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New-York tribune. (New York [N.Y.]) 1866-1924, March 02, 1919, Image 62

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German
By Andr? Ch?radamc
<<\T.*,rlgl?t, 1819. New York Tribune Inc >
PARIS, March l.?The recent state?
ment of Premier Clemenceau
to The Associated Press is the
best justification I could wish for
the judgments I have been sending for
several weeks. It remains now for the
Allies to come down from the cloudy
altitudes of theoretical discussions to a
world of realities. The danger must be
looked in the face if once again it is to
be averted. Ways and means are not
lacking, but the condition is that no time
be lost.
Germany Will Try
To Escape Penalties
There is no excuse for a doubt that
the Germans will keep their word and
endeavor in all ways to avoid repara?
tions and seize the first opportunity to
put their hand agnin on ('entrai Europe.
That is the basis of the reason why I
recommended the Immediate dispatch of
the Allied troops to Central Europe. The
presence alone of these troops would
have prevented vexatious surprise. There
Is all the more renson during the armis?
tice that the Allies should occupy chosen
regions of Central Europe, since those
?h^y took Ifi the West along thfl Rhine
are quit? Inwfflelent to force Germany
to pay the Indlipeneable reparations.
Sili'h n reiult ll iiii^nilile ?mly if Get'
many I? encircled card and loutheait,
thus loaving the AHlei maiteri of the
load? whereby Germany might be fed
from the east, and, on the other hand,
if the Allies make Poland an insuperable
obstacle to the junction of the German
and the Russian Bolshevik armies. This
would have sufficed to forbid any re?
sumption of German activity in Central
Europe.
To bring about the geographic encir?
cling of Germany east and southeast, and
thus assure the conversion of the virtual
victory of the Allies into a real and
definitive victory, all that was needed
was the occupation by some Allied di?
visions, reinforced by Polish and Czecho?
slovak troops, of a line extending from
Danzig through Posen, Ehovn, Ratibor
and Prague.
As a matter of fact, a combination of
the classes of the armistice concluded
with Austria-Hungary and Germany
made the occupation of this line extreme?
ly easy, for these clauses give the Allies
the right to establish themselves in any
part of the Austro-Hungarian territory
and also the right to pass by Danzig.
If this occupation had been undertaken
immediately after the armistice Ger?
many, then feeling her defeat, would not
have dreamed of protesting. But now
that the peace conference has allowed
the Germans time to look up and see
still a chance to man?uvre, the difficulty
of occupation will be greater. Yet the
difficulty is still easily surmounted, if
the Allied governments, supported by
public opinion, carry out the plan.
To understand the aim of the so-called
republican goyernment at Berlin and of
Your
By Col. Charles E. Lydecker
President of the National Security
League
DURING the years of the world war,
and before the entry therein of
the United States, the subject of
universal military training Was
very generally urged and discussed. Pew
appeared to understand that universal mili?
tary service was applicable only to a eon
d tion of war and that service Was not de
aired in time of pence or compatible with
our national life. Senator Chamberlain had
ptftMnted one o? more bills for enactment,
many pamphlet! an?) articles were printed
end add reste*? minio ami the history of
other countries was generally reviewed.
The ti?le "Universal Military Service ntul
Training" wai generally used., no distinction
In tin* imputar iiiiiiit tif-ing made between
??rvii't? ?nd training. We wo re urged to
have the wind* aubjeel embodied In the lew,
'I be war brean for ihr Unite?! Statei? In
April, 161.7, ?nil ?hi. eduoatlon of the people
had gone on !?<> fully thai (he necessity for
treating an army made the solution of um
Vernal lefvlo? by "?lecliv?. eonm'rlpl Inn tlii?
plain, logical and rlghteoui method of put?
?mg nur aombatant? on the tiring hue, To
thoec who bad eontrlbuted to that renuit,
and to no body of worker*, run credit hr
given more fully thnn to ihr National Be
eurity League, to which the country owe?, h
debt of gratitude.
**Peacelul
Acceptance"
The response of the people to the law,
and the <:he*rfiil und piarefui acceptance
of du'y by fitly eli,i.*i of the Cim
munily and particularly by the women, and
dependents of those classes, must ever
?tend as m monument, to the chivalry and
courage of a democracy founded on the
eternal principien of American indi-prnd
cn-e.
The war has been fought and the vletory
won and the nation? are *?-tt]irig hack to
the ways of peace, with many proipccta of
future -years to come in which war ?hall
.'
the junker Marshal Hindenburg?inti?
mately linked by the ?similarity of
their Pan-German aspirations?one must
? never bise? sight of the? fact that the Ger
! mans will always seek to reconstruct
Central Pan-Germany as long as the
1 slightest chance of success remains. Re
: member, tin? Germans really made the
j war in order to create Pan-Germany,
I ami now the mistakes of the conference
! give them a chance to win a trick. It is
natural, having regard for their mcntal
! ity, that they wirhseek to profit.
The objects e>f the chiefs of the Gcr
I man republic are now made manifest by
incontestable facts. What better proof
l than at the same time that the Germans
| wish to annex German Austria they also
wish to keep within German boundaries
[ (1,000,000 Holes, despite the expressed
wish of the latter? If the Germans sin
| cerely adopt the principle of nationalities
as the basis of the reconstruction of Eu?
rope, one could understand the demand
for a union with Germany of the 7,000,
000 Germans of the Viennese region.
There is a geographic excuse for this,
provided the Austrian Germans really
wish it, which hrts not yet been proved.
Proof That Germany Is
Acting in Bad Faith
But when, at the same time, with the
incorporation of German Austria one !
\ sers them Insisting upon the retention of ?
0,000,000 Poles, who are asking no bet- I
The Yanl
?- * *
By J, Bourdon nay
NANCY, Finnic. ?
THE firs! time we saw American '
soldiers ovor here in Nancy seems
now very far away. After so many
months we are used to having many
of them in our Lorraine country. First it !
was with a friendly curiosity that the i
people in Nancy looked at the first "Yanks" j
who came one- day into the town. "Here's j
1 an American!" one said and looked at him
with wide ope'n eyes. 1 must, say that be
. fore the war we did not know the Ameri
: cans; I mean the Americans as they are
; Most of the folk everywhere in France eliei
, not know a single bit about the LTnited ,
; States, and for many eif us French people 1
America just appeared the famous country }
Boy9 anc
be made far more elifficult and far less
probable than ever before.
Soldiers returning from active army life
are likely to tut of a similar frame of
mind to theise who came back from the
front in 1865, after the Civil War, com?
pletely satisfied with military activity and
disinclined to keep up a semblance of army
work.
The advocates of military training who
believe so heartily in its value for health,
e-hnraeter building, efficiency and national
defence, and who have not. hntl service in
the field, as well us thos" who have, are
just us decided concerning the wisdom of
adopting n system fitted for our citizens,
Hence, while a great vote would bo polled
for universal military Instruction one!
training, there would be many views on
the method to be followed, und absolute
luck of unanimity,
There are several schools that would
pinn this work?
The Army
School
'iii.? nimv loh'..'i regards Hi" youth nf
Ihr bind un capable of bring put. tllto the
Held between eighteen and twenty-nun
years of ago ami itlven Intensive training
for the re'iuiHii'? iiumtier of months.
The regular h educated to Ins modus
vivendi. Im drawa his pay from a gov?
ernment which gives him n llfn Job, he
approctetos th.. value of discipline and
subordination, he bun little oonoern for
tutus in Ihe world of gain or advance?
ment OUtside Of bin iterviee, itnel he regards
i the youth of the country as the field of
; activity for creating a national army, and
think? they should bo eagerly turned over
to the War li.-piii hue?i to mould, ?t such
reasonable cosl and oxponso us the army
can ?how to 1"- necoi . i ?
New York's
Law
A school, represented by the New York
State law, belioves that military training
should begin at twelve years of age by
regular school exercises, and that at six
Sure To Be in a Strategic Position for a Fresh Attack
Unless Securely Surrounded by
Strong, Free Nations
ter than to escape from their yoke, it
becomes clear that they are acting in bad
faith and seeking the aggrandizement of
Germany on the basis of the Pan-Ger?
man conception. Further proof of this
is seen in the fact that during the month
past Hindenburg has concentrated on the
Polish frontier forces poworful enough
to crush the Poles rapidly and thus se?
cure the results I show below.
The danger is so undeniable that de- ,
spite the surprising resistance concern- J
ing Poland arising in the peace confer?
ence, Foch finally received a mandate
to begin the necessary operations. As I
write the first result was obtained, for
the German offensive against Poland was
suspended, but that can only be consid?
ered a real success if many other things
follow. Possibly the suspension of the i
offensive was only a man?uvre. Indeed,
seeing the Allies commence to realize the
danger, the Germans naturally interrupt
their activities and give the appearance
of satisfaction in order to gain time until
a lew weeks hence, when the demobiliza?
tion will have proceeded to a point where
the Allies cannot assert themselves. Then
?e Plains
of bliy-icrapei h, fur-west, cowboy? und mill
lonnlrcSi quite a strange placo un you sue.
I believe the movies were in some way
guilty of that.
That will help you 1o realize, why Nancy's
inhabitants looked at your soldiers with
such hugely curious eyes. I believe many
a fellow expected to find the Americans
with quite different faces . . . but along
with thai curiosity there was something
else in our hearts when we first saw Amer?
ica's soldiers here. Glad and grateful wo
were to see them, for it was a sign that
the United States was actually helping us
and hurriedly sending men over here, to
give a hand to our poilus licking the Huns.
Since the first days that they came into
our old town the people did like them very
much. We like them now because we know
they did so much for the cause of oui
France, and also because we. cannot help
loving them, they are so nice chaps. "Ils
sont tous de tros chic types," every one says
of them. Really, your boys have won the
heart of the French people here in Nancy.
Everybody, men, women, girl.s and boys,
is quite fond of these khaki-clad soldiers
with their broad shoulders and good smile
that shows their white teeth. By the way,
the Americans' white teeth arc very much
admired by the French people, and I know
many a girl would like to have such shin?
ing ones to make her smile more attractive.
While the girls envy the teeth of the Yanks,
the boys envy too the fragrance and mild?
ness of American tobacco. It is now :i fact
that every young fellow, who can't get his
tongue accustomed to the bitterness of the
strong French tobacco, appreciates greatly
the American cigarettes.
A good lot of your soldiers who did not
know a single word of French when they
landed are now acquiring a little vocabu?
lary and some are quite able fo get along
I the Ri
teen all boys are to be enrolled, and that
those between sixteen and nineteen years
of age arc to take such military training
in camp or elsewhere as the military train?
ing commission shall prescribe.
Others believe that the age limit of mili?
tary service, eighteen years, marks the time
when obligation to bear arni3 should be
actually recognized, and that the govern?
ment should begin to provide fey* the mili?
tary education at that age.
Some advocates of military training have
no other thought than to have the military
training consist of intensive work in the
field or armory or rifle range, covering the
physical elements of the soldier career.
"The Man
Who Obeys"
Other? there are who think tbnt In mak?
ing n soldier It Is ? prime necessity to cuver
the field of the psychology ef the soldier
and Hint? the great eat Werk I? BOOOrnplllhed
when a man linn Iipph trained to compre
herid that n publier I? n mini who obey?
Implicitly, comprehend? duty, Is above, feus
and Ip loyal, generouM ami strong. A brave
oflirer lately returned from Krane? ex
preiied It thuai "I think the ?oldlrr In Hi)
per eent grit and ?20 por enit; trained,"
They believe that, the subject should he
?lyled "Uulvrreal Military Instruction and
Training"; that evrry Institution of learn*
ing in thii country should, as a part of Us
courue, require Its student? to acquire mili?
tary Instruction concerning tho organisa?
tion and tme ?f man power for war and
the machinery used therein, In conjunction
with auch trninlng by government, for all
beginners.
The fear of a failure to aee.ure universal
military Instruction and training arisen
from the fact that agreement upon the
method of accomplishing it In next to Im?
possible.
Por ?omis year? a plan of compulsory
military instruction has been advocated
which works without irksomeness or drain
upon the citizen, but bringe fundamental
elements of the military requirements into
the body politic.
Briefly stated, it comprises?!
the German plan will become possible j
and relatively easy.
Foresees the Pillage of
Poland by Germans
The German man?uvre is divided into
the following elements, which must be
comprehended to make its execution im?
possible :
First, the sudden and powerful attack
on Poland; second, pillage of the coun?
try so as to render the building up of
Poland impossible; third, a junction with
the Russian Bolshevik troops advancing
toward the Vistula for several weeks
past; fourth, an attack on the Czecho?
slovaks, reducing them to the state of
Poland.
Remember that a defeat of the Czecho?
slovaks in Bohemia would be facilitated
by the union of Germany and Austria.
Then the German army might take
Bohemia in the rear from the south,
while the German and Bolshevik troops
attacked in the north and northeast.
Fifth, the crushing of the Poles and
Caecho-S?ovaks would certainly Immedi?
ately give Germany the upper hand in
AXAcXAJL v/11 A
very well alone veil h what I hey know of I
our language, 'm course they nil know
hmv in say "Bonjour, mademoiselle," when
passing a pretty Pronch girl In the street,
But they did not always succeed In making
themselves understood.
About that there Is a funny story I heard
?i'niin several Americans. When they wt'te
In a shop, having chosen something, they
askeil how much it wus. They knew how to
say in French "how much for," but then
the- trouble began. There was a lack in
their French vocabulary, they did not know
the way to say "this," and so they must, use
the English word for it. Your English 'this"
sounds quite like- our French "dix." Well, the
people in tile shop always believed the
Americans asked "how much for ten of these
things?" and they multiplied by ten the
price of the required article, "(ice," said
the Yank, "did 1 hear right'.'" Just realize
the stupefaction of the poor doughboy.
There are many more amusing mistakes of
that kinil, but I think this one is the best.
? Not, only have the Americans learned
some French words but noine French people
too know a little bit of English, most, of
them as much cs the Yanks know of French,
The little boys all know how to say good
morning, good night and goodby. if it
is not a very large vocabulary it is easy to
use? often. I don't mean they always use the
right sentence at the right time. "Good
night" in the morning is quite common, and
so on for the others, but, to use a French
expression, "l'intention y est," and then
everything is all right,
Hut do you know it is our city lhal was
designated as a rest place for one of the
famous United States divisions that stopped
and then pushed back so we'll the German
attacks at Chateau Thierry? It was in
summer, as you all remember, One day we
saw beautiful American regiments marching
I. Compulsory enrolment nt eighteen
years of nge before an intelligent army of?
ficer or soldier, who explains the reason
therefor.
". A card index of men showing occu?
pation and personal details to secure
knowledge eif the history of the man and
the use which could lie made of him in the
many phases of a soldier's duties in the
field,
8. Teaching the youth the status to
which he. has arrived and his obligation to
serve as a soldier, what that means and
how he can rise above low level I o grade
in rank und service, why every one who has
the ability will try <o do so; nt the sume
time giving him n beginner's drill book
mid then dismissing him for three months
Colonel Charles E. Lydecker
I Central Europe. Once masters of Bo
j hernia and Poland, a junction with the
Magyars of Central Hungary would be
inevitable.
As for the Rumanians, they are al?
ready menaced by Bolshevik armies and
propaganda, and would be caught be?
tween the Germans and Magyars. In
: this case it is infinitely probable that
j the Bulgarians would support the Ger
i man movement, and that the Turks would
i follow suit, for already there is unrest
j in Turkey. But whatever the Bulgarians
' and Turks might do, it is clear that on
: the day Germany again controls Centrai
Europe she will also master Russia by
I the help of the Bolsheviki, and France
? and England and their Allies will be
unable to get reparations from Germany
for the reason that the means of con?
straint will he utterly lacking.
Sees Holshevik Crisis
In Allied Countries
It was by reason of the difficult finan?
cial situation of France, as described by
M. Clemenceau, that it whs impossible In
provide work for the men too rapidly
:he Hills
through th.. town's hui-iiii'U 1. Surely they
looked to be Juni from quite a hot ?pol and
it wiiH citiiy in see they hud been in bfll'd
lighting. Uight BW?y we all knew they were
those who had made so good round Ch&toau
Thierry and helped bo much to stop the
Hun-*. We had rend in the papers ??bout
the famous Marino brigade, we had seen
pictures showing what they had done, in
the Bois de Belleau. All the city was happy
and proud to have them here with us. Very
soon most of the people knew how to tell a
.Marine by his special sign, the world, the
anchor and the eagle. This division did not
stay long down here, and one day, as they
had conic, they left the town, going to an?
other hot place. In that 1918 summer the
French front was not short of hot places,
was it '.'
Here in Nancy there are several American
bases: Red Cross, V. M. C. A., United States
Postoffice, the Provost .Marshal's office, the
American laundry. That partly explains the
great number of American cars and trucks
speeding through the city all the day long.
By the way. the French people admire those
cars very much; they say they are fast and
noiseless and so good looking mid "chic"
"elles tout ?patantes," and be sure the word
?patant is full of praise.
There are some American girls here too
American nurses, Y. M. I'. A. people and
Medical Gyps women. The people say they
look very nice in their uniforms, and surely
these uniforms are awfully becoming. When
during (he war we used to see them coming
from the lines with their yellow gas mask
bug at their side, very military they looked.
How long more shall we see the Ameri?
cans in France? Some sny they will go
back soon to the States, others say they
will stay some time. Wl-.o is right ? Of
course all your soldiers are longing to get
back, although they like this country here.
tary Trs
to learn the contents of the tract and think
i i over.
?!? Give him an enrolment card con?
taining his first orders. This is the begin?
ning of the creation of the soldier's psy?
chology and informs him about:
(a) The knowledge that he is a soldier;
(b) The comprehension that he must
serve any time when called, and where;
lc! The details he must learn; anil
(di Tin* hope that he can become a leader
by work, in various kinds of work.
At the end of three months the recruit it
required to report to the officer, who then
sizes him up, learns what he has done and
wlittl ?seal he slmvv*;. He will then, if com?
petent, l-ecelye his next and burder tusk in
print and perhaps be assigned to o rifle
range Of to any drill hall lo begin a brief
practical lesson, und will In* directed to
return ul a later dato.
If flu' lliim is to be sel lo work, I he gov
eriiini'iii must work also, li has s National
?unrd upon Its statute books ?I |?pp ent|
lindel the defnnee net of IIIId, inilllng for
n foice tu tn? created ??f nu ultimate itreiiglh
"i .80,000 BOO for each Uungresi.I
ri'pi'i' ?intu? Ivb. Some prop!" du not i-eeitll
tin,i iiu-i when advocating military training
of the youth of nineteen !?? twenty, who
number about 1,000,000,
The Cost Is
Important
I?? what expenditure llio country will go
la n serious quest ion which it? Involved In
education.
There is not going lo be enthusiastic
support for liirgi? disbursements for mill
tary training. Office?, equlpmont, mainte
nance, pay, tentage, transportation, oro nil
heavy items for a force of many thousand.
The educational work In colleges und
school? which ?t is proposed t<> expand by
the Reserve Officers' Training Corp? la ?
reliable means for supplying the material
for officers, Additional measure? must he
taken to give the educational opportunity
lo all the youth of the country, in school
or out. of school, so that tho creation of
officers may be more democratic than se?
lections from college bred men alone.
demobilized, causing growing discontent.
The cost of living is now becoming in?
tolerable, and it is very pro?able that
a sort of Bolshevik movement will occur,
! finally bringing an economic explosion.
; This explosion would bring in its train?
! so inextricably are the interests inter?
mixed?similar explosions in Italy ami
I Englanei, where the rapid demobilization
j has brought about a situation almost as
I difficult as in France. Out of which
j would come the triumph eif Germany.
Yet this enormous eiangcr is avert'Llc
i if the Allies, as I insist, occupy Danzig
and Poland, which, for the time being
is the key of the situation.
I want to take up now situations to
which I call particular attention. Tin4
peace conference is conducting its work
I in a fashion, apparently, not according
to the interests of the Allied peoples,
since mistakes committed clearly have
allowed the rebirth of the German peril.
Talks I have bail with a number of im?
portant and well informed men give the
conviction that a number of Entente
politicians wish to inform their parlia?
ments of the Deaee treaty only when it
is a fait accompli. Yet it i< certain
1 that a number of the Allied parliaments
I have the constitutional right and duty
' to examine the peace treaty before it is
rat ?lied. This is well known, but in fact
'< the treaty of peace will be presented to
j these parliaments under such conditions
I and at times such as In oblige Hum t"
of Nancy
They -.u-. "Franc?*, oui, ir?s bonne, mais
\.'?quo, "h, lout de mu?..! " m English
that, t.?, "France, v.--, very good, but Amoi
lea right aw ay ! "
When there won't be an> more American
: soldiers in Nancy we surely will miss them.
| We are all used to them, we like to see and
to meet them in our daily life, they are for
1 us just as old friends and we shall be ver)
' sorry when they leave us. Some say tin.-;.
i will come over again, bringing their families
1 with them, to show them the old country
; they have fought for.
These after-the-war American visitors
will ever receive a friendly hospitality
' everywhere in France, and particularly in
our old dear Nancy, where we have learned
in dark and hard days to know and to appre?
ciate their qualities of soldiers as well as
their qualities of men of America.
C-4*P"<tt\.
lining fo
Physical perfection is the basis of
! militar;? success, and all universal military
instruction and training must Involve hy
! giene and athletic work.
If the National Guard is to be maintained,
? the enrolled recruit should be taught where
his opportunity to get practical military
' training can be found ?nd, with the ?n
-! ruction given to the enrolled youth, am?
bition will bring enlistments, provided the
system is made to reward those who be?
come soldiers.
This reward nee?! only be freedom from
exactions of military duty, which should be
cumulative upon those who fail to i"-t upon
their own Initiative, 'ilus rule prevails In
Swltsertai d.
We are al a point In history when the
terms of pence suggestud may end unlver
miI conscription In time nf peace
"/Manly
Thought?"
All nut '"" i m >? i.ml i ?, ..... ... ... mil
i in ni Piluca) Ion i"..i ni in. i inn In phyal
i'iil and h \ glenic I iiuw It-ilge, m 11 , nrganl
al uni foi nit) ii'inil di fon ?. mid m . m i,
training, ho whnl II may, as will give
manly thoughts, hj tin? proper undoi
standing of the place Dial force hold i In
pronouncement i of s) it a and nal Ions.
Ii may ho many years before (he knuwl
edge muy again he pul to uso which was
acquired by the oflleors who, with General
Perilling, ca? i led on Ihn -. 11, which the
general has reported i" tko Secretary "f
War under data of Novemboi 20, 1018, but
we shall continue to have a mllltarj ? lab
II:l.nt. "n army, a pooplo i""i which to
make an army; and .une foi m o! military
Inatructlon anil training lg a desideratum
vV" inn} r." forward or backward, but
reall) i hould make a beginning. -\ \ tern
should In- adopted which h ill build up the
National Guard, as the government has ho
gun its organization, Th? colleges ' tve
hud th.. Student Arm) Training Corps, und
uro now revising their curricula to em
body some of the features of military
knowledge, nnd in many Instances aro
creating reservo offlcera' training corps.
ratify it, even though it contain stipule
tions manifestly contrary to their wfji- |
It would be forcing the card.
Can Help Ratify Treaty,
But Can't Modify It
Proof that this danger exists is seen
in the discussion in the House of Corn.
mons in London. February 13, when a
member asked whether the treaty con
stituting the society of nations would
he submitted to Parliament befort it
was concluded. Mr. Bonar Law repita
that the treaty would he signed by the
tit-legates intrusted with the power?
adding:
"As far as the British government i;
concerned the treaty will not be ratifi?e*
before it is submitted to Parliament
i which will have a chance to express its
opinion."
Another member asked whether Pap
liament could then make modifications,
and received this amazing answer from
1 Mr. Bonar Law:
"1 am surprised af the question. ]?
seems to me altogether impossible that
twenty parliaments can discuss the de?
tails of the treaty."
This anawer is inadmissible, for the
society of nations is not a detail. Real
benefil ot veritable disaster depend?
upon whether it is well or ill made. It
still seems clear that the interested
parliaments will be unable to oxerci"
their power, and the fact will have to
bear possibly serious consequence! in
th<- decisions reached without their in
ti'iTent mu. Moreover, these declsioni
ni?- made by a great number who are net
, i?-, (.'?i by the people end whose cea.
potence In International question?! i?
doubtful. Nevertheless, it is the p?r
luniti'iii'i i imi pin o th. aiIh ?i govern
1 iiiiiiii? the men and money necessaryU
[ conduct ill?' war, and d Is Intolerable I
that they be treated a? negligible qua?. !
i il un in a forced ratillcation involving
them m serious responsibilities,
Parliaments Shall Lxercise
Their Right of Control
I*. seems to me indispensable thai the
Allied parliaments shall exercise the
right of control. I learn that the com?
mittee on foreign affairs of the French
Chamber of Deputies has not received
oven a confidential communication re?
garding the peace conference discus
sions. Yet this committee understands
well the Polish question, which has long
been studied, and might have protested
efficaciously the errors of the peace con?
ference.
During the conference the parliament!
must be kept informed, which is a
necessity, particularly for the Ameri?
cans, since constitutionally the I'nitei
Stales Senate has the right and duty to
participate in the making of the treaty
of peace. Can the American people run
the risk of the Senate receiving a treaty
which it does not desire to confirm, but
which under the circumstances it is
morally constrained to ratify?
There are simple means of a-oiding
the ?langer thus menacing the various
Allied parliaments. Why should not
these parliaments send to Paris delega?
tions from their foreign affairs commit?
tees, or maintain close touch with their
executives and representatives? This
would insure that the treaty would con?
tain only clauses likely to be ratified by
the parliaments, and would safeguard
the rights of the parliaments, which is
an absolutely necessity.
r Him
The beginning of any system is an en?
rolment; ihe development thereafter wi?
be the fruit of wise judgments regarding
military activities and money expenditure
Q correct military policy which r?cognitif
universal obi ?Ration and carefully appli?
method.-? comprising progressive asre-icie*
The National
Guard
II Is well known to the studrnts that
the term "National Guard" means some*
thing different to ??i'fercnt people. Th?
term "National Uuard" was adopted I*
1824 by the 7th Regimen! ol Ne? ? "rk M
(he OCCHSIon Of the visit of ?.etirrsl U*
t'.ivi'ite to the United Btates. in i?4* tit?
i-tufo of New \i?ri< adopted the term fo'
It organ lied militia; thereeftei the t***
oame lo be taken ?n> nod used In IMO p?
the Federal government, ?ml II ref*rr*?
in slate (mop? lu June, IMA, ?vi??n "?"i
defence se! was passed, the Mord?an ?*?'*'
which hod held (?ungres*. foi ovei ??ne hM"
il,?-,i \?'iii ' was though! i" be cut s? f'*'
?
I ? ,?i? ' ?'m ?. ??i? . deelarei '?"-?
i .?il,'? i ??? shall pi "-. ni?* for t hi ni i
an.I ?l.Ipllnlng ?if the militia, renervlnf >*?
tiie nisten the appointment of the "ftl****1
ami the training of the men, nod 'h'". "
Hinted, had been ? stumbling block f"r o"-'
hundred ??'?!???, nod was thought tu ?**
?i i?\ providing thai undei the p"*''
of Congreei to create armioi ? "NetleS*
Guard" should !?? created n*- ?> psrt ol ??"
army of defence entirely under Federal ?**?*'
?r,,l (,. the site "f the foree hereinbet?"*1
mentioned 420,000 men. All (he remii"
Ing portion *>i th<* militia of the Unit?*
filotes, between eighteen ami forty-a**
was thus I.Cl undisposed of. and th*?
h. ni1 the subject of such direction eM
wise inilltavj policy shall prescribe- ???',,
the lual use of the words "National liu?**
must bo understood t.. mean that port*?"
of the minia which, under the def?***
i ct, i ? ? brolle?) aa a part of the army
the United States for its defence, and *"
thing like state troops is supposed, by tW
act, to be limited to constabulary or r*
forces.

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