy your
share of Thrift Stamps or Liberty Ronds, or
to put all you can spare, whatever it may be,
into the Red Cross box.
The wise housekeeper watches for the height
of the season for the vegetable or fruit which
she is going to can, and buys in large quanti?
ties to save money and time.
If a large amount of canning is done it is
much more economical and perfectly safe to
use a tin can. The Burpee Home Can Sealer
makes this possible without any soldering. The
device clamps to the table and two operations
of turning a crank seal the soldcrless Sani?
tary Tin Can which is furnished with it. No
special skill is necessary, but with experience
speed is acquired and sealing one hundred an
hour is no unusual accomplishment.
To insure that purchasers of the Sealer
will obtain a supply of tin cans the manufact?
urers have reserved through the government
a large quantity, which may be bought in lots
of one hundred or more at the rate of $3.55 per
hundred for the pint and $4.65 per hundred
for the quart.
With tin cans there is no exhaust of the
liquid due to variation of pressure and the
open jar, and therefore with this method the
time is considerably reduced both during the
processing and between loads.
For canning it is best to use firm tomatoes
of medium size and uniform ripeness. Place
in a wire basket and lower into boiling water
for one to one and a half minutes, in order to
loosen the skin, tlien dip quickly into cold
water. Remove skins and pack tightly into
jars. Add one tenspoonful of salt to each
quart jar; add no water, the juice is more
than sufficient; adjust rubbers and partially
seal. Sterilize in boiling water 22 to 25 min?
utes; in water seal canner, 211 degrees Fahren?
heit, for 18 minutes; or under five pounds'
pressure for 15 minutes. When sterilized,
complete the seal, invert to test for leakage,
cool and wrap for storage. If there are over?
ripe tomatoes and broken pieces of tomato, a
pur?e may be made by toiling them down to a
thick sauce. Strain, in order to remove seeds,
and pour over the whole tomatoes in the jar.
A tomato pur?e may be canned separately
from the whole vegetable also. To 'each quart
of tomato add one very small onion chopped,
one-fourth cupful of chopped sweet red pep?
per, one-half teaspoonful salt, and one-half
teaspoonful of sugar. Cook until the consist?
ency of catsup is reached and pour into hot
sterilized jars; adjust rubbers, partially seal
and process "0 minutes in boiling water. Com?
plete the seal and cool. Wrap for storing.
Any desired ?ombination of vegetables with
tomato may be prepared. Proceed with the
preparation of each vegetable as though it
were to be canned alone and mix in propor?
tions according to your own taste. Vege?
table combinations are sterilized two hours in
Discard the outer leaves of the cabbage, re?
move all of the heart and cut the remaining
leaves into any desired size. Bl;|nch over live
steam for 10 minutes, cold dip and pack into
hot sterilized jars. Adjust,sterilized rubbers,
add one teaspoonful of salt ?to each quart jar,
add boiling water to overflowing; partially
seal and sterilize in boiling water for two
hours; in water seal (214 degrees F.) for 00
minutes; or under five pounds' pressure for
one hour. When sterilized complete the seal.
Before canning cauliflower allow it to soak
in a brine for one hour, using one-half pound
of salt to three gallons of water. Use only
the flowered portion of the cauliflower for
canning. Blanch over live steam for three
minutes and plunge quickly into cold water.
Pack into hot sterilized jars, adjust rubbers,
add one teaspoonful of salt and boiling water
to overflowing. Partially seal and sterilizo
for one hour in boiling water; 40 minutes in a
water seal (214 degrees F.)? or for 30 minutes
under five pounds'steam pressure. When ster
ilized, complete the seal, invert to test for
leakage, then cool.
Spinach, Swiss Chnrd, Beet Tops, etc.
Wash the greens very thoroughly in several
waters, getting rid of all sand, dirt and old or
decayed leaves. Tie in cheesecloth bags and
blanch in live steam for 15 minutes. Plunge
quickly into cold water, then pack tightly into
hot sterilized jars. Adjust rubbers, add one
teaspoonful of salt to each quart jar and boil?
ing water to overflowing. Partially seal and
sterilize in boiling water for two hours. Com?
plete seal and when cool wrap.
To avoid a "slack" fill be careful to blanch
all of the greens very thoroughly and to pack
tightly into the jars. If there is a slight
shrinkage after these precautions the products
will not be so attractive and may dry out and
fade a little on top, but still there is no in?
creased danger of spoilage if directions for
canning have been carefully followed.
By VIRGINIA CARTER LEE
^~W THY restrict the squab to the late sup
|/|/ per or the invalid's tray? They are
" now coming regularly into our mar?
ket at a lower price than fancy young broilers.
The large homer or Jumbo squabs, as they
are sometimes called, are more meaty than
chickens, for as a rule the bones are smaller
and there is more firm, tender flesh, hence the
waste is less, even if one pays the same price
per pound as for chickens.
Moreover, every young hen is a future as;^
producer, while the squabs have no war or
economic function to urge as a reason for
being allowed to grow up. They are one of
the "perishables," as well as one of the lux?
uries, that can be eaten with a free conscience
even in these days of war economy. Be sure,
if you order them in advance (and many egg
and butter dealers are now carrying them as
a side line), to stipulate that you receive them
ready dressed; for the quicker they are
n .-j m ?^-FfTryn-T'-T-Lr'a ivjrj i :-.i mur-n-j-?-?ii ?, r^ry-rr-:
Al Your Service
HC ?rift HUbauHUUnu h-t-vr-FTXTTT~trr,-r-i;i imama
WHEATLESS NUT AND RAISIN
1 \_ cupsfu] tempered % cupful molasses
oat flour 1 cupful water
IV; cupsful corn flour ',_ eu Eu raisins,
2 teaspoonsful salt chopped
2 tablesnoonsfulbak- ',_ cupful English wal?
ing powder nuts, chop]
Mix and sift the flour, salt and baking pow?
der, add the chopped nuts and raisins, the
molasses and water. Beat well and pour into
greased muffin tins or small bread pans and
b?ke in a moderate oven. If it is baked in
bread form it is more easily cut the second
day. B. M. IL, New York City.
Here is a rare combination of a wheatless
and sugarless bread. Walnuts bought in the
shell were used?they are about *'!() cents a
pound cheaper this way. For 2"> cents one
dozen and a half of these little muffins can be
cleaned after they are killed the better flav?
ored th-ay "-ill be.
In nothing does a cook show her skill more
than in the serving of small birds, and no one
thing is more often spoiled in the cooking.
The oven is too hot, the fire over which they
are broiled is too high, the broiler rests too
near the hot coals or the gas flame, or some
other little point is neglected, and the result
is often a complete failure.
Small birds, when perfectly prepared, should
be a rich brown on the outside, and although
the meat is thoroughly cooked the juices and
delicate flavors are retained. A noted chef
recommends that so-called broiled squabs
should first be seared and browned over in a
buttered broiler and the process finished in a
covered pan in the oven. Brush over with a
little bacon or pork fat before putting in the
baking pan and dust lightly with salt.
When preparing squabs for cooking do not
immerse in water. If you do the delicioui
natural flavor is dissipated. Wipe them care?
fully after they are cieaned with a damj
towel, both inside and out.
Broiled Squabs on Liver Toast
Remove the heads and feet, split up thi
back and wipe with a damp cloth. For tw<
birds put two tablespocnsful of shortenin;
(bacon fat preferred) and one gill of Madeir;
in the baking pan. Season the birds with sal
and paprika, place in the pan and cover witl
greased paper. Roast, covered with the paper
for about fifteen minutes, then remove th
paper and brown for six or seven minute
longer. Roast the livers from the birds fo
the last seven minutes and baste with the liquo
in the pan. Dip crustless slices of crisp toas
in the gravy, spread with the livers that hav
been mashed to a paste and seasoned with
few drops of Worcestershire sauce, salt an
paprika, and serve half a bird on each toas
slice. Garnish with crisp watercress.
Prepare three fat, plump squabs for cookini
Stew slowly one pound of veal in strained se?
soned stock to cover, and when the meat
very tender put aside to cool. Cut the ve;
into finger lengths and lay on the bottom of
deep oval pie dish that has been brushed ovi
with melted shortening. Divide the squal
into halves, brown over in a little shortenir
and lay them over the meat piled in the cent
to form a dome. Sprinkle lightly with sa
paprika and celery salt. Cut two hard-boih
eggs into quarters, lay them between tl
pieces of squab and add half a cupful of t
strained stock; reserve the remainder of the
stock in which the veal was cooked to add hot
vvhen tue pie is baked.
Wet the edge of the dish and lay a thin
-rip of the war-time crusts around it and
press it close to the under side, so that the
gravy cannot boil up under it. Dust over the
contents of the pie a scant teaspoonful of rice
Hour and lay over the top a sheet of pastry,
cut a small hole in the centre, make severa?
incisions for the steam to escape and brush
over with beaten egg mixed with a little cold
water. Bake in a hot oven until brown.
?rive minutes before removing from the oven
pour the remainder of the veal liquor (highly
seasoned and slightly thickened) through a
funnel inserted in the hole in the centre.
This recipe is excellent if the birds are not
very young and tender. After wiping them
off truss neatly with only the livers inside.
?Meat three tablespoonsful of pork fat and
brown the birds quickly in this. Remove them,
Stir In one tablespoonful and a half of rice
nour and when smooth add slowly two large
cupsful of strained and seasoned stock. Sea?
son to taste with salt and paprika, add one tea
spoonful of kitchen bouquet and stir until the
sauce boils. Arrange the birds in a greased
casserole, pour over the gravy and cook very
slowly until tender. Just previous to serving
aud two tablespoonsful of currant jelly to the
gravy. Serve in the casserole.
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