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Suffrage?Over There and Over Here
By MARIE DE MONTALVO
Editor "The New Citizen"
SUFFRAGE is still an issue?except
for Canada, an all-America issue.
In the United States ten campaigns
are now under way, some for the Fed?
eral and others for the state amend?
ment. In Idaho, New Hampshire, New
-Jersey, Delaware and Massachusetts
suffragists are campaigning to elect on
November 5 candidates to the United
States Senate who will support the Fed?
eral amendment there when it comes to
a vote, probably within a few weeks.
In Oklahoma, Michigan, South Dakota
and Louisiana the state amendment will
be submitted by referendum on Novem?
ber 5. Arkansas will vote on a new
state constitution December 14, and this
includes provision for full woman suf?
"Beat Baird" is the slogan in New
Jersey of the state suffrage association
and the National Woman's party. Sena?
tor Baird, a Republican, is filling by
appoititment the place left vacant in the
Senate by the death of Senator' Hughes,
when the vote on the amendment came
up. He voted against it, and is now a
candidate to succeed himself by popular
vote to serve during the rest of Senator
Hughes's term, that is, until next
March. Suffragists are asking even the
men of his own party to vote against
him and elect Hennessy in his place for
the few months during which the amend?
ment will be under consideration.
The same situation exists in New
Hampshire, where voters are asked to
defeat George H. Moses, Republican
candidate for the Senate, opposed to
suffrage, in favor of John B. Jameson,
Democrat, who has come out in favor
The Massachusetts Suffrage Associa?
tion recently passed a resolution char?
acterizing the vote against the Senate
amendment of Senators Weeks and
Lodge as "contrary to the ideals of
democracy as expressed in the civilized
world,""and went on to say that the
attitude of these gentlemen toward the
womanhood of their country was one of
indignity and blind prejudice?"one
that liberal women will remember for
Senator William E. Borah, of Idaho,
is the next under fire. The first volley
has come from "The Woman Citizen,"
official organ of the National American
Woman Suffrage party, in which an edi?
torial accuses him on eleven charges
of "inconsistency, insincerity and injus?
tice." Representing a party that stands
for suffrage, elected by a state that
has had woman suffrage since 189G,
Senator Borah nevertheless stands alone
in the entire Senate as the only suffra?
gist who voted against the amendment.
In Michigan a unique situation exists.
Twenty-live organizations, political, pro?
fessional, commercial?schools, churches,
philanthropic societies, the grange, the
Woman's Benefit Association of the Mac
j cabees?practically every group of men
i and women possessing any influence in
: the statt;?have allied themselves with
I the Michigan Equal Suffrage Associa
i tion in its fight for the right to vote.
South Dakota is a "first paper" state j
?which means that any immigrant j
within a short time after registering his j
, intention to become naturalized can '?
voice his wishes by way of the ballot. >
So the suffrage clause is combined here
j with a citizenship amendment in an ef
i fort to make the representation at the
j polls of South Dakota 100 per cent
Oklahoma presents unusual difficulty.
! An amendment to its constitution must
: receive a majority of the largest num
; ber of votes cast for any candidate or
; measure at the election. Suffragists
: here realize the alr-ost insurmountable
obstacles involved, but put high faith
. in the fact that Oklahoma is whole
heartedly back of the President?and
the President's attitude on suffrage is
; well known.
In Louisiana, the first Southern state
to have a referendum on this question,
! the measure which is to be voted on
! next Tuesday has the backing of the
Governor and other men of prominence.
' President Wilson, too, has written urg?
ing the passage of the amendment.
Arkansas has already adopted pri?
mary suffrage, which in a state univer
[ sally Democratic in its sentiment means
| practically all that full suffrage means.
But it seems only a matter of time be.
fore women will be casting ballots at
the general elections, too, since \h_
measure has been urged both by the
press and by the Democratic party at
its last convention. Women here have
already demonstrated their interest bv
turning out fifty thousand strong to
j register their convictions at the last
So much for the various states. As
for the Senate, which is expected to
: vote again on the P'ederal amendment
! within a few weeks, since the conversion
; of Pollock, of South Carolina, who is
slated to succeed Senator Bep.et on
November 5, there will be, if all g0es
; well, only one more vote to win. And
i suffragists believe that this will eorao
: from New Jersey or New Hampshire.
But?to quote a Tribune editorial of
| September 30?"the issue of women's
' voting depends not in the least upon tfco
! one vote that may or may not be forth
j coming to make the necessary two-thirds.
I That issue does not hang in the balance
j in any progressive nation in the worl-1.
! It has been settled, settled for all timej
j in favor of progress and democracy.
Only the ratification of this great for.
1 ward step by our most conservativo _?
; islative body remains?a small detail in
! the history of a great reform."
The Franchise in Canada
THE Canadian House of Commons
passed House Bill No. 3, an act
to confer the electoral franchise
upon women, amid a calm, matter-of-fact
approval from all corners of the nation
that is a commentary on the strange dif?
ferences between northern North Amer?
ica and the United States.
The bill was a government bill, far
more immediate in its effect and more
generous in its provisions than the Fed?
eral amendment now before the United
.States Senate. Its smooth course in pas- ,
sage was enough to make an American
suffragist wistful for the simplicity of
British procedure in legislative bodies.
It was certain of passage from the mo?
ment of introduction by the Union gov?
ernment. It was introduced by Sir Rob?
ert Laird Borden, Conservative Prime
Minister, and found no opposition except
in the innermost heart of Sir Wilfrid
Laurier, leader of the Opposition.
The bill gives the franchise at Domin?
ion elections to all women over twenty
ono who ?-ire British subjects, by birth
or naturalization, provided they have
fulfilled the usual residential qualifica?
tions for voting in operation for the
male electorate and are not disqualified
by race, blood or original nationality to
vote for members of the legislative as?
sembly of the province in which they
The bill made no niggardly provisions
for women over thirty only. It does not
attempt to insure supremacy for the rest
of this generation, throughout the period
of reconstruction, to male intelligence,
as the recent British act enfranchising
women does. And it bas a feature which
will be even more satisfactory to Eu'ro
: pean feminists than our Federal amend
| ment: Danish feminists, in particular,
have always maintained that women
were more to be recognized as daughters
of their fathers and what they were be?
fore they happened to marry than of a
status to be determined by their affec?
tions or the marriage broker. Under
j this new law a British woman can marry
! an alien, even a naturalized Austrian,
! and still maintain her citizenship and
I right to vote, provided she does not
swear allegiance elsewhere or other
! wise forfeit her citizenship rights.
This is a precedent that should count
much in making public opinion in behalf
of a measure introduced by Repre?
sentative Jeannette Rankin, permit?
ting American women to keep their
citizenship, whether they marry Boisse
vains or Italian counts or Indians.
The only concession in the new law
made to Quebec is an amendment which
provides that the suffrage shall not be
granted in the various provisions on a
wider basis than it has been granted lo
men. In Quebec there still remains a
property qualification, based on land?
owning, salary or rents. It is to be hoped
that this means wives will go on ac
? knowledged allowances; but Mr. Bureau,
j who felt deeply on the subject, in a re
) cent debate made a point, too, when he
I said: "When Election Day comes around
a man who may have worked hard all
his life may find himself in an old man's
home, while the old lady across the street
will be brought out to vote."
A Word About Louisiana
By ROSE FALLS BRES
(Admitted to the Bar of Louisiana in
1898 and the first woman to practise
in State and Federal courts in tltat
LOUISIANA-heart of the South?
land, where pino forests reach
toward the bluest of skies, where
flowers bloom brightest and sweetest,
where the great Mississippi pours its
flood into the Gulf! Louisiana?where
the counties aro called parishes and
where tiny bayous thread their way
through gloomy swamps, then unrt 1 like
shining bands of ribbon over stretches
of prairie and between great fields of
cane and cotton! Louisiana?where in
song and story the chivalry of her sons
has been told since the mind of man
runneth not to the contrary! Louisiana
?where the unwritten law and the Jim
Crow ordinance pass current without
protest or comment, where the old
French Code Napoleon is the basis of
all rales, and where prejudice and sen?
timent are so interwoven that the march
of progress has sometimes been stayed?
Louisiana presents to its voters on
the second of next month nn amendment
to give women suffrage!
New York women who take suffrage
us a matter of course might ponder on
some of the inequalities to which the
women of Louisiana have submitted and
which, it by gr?eat good chance the
amendment should receive a majority
of votes at the coming election, they
will seek to remedy.
In that state so well established has
the rule been that a woman must be
guided in all things by her husband that
the one act she was permitted to carry
out without direction had. to be pro?
vided for. Artick 136 of the code
"The wife may make lier last will and
testament without the authorization of
bet hosband." .
Of course, the fact that she has to ;
die in order to make this one act effec?
tive rather lessens . her satisfaction.
Then, too, there is Article 90 of the
code, which reads:
"As the law considers marriage in no
other way than that of civil contract,
it sanctions all those marriages where
the parties at the time were willing to
contract and did contract according to
the forms and solemnities prescribed by
But the contract was manifestly uni?
lateral, since Article 24 says:
"Laws, on account of the differer.ee
of sexes, have established between men
and women essential differences with
respect to cjvil, social anil political
Article 1782 continues:
"All persons have the capacity to
contract except those whose ineapacity
is specially declared by law. These are
persons of insane mind, those who bare
interdicted and married women."
It is of record that a suit, was tried
before a judge of the Civil District
Court where both plaintiff and defend?
ant were women and all of the wit?
nesses were women. The judge, at the
close of the case, entered a judgment of
non-suit, saying that there had been
nothing before the court.
When what is known as a "family
meeting" is convened for the purpose of
disposing of the property of a minor it
is expressly stipulated by the code that
only "male relatives" may be called.
When a suit is brought in Louisiana
by a married woman she must be au?
thorized by her husband to sue and
stand in judgment, and to sue a married
woman without citing her husband
would not be allowed.
Not only must the husband appear
i and authorize his wife to purchase rea!
estate, but if property is left to her and
I for any reason she does not wish to ac?
cept it ho may appear'and accept foi
In the cities of Louisiana and in th<
smallest of the parish towns the worn
i en of the state are campaigning foi
freedom, and as Louisiana votes, so, if
may be expected, will other Southen
states fall m line in the near futura
The Senate and the Clock of Progress
WOMEN may be e?xcused for
e.xhibiting some impatience
when statesmen hesitate
and haggle over a measure of such
vital importance to the sex as the
suffrage amendment. They find it
hard to comprehend why gentlemen
who can see the wisdom of appro?
priating billions for the common de?
fence, and the necessity of sending
millions of our young men to fight
for the nation's safety, should so
utterly fail to appreciate the fact
that the whole theory on which we
wage war is untenable unless a
sword is put in women's hands at
home wherewith to protect them?
It is merely incidental that the
"best" voters of the country are in
France and women must take their
places if the quality of national rep?
resentation in Washington is to be
kept up or improved. If the suf?
frage amendment in any circum?
stance is not a war measure, there
is no such thing as a war measure.
The color question is causing op?
position from the South, unfortu?
nately, and Senator Baird, of New
Jersey, sees in his state's rejection
of suffrage some time ago a plausi?
ble basis on which to put his con?
tinued opposition. It is felt that he,
in common with other "objectors,"'
has failed utterly to grasp the sig?
nificance of the world war in its re?
lation to the emancipation of
women. Three years ago, perhaps,
the necessity for action was not so
I acute that extension of women's !
rights, state by state, was unsatis- '.
'? factory, but the need now is real '
; and immediate. The war has made
1 this perfectly, obvious. Woman is
making shells in a politicalsituation .
that is based on conditions which ,
: existed when no woman worked ?
outside of her own home and the j
- -Courtesy "Tho Woman Citizen "
"Those are my sentiments"
. industry of the world was carried !
on entirely by men.
It would be well if Senator Baird i
i and otherSenatorscould go through
the experience which resulted in |
' the conversion of Edward W.
I Bok, editor of "The Ladies' Home
; Journal," formerly a radical oppo
; nent of suffrage. Mr. Bok did not
. doubt the sincerity of Roosevelt's
? conversion to the cause, but was
I curious about it. "The trouble with
you is that you are ignorant on the
subject," averred Roosevelt. "I'll
send you some books. Read them
and you may change your mind."
Some days later an express wagon
drove up to Mr. Bok's residence in
Merioii and began unloading long,
heavy boxes. It appeared to the
editor that some e.xcavating expedi?
tion in Palestine had been favoring
him with specimens of its finds.
The boxes, however, happened to be
filled with the"some books" to which
Roosevelt had referred. Mr. Bok
began a course in reading. He was
amazed to discover that: each vol?
ume had within it indisputable evi?
dence of having been gone over
carefully by the ex-President. There
were authoritative analyses of suf?
frage in the Scandinavian states, in
New Zealand, everywhere on earth
that the experiment had been tried.
What had happened to Roosevelt
now happened to Mr. Bok. He also
became a convert. It is u pity that
the same selection of volumes can?
not be read now*by busy Senators.
though there should be no need of
it, so much more convincing have
suffrage arguments since become.
The unanswerable one is that the
j Hun's plan to turn back the hands
? of the clock has as a fundamental
| feature the driving back of woman
I to the position she occupied a thou
j sand years ago. The hands cannot
! be turned forward unless woman
j goes forward with them.
P. N. WHALEV.
The N. Y. Infirmary for Women and Children
PHYSICIANS on the staff of the
New York Infirmary for Women
and Children, 321 East Fifteenth
Street, one of the few institutions in the
country conducted by women for women,
are preparing to extend the free service
which they render to the people of the
lower East Side, when additional large
numbers of men are taken from that sec?
tion for army service under the new draft
These women feel that there is great
opportunity to do their bit in this way,
for they believe that a soldier whose de?
pendents will not be neglected in illness
while he is absent will bo heartened for
bis task. The abundance of service flags
in the tenements in the vicinity of the
infirmary shows the great response of
the men of the lower East Side to the
country's call, for thousands of them
have volunteered with the full assent of
When a woman or child in the vicinity
of the infirmary who has been accus?
tomed to depend upon a man for support
becomes ill there is not in many eases
sufficient money to pay even a modest fee
to a physician. ??lany prefer to suffer
rather than apply for free treatment, and
othci\s are ignorant of how to make such
application even if they desire to do so.
The women doctors of the infirmary
seek out such cases as far as they can.
In addition to the free medical service
that is given, a social service department
is conducted at the infirmary, which was
the pioneer in this country in that impor?
tant branch of adjunct medical help.
If they cannot extend this help directly,
as in the case of the family of a Boldier
whose allotment of pay has not been re?
ceived, they are able to put the needy
ones in touch with an agency which will
be of direct, practical assistance to them
for the immediate object that is'sought
"These women need stabilizing," saic
Miss Lucy F. Ryder, superintendent oi
the infirmary. "If there is no man in the
family to turn to and if misfortune be
falls them they are almost helpless."
The activities of the infirmary amonf
the dependents of men in service includ?
daily clinics for all diseases, maternit:
care and a general out-practic*. depart
ment, besides the social service work
Especial attention is devoted to pre nata
and baby clinics, which are well attende?
! by the wives of soldiers and sailors. The
| ignorance shown by many of tho lower '
East Side mothers in the problams which
are most important to them is apparent
to the women doctors, whose first tesk is
to win their confidence and thus gradu?
ally to help them out of their difficulties
as far as that is possible.
"The appearance of a soldier's baby,
greater exertions by the kindly "xdvice of
Sometimes these conversations develop
conditions that must be remedied at once
in order that the mother may have a
chance to take proper care of horsclf and
"You may give a patient alt kinds of
medicine," said Miss Ryder, "but if there
The first training camp
! which one of the women held in her arm;s
: at a recent clinic, showed that it lacked
proper nourishment," s.-ud Miss Ryder.
" 'What can I do?' the mother asked in the
most imploring manner. I told her to go
to a milk station and get food for the
j baby. 'Where ?3 it';' she asked. When I
I told her that the station was on Eleventh
i street she inquired again: 'Where is
j Eleventh Street?' "
In many cases the women doctors have
' to make use of all the devices of which
: they can think in order to win the confi
! dence of their patient.;. This applies
j especially to the foreign element. There
j must be not a' little, talk .about subjects
which are not essential to the purpose in
hand before the mother can tako in the
fact not only that tho woman doctor's
aim is to help her, but that the doctor
possesses sufficient skill to render neces?
sary service. When the babies are -Mean
and otherwise well cared for the mothers
j are greatly pleased by a little compli
i ment, and are willing to be spurred to
i is something that is greatly disturbing
I her it will do her no good. Of tea we. find
I that there is a condition back of the
i symptoms that must be remedied before
I we can render really useful help. This is
? why the social service work is so inrpor
j taut to us. It is the aim of the New
i York Infirmary for Women and Children
! always to raise the family of a patient to
; a satisfactory standard of living. Even
women and children who need eyeglasses
receive them free, and in some c.?se;i this
increases materially their scanty earning
Dr. Annie S. Daniel, who has worked
j for many years on the East Side and is
i considered an angel of mercy in hundreds
? of homes there, is in charge of the in
! rirmary's out-practice department. She
! receives an expense fund, contributed by
j individuals who know the great good
which she can do with the money. Most
of this is spent on food and the rest on
ice and coal.
A campaign is now being conducted
to add S'JDO.OOO to the hospital's fund.
No better use can be found for your
money than to add a few dollars to it.
jgj The New Citizen
Ballots at the Antipodes
AUSTRALIA granted franchise to j
women by states beginning in 1894 |
and ending with the bestowal of
full, nation-wide elective privileges and
the right to sit in representath-e assem- '
blies in 1908. According to Lady Holder, j
wife of Sir Frederick W- Holder, '
Speaker of the House of Representatives, |
suffrage came easily and naturally?< .
there was no "shrieking sisterhood."
"The newspapers," she is quoted as say?
ing, "gave special attention to women at ;
the time, and teemed with exhortations ?
telling them what to do"; and those who
had most opposed the measure were loud?
est in then- approval and advice. (Can
it be that this has a familiar ring to the
ear? of New York women?)
And the result of it all was, to quote
Lady Holder again, that "women have
become more interested in the world out?
side and men more interested in the
home"?and she concludes with saying
that she finds it less difficult to vote than
to match a l-ibbon!
New Zealand, which has been called an
ideal spot for social experiments because
of its geographical isolation and its small
population, was the first nation to grant
suffrage to women. The idea was
presented as early as 1843, it is said, by
two gentlemen?Alfred Saunders and
William Fox?although the Hon. Hugh
H. Lusk, then a member of Parliament,
claims that it originated wifh him in
1877. The first thin wedge, he says,
was inserted when he conceived the plan
in that year of omitting the word "male"
before the word "householder" in a bill
under consideration to empower house?
holders within a. district to elect a school
Tho word "male'* was omitted, and the
little experiment began. Result: Wom?
en showed such intelligent interest in
their new power that they were forth
with elected members of the schooi
boards. So when in 1882 the question
arose of giving ratepayers the license to
vote, what more natural than that women
should be included in this measure, too?
The year 1886 found municipal suf?
frage quietly granted them also; and full
suffrage came in 1893, with eligibility to
all elective offices except membership in
At the first election thereafter 83 per
cent of the women qualified to vote went
to the polls, although they had never
gone before?and only TO per cent of the
men, who had enjoyed the privilege for
years. But did antagonism result, fna?
this'.' No, indeed! The effect, in that
Utopian land, was to rouse men lo their
responsibility, so that now they are as
active as the women. And, as one man
put it, "when men suddenly found they
could take their wives and daughters to
meetings with them a new and better
family life began."
New Zealand women, according to Sir
Joseph George Ward, who wj?s then nre
mier. are inclined to vote with their fam
\ ilies and are true to their class; but they
i are less hampered by tradition than are
: men. When asked whether they advo?
cate "pet reforms" he replied that they
rather constituted themselves an "exam?
ining board" devoted to the public in?
"Tell your friends at home not to be
discouraged," he said to a British suf?
fragist before women were enfranchised
in England. "Political enfranchisement
came to the women of New Zealand with
dramatic suddenness, and by a mann'?
of only two votes. But if votes of appro?
bation could be taken on it now I doubt
if two could be found against it"
And that, if he were asked, would
probably be bis message to American
suffragists who are now working for
those ?ame fatal two votes that won
the franchise in New Zealand mar>v
Europe and the Woman Vote
By LEON LANSBERG
DESPITE the war, or rather as a
consequence of the war, the wom?
an suffrage movement has gained
considerable successes all the world over.
! Emilie Gourd, president of the Swiss
; Woman Suffrage Alliance, strikes in the
\ "Journal de Gen?ve" the annual balance,
i and in doing so publishes the following
i interesting statistics:
In the United States eight more states
I have during the last year introduced
j woman suffrage, and, among them, in
I first line, the State of New York- With
j this addition, twenty states out of forty
i four have granted the vote to women.
: Already the. national House of Repre
? sentatives has voted to submit to the
; states a eonstitutional amendment for
woman suffrage, and there is good rea
; son to believe that sooner or later the
! Senate also will approve the resolution.
The Russian revolution has proclaimed
| the equality of man and woman under
I the law, and in the future Russian Re
i public women will vote.
In Finland twenty-four women are
active in the food office.
In Norway women have the active and
; passive elective franchise.
In Denmark they have for the first
time availed themselves of their fran?
chise on the occasion of the referendum
on the cession of the Danish West Indies
to the United States.
In Sweden woman suffrage is so far
introduced in communal affairs only,
because the obstinate resistance of the
conservatives prevents women's political
England has resolved to grant the
vote to all women over thirty years of
age, this limitation being necessary in
order to prevent the prevalence of the
female vote over that of the lords of
creation. The woman suffrage aft
was adopted in the lower house with 383
votes against W? in January, 1017, and
approved in the House of Lords by a
majority of votes in January of thr*
The women of Holland find themselves
in an odd situation: although eligi?!*",
they do not possess the ripht of election?
A parliament will be elected in the yea!"
lf?18, and on the ticket a number ?
capable women candidates are figuring
The question is only whether or not the
men are going to honor women by elect?
ing-them to office.
In France woman suffrage has ardent
advocates and the question is being over ?
and over again taken up and advocates
in Parliament and brought nearer to * !
, victorious solution. Maurice Barrea rt
is known, has demanded that widows of
war be granted the vote.
In Italy, too, the feminist wave h?*
risen, and several ministers and distin?
guished persons are espousing the wom?
In the countries of the Central Po???
the womar suffrage question, together
with other internal political problem**
In Switzerland the women's movement
owing to the clumsy political machinery,
could not develop energetically. In Bert?
it was rejected by the council; in ***
councils of Basle and Zurich motions &
elaborate a bill bearing on the queso?
were made as late a_ December, 19*1,
In Geneva a motion was made by **?
Guillemin that Swiss women of the a|*
of twenty-five should be granted**
right to vote. At present they are*??''
ering signatures in support of this pw?
osition, shortly to be discussed bf W
council- __ . i . i ? i ' ?Jg^ !