Newspaper Page Text
Germans' War Spirit, Roused
By Victories, Soon Cooled
Unchecked March of Kaiser's Hordes Through Belgium
and Russia Brought Desire to Conquer, but Failure
to Gain Peace Stirred Dissatisfaction
By a Correspondent Who Left Ger?
many in February, 1917
'.?ermany rushed helter-skelter into
the war. It meant to win and win
quickly. The General Staff had its
plans in a convenient pigeon-hole. It
needed only to unfold them and set its
armies it) movement. At one? a state
of exaltation and warlike enthusiasm
.leized upon the German people.
While the war-clouds were still
gathering, indeed, there were murmurs
cf dissent; a great Socialist proces?
sion marched trroutrh the streets of
Lierlin shoutir.;.-: "Down with war!"
Hut once the marching orders were
given out no word of protest was
heard. The Gorman people, to all ap?
pearances, had become a unit for war.
They had been persuaded that Ger?
many was attacked and they ac?
cepted that version with true German
docility. Even the Socialists in the
Reichstag- unheard-of thing ?voted
with tho Government, and the first
war credit was passed unanimously
Great was the enthusiasm of the
people as the soldiers marched away.
From crowded sidewalks and well
tiled windows isandkerchiefs and hats
waved. Crowds joined in the patriotic
airs pUyed by the military bands, and
all sooBied "?ny as a Ilomun holiday.
S*cpt On by Victories
Followed eviftly the first bulletins
of victories. Enormous crowds around
newspaper offices, enormous crowds on
big squares, in beer gardens and cafes
tilled to capacity. Every passing auto?
mobile with officers hailed for news of
more victories. Li?ge falls, and the
first roars of "Fat Bertha*' are heard in
imagination, and it cracks the Belgian
forts. Namur and Brussels are soon
within the German lines. Further and
further into France sweep the German
armies and the Berlin crowds Jose all
sense of reality. Anything seems pos?
sible. Children at school come home
with a new song celebrating von Kluck's
onward rush: "In Faris Wird Halt
Gemacht" (He won't halt till he gets
In the midst of alt this joy of the
fttay at homes came news of Hinden
burg's big victory over the Russians at
Tannenberg. Hindenburg? Who is
that? The very name unheard of even
by many an editor. Anyway, a new
hero in the German firmament, a centre
for new enthusiasm, and this reaches
a climax when the new hero announces
a week later another big victory, with
the last Russian force thrown across
But suddenly the General Staff stops
issuing bulletins. No explanations!
What may that mean? peop.e ask with
no little anxiety. Everybody feels
something has gone wrong. What is it?
The newspapers have nothing to re?
port; the crowds at the bulletin boards
dwindle to the vanishing point. Final?
ly, after a silence of a week, the Gen?
eral Staff again grows articulate; it
tells the eager public that Kluck has
bent around his right flank. But in
the new geographical names men?
tioned in the bulletins of the next few
days people with a map are able to
riddle out what has happened. They
learn that there has been a big Ger?
man defeat. Details? None whatever.
No battle dscriptions in the newspa?
pers, no scenes of horror depicted by
eye-witnesses to harrow the souls of
But the daily casualty list, which be?
gan to be printed in the of de al i ews
paper and which had already assumed
distressing proportions by the end of
August, strikes gritf int?'many a Ger?
man heart as the Maine losses are
doled out during the following months.
Soon one began to hear of deaths
among German acquaintances. Before
the war had been a half-year old three
?men from the house, in which the
writer lived had been slain. Women
in mourning appeared frequently in
streetcars and other public places,
women with pinched, anxious faces.
Stilr the chilling down of hope had
not yet reached a low degree. Many
Cermans even held fast to 'their faith
even for some weeks after the Battle
of the Marne, that the war would be
over before the end of the vcar. A
great German victory was still a fore
gono conclusion. In the course ol
1915 German hopes went up percept?
ibly. There was no longer the light
and joyous mood, the champagne tingle,
of August, 1914; but confidence was
strongly stimulated by a big drive
against Russia begun on May Day.
People had seen enormous transports
of troops passing eastward through
Berlin for a week or two before Hin?
denburg opened tire with his big gun^
in Galiciu; and everybody knew that
something big was about to happen.
The subsequent march of victorious
Germans and Austriana through Poland
and the Baltic provinces to the Duna
was watched with something of the old
enthusiasm. And the first big frontal
attack of the French to the east of
Rheima at the end of September con?
firmed the belief that the Cern?an posi?
tions on the Western front were im?
Military confidence seemed complete,
indeed, but one could begin by the
early winter of 1915 to hear misgiv?
ings expressed by humble folk about
the food supply. They stopped you on
the Btrcct r.nd asked how long you
though*, it would last, with Die plain?
Beginning of the End.
"We can't hold out through another
winter." The rationing of the scanty
supplies of food had already becun to
be felt as a grievous hardship. As
time wore on anxiety for one's daily
bread grew more acute. Haggard faces,
marking ill-nourished bodies, grow fre?
quent. One's acquaintances reported
with a sickly smile of resignation, how
many pounds of flesh they have lost
In the later course of the war, since
the United States entered, the scarcity
of food has borne much more heavilj
upon the physical well-being of the
people and has depressed their spirits
correspondingly. The German pap?is
of the past ftiw months have been ful
of poignant evidences of distress.
Some of the old military jubilatior
returned when the Germans and Aus
trians crushed Rumania. Behind i'
was the promise of more bread. Tin
breakdown of Russia last year bulket
large to the hungry Germans, apar'
from its military importance, by reasoi
of the prospect it also opened for bet?
ter bread rations. fJut those hope;
Thus, peace longings of the Germai
people, which hud already grown .stronj
by the end of 191ti, when von Bethmann
Hollweg tried to get a military peac
based upon Germany's victories ove
Rumania and Russia, have grown apac
since. When the writer left German}
in February, 1917, there were man;
Germans, mostly of the silent kind, wh
already saw financial and even mor?
ruin staring Germany in the fac(
Friends would speak "under four eyes
in that sense.
Ludendorff's Long Chance
When Ludendorff began his big offer
sive in March it was a desperate vent
ure, undertaken in the hope of realizin
something at last of Germany's mil
tnry ambitions and to soothe growin
discontent. Failure of it brought thf
discontent to a head. It began to fin
expression more openly in newspaper
It took on a political form finally, an
became so urgent that the Kaiser ha
to consent to the present experimei
in parliamentary government. Ge
rna?y's military ambitions had becon
what one of the newspapers called
"junk heap of illusions." Hope lu
died, victory had become a long vai
ished rainbow. There was only one ci
still heard above the desperate mass
of German men and women: "Give i
The same course of haughty sel
satisfaction ending in an abject chain
has been observed in the attitude
the Germans toward President Wilso
Early in the war, as soon as thi
learned that American manufacture
were selling arms and munitions i
war to the .Allies, they began to abu
the President for not putting a stop
the practice. His efforts to interfe;
with their submarine ruthlessness on
went to increase his unpopularity
Germany. Hence, when there was mil
talk in 1916' about him as a mediati
between Germany and the Allies a pra
tically unanimous protest was raised.
Constantly Scored President
Since America entered the w;f o
of the favorite diversions of many Gc
man newspapers has been to abuse hi
Fifth Avenue, 37th to 38th Streets
AN EXTRAORDINARY SALE
Pure Wool Sox
At the lowest prices ever offered for
these superior qualities
The Men's Pure Wool Sox in this Sale are
offered at less than before-the-war prices
Men's Pure Wool Ribbed Sox
Medium weight, in light or dark Oxford gray,
khaki, black, brown or navy
3 pairs for $2.25
' Men's Pure Wool Ribbed Sox
Heavy weight, in light or dark Oxford gray,
khaki, black or brown
3 pairs for $3.25
All sizes in each color, in both qualitic
The favorite method of attack has been
to assume that the President either
went into the war out of mere personal
defirc to sec Germany beaten and
without any other adequate cause, or
else he was pulled into it against his
will by big American manufacturing
Thus, the President was abused with?
out stint. The idealistic tone of hi3
messages, however, linally told upon
the views of the more moderate Ger?
mans. Whether it was merely the
pressure of economic distress, lack of
bread and failure of military hopes, or
whatever other cause, the fact is that
n great change has come over the feel?
ings of the Germans toward Mr. Wil?
son. They have evidently come to feel
-as is evident from their newspapers
und the words of their public men ?
that the opening to pence for them
could be more easily made through him
than by appeal to England and France.
Orators Are Busy
In Buenos Ayres
German Propaganda Is Car?
ried On Under Guise of
BUENOS AYRES, Kept, 4 (Corre?
spondence of The Associated Press).?
German propaganda ''.ere has taken in
the form of a well organised campaign
of street corner soapbox ipeakers,
haranguing against the Allied black?
lists. The speakers base their argu?
ments on the high cost of living., which
they trace to these blacklists.
Evidently a large number of speakers
have been engaged, for in all parts of
;hr; business district and at all hours
there are small group? of listeners
around a speaker who is mounted on
a wooden r.oapbox. And as he moves
iron; one coiner to another he is fol?
lowed by n mounted member of the
These speaker!; are advertised as
being members of tho "Liga Pro
equidad," which might be translated
ta the Equity or Justice League. This
?eagu?' hr.H an office near the business
centre. Over the entra?e; to it. ?3 a
:-,hieki that was so prominent during
the I.uxburg neutrality' campaign, but
which had disappeared, the shield of
the Pro-Neutrality League, so designed
as to make the office appear to be an
office of the Argentine government.
The .shield is the same size and shape
as those which designate government
offices, bears the same kind of letter?
ing and has in its centre the Argen?
tine national coat of arms.
Last year this shield guarded a door?
way at one of the busiest corners in
the city and at the head of the stairs
was the neutrality office, which was
maintained with German funds, sup?
plied largely through the newspaper
"La Union." At the head of the stairs
it now guards tho office of the "Pro
Justice League," organized to stir up
ill-feeling among the Argentines on
the argument that the Allied black?
lists are responsible for the high cost
The only ncwspep?r in the city sup?
porting this league is "La Union," the
newspaper for which Count von Lux
burg, the former German Ambassador I
here, askod and obtained a German
government subsidy of ten thousand !
pesos a month. |
William II Is 16th
In Succession of
Origin Obscure, but Ac?
Frederick III FirstKing
Dominance of Prussia Rose
Until Bismarck Welded
There is more fiction than history
about the origin of the House of Ho
heniollern, although the derivation of
the name, which is the family name of
the late German rulers, is sufficiently
authentic. The family adopted as its
own the name of the ancestral castlo
in Swabia, Zollern. and thus became
Hohenzollern. There is an attempt to
make it appear that the family is de?
scended from Count Thassilo, a Swa
bian noble of the time of Charles the
Great, but this is now conceded to be a
romance that originated in the six?
teenth century. There is another at?
tempt to tracti the ancestry to Bur
chard and Wezel of Zolorin, who wera
killed in 1061. This claim also lucks
The first satisfactory trace of the
house is in the twelfth century, when
it appeared among the petty princely
families of Swabia, and by th? end of
that century it had attained a more
prominent place. Count Frederick of
Zolorin holding the imperial office of
Iiurgrave of Nuremberg, which de?
scended to his posterity. His sons,
Frederick and Conrad, divided the
family possessions between them in
1227 and founded the two linee of the
famil", the Swabian and the P'ran
Younger Line Greater
The Swabian branch, founded by
Frederick, which was the elder, has
existed in two lines, Hohenzollern
Hechingen and Hohenzollera-Sigmarin
gen, since the close of the sixteenth
century. But the great destiny of the
family was reserved for the Franco
nian branch, the cadet line.
They attached themselves to the
Hohenstaufen house until it became
extinct and then gave their support to
the Hapsburgs. Acquisitiveness and a
capacity to hold what was once ob?
tained and administer it with thrift
were the principal characteristics of
the Frnnconian Hohenzollerns. ' They
successively acquired the Burgraviate
of Nuremberg and the two Margraviates
of Bayreuth and Anspach, and in J411
in payment for a loan to the Emperor
Sigismund got the Margraviat? of
Brandenburg, which was afterward
made ). hereditary possession of the
house, together with the dignity of
Fleeter. This was the foundation of
Presents a Complete Sea-Going
Hand - Tailored
At Actual Cost
IF there is a man calculated to ap?
preciate the fine points of hand-work?
manship it is the American Naval Officer.
That is why we have made such exhaus?
tive preparations to produce his uni?
forms by the hand-tailored process in?
stead of by the hurried touch-and-go
methods of machine - work. And in
selling them at cost, we are merely
helping the Ration CARRY ON]
Naval Officers' Uniforms
HO to ?50
Naval Officers' Capes
?50 u, *60
Naval Officers' Overcoats
*45 ?o ?60
Naval Aviator's Uniforms
$45 and $50
THESE PRICES ARE ACTUAL COST
Hand-tailored of standard
Our Naval facilities embrace equip?
ment, furnishings, insignia, and a
complete collection of Naval Footgear!
Men's Shops 2 to 8 West 38th St. -Street Level
the real greatness of the House of
As soon as they became Electors of
Brandenbuig the Hohenzollerns set
: bout subjugating the rest of the
Brandenburg nobility to their will. In
1618 the Elector John Sigismund be?
came through marriage Duke of Prus?
sia, and under his son, Frederick Will?
iam, the Great Elector, PrussiarBran
denburg became the leading state of
Northern Europe. His sen. Frederick
III of Brandenburg, became the first
King of Prussia, with the title of Fred?
erick I, being given the throne in tt/0!
to secure his adhesion to the Emperor
Leopold ? in the struggle of the Span?
Prussia Rises to Power
Now came the most acquisitive, if
rot rapacious, of all the Hohenzollerns
10 the present time. This was Fred?
erick the Great, who brought Prussia
to the position of a first rate power.
Th? succeeding representatives of
the ho'isf were not above the average
until William I cama to the throne, in
1861. Under the tutelage of Bismarck
he bec!?ni?' German Emperor, the thron
:o whirh William II succeeded in 1888
and from which he has just abdicated.
William II is the nineteenth in succes?
sion from the first Elector of Branden?
Bryan as "Peace
Envoy" of Tinoco
Alfredo Gonzales Flores, who was the
regularly elected President of Costa
Rica at the time General Federico
Tinoco became Dictator, following the
bloodless revolution of 1917, stated yes
t< raay that William Jennings Bryan
has been retained by General Tinoco to
win President Wilson's recognition of
Mr. Flores made the statement after
he had received a report from New Or?
leans that Mr. Bryan soon was to sail
for San Jos?, the Costa Rican capital.
Calling attention to the fact that
President Wilson has refused to extend
American recognition to Costa Rica
since Tinoco took over the government,
Mr. Flores expressed the belief that n
new drive for recognition is to he
started. He said that he and J. Rafael
Oreamuno. who was secretary of the
Costa Rican Legation in Washington
under the Gonzales government, have
received private advices from San Jos?
indicating that Mr. Bryan already has
interested himself in Costa Rican af?
Mr. Flores also said that a letter had
been sent to Mr. Bryan on October 1
protesting against his giving aid to the
Kite Balloons Help to
Hunt for Submarin*
OX BOARD AMERICAN ?
STROYER, AMERICAN ?L1*
FRANCE, Nov. g.-LT &
towed at sea by destrovers i. ^
the odd devices used to ,3 ?* ?
hunt for Hun submarines VB *
brings down the balloon' ?. ^
twelve feet of the deck " Vit!*
observers, throwing out ? t ^
ladder, descend for their usL?^
at a change of watch \c?,? ?*?*
wive cable leading to the ?T? ^
a telephone wire bv which**1'
server keeps in communicatl?*' ?b
the deck. ?????on gg|
The American naval aeron.?
doing splendid work in th. ? f ?"
and Ensign F. J. B.rnel h^?
hshed a new record for ?L ,**'
m the air in a kite balloon !afif
Give to the United War Work Campaign and
Give Twice as Much as You Ever Gave Before
mon & Co.
Fifth Avenue. 37th -and 38th Streets
An Unusual Sale Monday
WOMEN'S HIGH CLASS COATS
Fur Trimmed or Without Fur
Three New Models just from the tailors' hands
and made of the highest quality fabrics.
Values from 75.00 to 89.50
??LLUSTRATED, is a very stunning FUR TRIMMED WRAP.
COAT, showing the graceful lines of this new tyre of Coat; of |
duvetyn wool velour in new taupe, navy, brown, plum or black with I
high roll collar of taupe nutria or French Seal Fur.
The Second Model?CRYSTAL CORD CLOTH WRAP COAT,
one of the fashionable new fabrics for high class coats, newest
colorings, smartly tailored to wear with separate furs; silk lined, j
The Third Model?SILVERTONE WOOL VELOUR COAT; tailored
dress coat with large yoke-stole collar of seal fur; fitted back with shirrings
below lengthened waistline at sides; silk lined and warmly interlined.
WOMEN'S COAT SHOP?Fourth Floor,
Women's Gown Shop
Individual Shop, Third Floor
At Reduced Prices Monday
Women's Dressy Gowns
A Limited Number of Exclusive Models
Heretofore $69.50 to $98.50
Dressy silk gowns of Georgette crepe, satin or
crepe meteor, in the most desirable winter
shades; elaborately beaded or embroidered,
showing entirely new neck lines, fitted or
Women's Suit Shop
Individual Shop. Balcony Floor
At Reduced Prices Monday
Women's Winter Suits
Fur Trimmed or Without Fur
Heretofore $69.50 to $98.50
Distinctive Suits of Rayonner cloth, saver- ;
tone, m^rcella cloth, wool velour, velour de
iaine or velveteen; trimmed with Hudson
Seal, nutria, skunk or mole fur, also man?
nish tailored Suits without fur.
Women's Fur Shop
individual Shop, Fourth Floor
Offers at an Exceptional Price
Women's Otter Fur Coat
Trimmed with real Beaver fur
Unplucked Otter Fur Coat, 45 inches long;
large shawl collar and pointed cuffs of real
Beaver fur, slip-through fur belt of Otter,
pouch pockets, wide self border.
Women's Waist Shop
Individual Shop, Third Floor
Offers at an Exceptional Price
Women's Georgette Waist
Hand Embroidered in Silk
Georgette waist in brown, plum or navy;
front of waist silk hand embroidered in. self
and contrasting color; vestee and cuffs of
bisque Georgette ; large self collar.