Newspaper Page Text
PARTS Vlt AND VIII FOURTEEN PAGES
(EIGHT SMALL PAGES)
SUNDAY, JUNE 1, 1919
PARTS VII AND VIII FOURTEEN PAGES
Bv Elias Tobenkin
A CROWD of men, young and
old, pressed into the j
room? of tho Joint Dis- j
tribution Committee of i
American Funds for Jewish War
gnfferers at Warsaw one day last
\11 were Jews, rabbia and busi
?sjjjs men,*brthodox and radical. As
I entered I could read terror in
their eye?. The thing of which the
Jew of Eastern Europe continually
Hves in dread, they declared, had
come to pass- pogroms were rag
ing throughout Poland.
Border towns and towns in the
heart of Poland. they asserted, were
blazing with the old race hatred.
Jews were being killed, wounded,:
driven from their homes. These '<
oen who thronged the committee's
rooms were like children running \
to their father for protection. And j
the father in this case was America. '
* "Tell it to the peopie of Amer-;
,ica," they urged Dr. Boris D. Bogen,
director of the committee's activi- '
ties in Warsaw. "Tell Wilson."
Telegrams were coming in from
widely separated districts of Poland,
each telling of fresh violence
against the Jews.
I turned from the telegrams to the
Polish newspapers. Judging from
them, Poland was idyllic in its
peace. There was not a line to bear
out directly the tragic story that
the telegrams and the voices of the
frightened Jews told. The only
places in which the race was men?
tioned were the editorial page and
the funny columns. Here the Jews
were condemned or jeered at in the
8ame spirit?as enemies to Poland.
English and French papers, four
days old, jusl brought in by courier, .
weie equally barren of mention of ,
the pogroms. The Polish censorship
had seen to it that not a line con
cerning the otitrages should reach !
the outaide world.
Dr. Bogen is an American educa
tor r.nd welfare worker of Jewish
birth and faith. This morning he
'"You cannot exactly call it ill
ness," he said, ' but I am sick?sick
to the marrow rf rny bones. For
fifty years I was a man. My faith,
or race, was of little importan.ee to
the world at large?and to me, too.
Sjnce my arrival here my status as
a human being has undergone a
complete change. Here I am pri- I
marily a Jew?with all that it im
plies in Poland."
, The View of
The former Polish Prime Minister ;
and leader of the Socialists, Ignace
Daszynski, gave me this view of the !
"The meat of the Jewish ques- !
tion," Daszynski told rne quite
frankly, "is that the Polish peopie
feel that there are too many Jews ,
in Poland, at least there are too j
aany of them in the cities. The j
number of Jews in Poland for the
country at large is 10 per cent. In I
^e cities, however, the number of j
Jews often runs from 60 to 70 per i
cent. In Warsaw the number of I
Jews is 38 per cent, in Lublin 48.
In one or two cities it is as high as
80 per cent."
It will serve no good purpose here
to give a complete list of the hun
dreds of pogroms, big and little, re?
ported in Poland since last Novem
Pogroms in 108 cities in Poland
have been reported during the
months of November and December
alone. The complete list of places
Ul rwi.^.ii iflwi
wher? these pogroms occurred, with
names of tlie killed and full details,
is already a matter of record. It
has been published in book form in
Copenhagen, under the title "Les
Pogromes Anti-Juifs en Galicie et
en Pologne en Novembre et De
combre, 1918." The compiler of thc
book is L. Chasanowitch.
Another book giving the complete
story of the Lemberg pogrom has
appeared in Vienna and was written
by M. Hickl. The title of this book
is "The Lemberg Jew Pogrom."
Israel Cohen, of the Zionist organi?
zation in London, has written a de
tailed account of these pogroms
which appeared in "The London
Times" and other publications in
Europe and America.
The most important of these
pogroms, with the number of lives
lost, are as follows:
LEMBERG ? Jews killed, 72;
wounded, 443; homeless, about
10,000. ln 494 cases of robbery
the robbers were soldiers led by
KIELCE?About 700 Jews wounded
in pogrom of several days' dura
tion. Scores of the wounded died.
LUBOMIL?Forty-five Jewish fami?
lies were pillaged in course of po
grom. Five dead and many
DZIALOSZYCE?Twenty-four Jew- !
ish homes pillaged. One killed;
NISZOWICE ? Jewish homes pil- !
CHRZANOW ?Jewish homes pil- j
laged. Two killed, many wounded.
BRZESKO?Homes pillaged; many
WODZISLAW?Fifty Jewish fami-'
lies pillaged in the night of No- j
vember 19. One Jew assassinated.
Polish military took part in loot- \
ing after changing to civilian \
clothes. The next day a massacre j
ZOLYNIA?Jewish homes pillaged
on December 17 and 18. One i
killed, 12 wounded.
Herewith is a description of a few '
of the pogroms that have taken place !
in Poland since the Paderewski re-!
gime came into power. The list was j
supplied by the Jewish Zionist or?
ganization of Warsaw in its regular
bulletins to the press. These bulle
tins go to every newspaper in
Poland. Not one Polish newspaper
printed them. Every one of the
pogroms described has been pro
tested against in the Polish Diet by
the Jewish deputies. The bulletins
of Volhynia.?Polish troops in this
city had an encounter with the
Ukrainian troops of Petlura on
January 21. They were compelled
to retreat and in the wake of their
retreat they started a pogrom. They
began by robbing Jewish wine shops
and ended with taking everything
they could lay hands on. January
24 Polish troops returned and began
assaulting the Jews. This created
such a panic that the Jews closed
their stores at 1 o'clock in the |
"The Polish legionaries then
made house to house searches, rob?
bing. Several Jewish women were
assaulted by them. Officers accom
panied and even led the soldiers in
their raids on Jews. Officers led a
raid on the hotel owned by Simche
Limonik. Limonik and his wife were
driven from their home and the
house was plundered of everything
in it, including furniture. The lead?
ing citizens of the town, Iser Zeiten
gold, S. M. Zukerman and Israel
Shulman, were then arrested and
2,000 rubles was demanded from
each. They paid and were freed.
"A delegation of two Christians
and two Jews then went to the
Polish authorities and complained
of the mistyreatment of the citizens
by the military. The commandant
replied that he had been informed
that a 'secret wire' had been found.
Instead, therefore, of ordering the
soldiers to desist from terrorizing
the city, he cxacted a contribution
from it as a punitive measure. On
Tuesday, January 28, Polish mili?
tary were compelled to retreat. In
their rage they killed a Jewish
carpenter who was 01 his way to
"ROZANY, PROVINCE OF
GRODNO.?After the Germans left
this place there remained only a
small detaehment of sixty members
of the Red army in the city. The
Soviet Council ordered these troops
to proceed to Slonim. Wednesday,
January 29, Polish volunteers sud?
denly made their appearance at Ro
zany. Near the city tlie.se volun?
teers collided with the departing
Bolshevik troops and took a number
of them prisoner. There were
three Jews among the Bolsheviki,
and these immediately were exe
"The soldiers then proceeded to
look over the city. It was early in
the morning, and the Jews, as is cus
tomary in that part of the world,
were just then going to the syna?
gogue for their morning prayers.
The soldiers picked out thirteen Jews
and led them away to the rear of
the Polish Catholic Church. There
they told the Jews that they would
be shot as Bolsheviki. After beating
them almost into unconsciousness
they ordered the thirteen men to un
dress. They insisted that thc men
take off not only their suits, but
shoes and underwear. It was a bit
ter cold day, but the men obeyed.
The Polish legionaries took their
clothes away and after permitting
three of the men to eseape they shot
the rest, six of them dying instantly,
one being seriously wounded and
three escaping with slight wounds.
"In the mean time another detaeh?
ment of Polish soldiers was arrest
ing Christian Bolsheviki, including
the leader of the Bolshevik group in
the city. The Catholic priest intei
ceded in bchalf of this leader and the
other Christian Bolsheviki, and the
Polish troops released them.
"The murder of the six Jews was
A Uridarwoud, N. Y.
followed by an all-day pogrom, in
which not a Jewish house was left
out. They robbed and pillaged to
tho extent of 200,000 rubles. The
soldiers invited the Christian popu?
lation of the town to join them in
the pogrom and point out the houses
the Jews lived in. A few accepted
the invitation. They then divided
some of tho loot with their Christian
"In addition to the murder and
wholesale robbery other deeds of
brutality were committed by the
score. Men were clubbed without
provocatiom One pf the men ar
rested they could not recognize
whether he was Jew or Gentilc, and
a Polish officer then hit upon a trick.
He told this man to recite the
paternoster. The man began to say
the prayer, but was unable to finish
it. The Polish officers took this as
evidence that he was a Jew and
beat him soundly.
"Passersby were caught by the
Polish troops and beaten. One
young man named Sakheim was tied
to a horse and was told to gallop
alongside the horse for ten versts.
Another boy was saved from murder
by his father giving two puds of
oats to Polish legionaries. The
rabbi of the city, who made a plea in
behalf of the Jews, was threatened
with death. In striking contrast to
the action of the Polish priest of
Rozany, who would not lift a finger
to stop the pogrom, was the humane
action of the Polish doctors in the
city, who not only attended to the
wounded men but went into the
homes of those killed to care for
their prostrate wives and children.
"After the pogrom the Polish sol?
diers left the city of Rozany
and went to Pruzany. Now life in
Rozany is completcly paralyzed. As
soon as it gets dark peopie dare. not
venture into the streets. The city's
commerce is at a standstill, beeause
the Polish troops have taken every?
thing out of the city.
"On the day that the six Jews
were murdered by the soldiers, one
Polish officer went into a jewellers
shop and ordered made six cockadea
of the kind used by the Bolshevik
soldiers. This is an old trick usdd
by Polish officers. They keep these
cockades in case an investigation of
the murder should be made. Then
they will claim the men shot
were Bolsheviki, and as proof
they will point to these. cockades
which they will assert they had taken
from tho slain men."
"BREST - LITOVSK, PROVINCE
OF GRODNO.?The Polish soldiers
here constantly are on the lookout
for Jews on their way to the syna?
gogue whom they arrest and put to
foreed labor. Several times the sol?
diers even entered the synagogue
and, at the point of a rcvolver,
took men away in the midst of the
service. At night they attack the
homes of the Jews and requisition
everything they can lay hands on.
The Christian population is not rc
quired to do foreed la?>or, and no
requisitions are called for. from
"PINSK.?-Wednesday, March 6,
this city was taken by the Polish
military. Thursday the soldiers
scattered over the city in search of
food. They invaded the Jewish sec?
tion of tho town, entered every homo
and rcquisitioned whatever they
jvanted, ?ropeata Wgpfr W1& mtix
threats. The large tobacco house of
Russin and the jewelry house of
Feldman were looted In the proc
ess of robbing many Jews were se?
verely beaten, and^two were killed."
"BIELSK?The Polish legionaries
entered this city February 16. They
immediately started making requisi
tions. On the excuse that they had
orders to confiscate all things made
by Germans, the legionaries robbed
I every one and everything in sight.
| Several Polish soldiers entered the
home of Dr. Kagan, president of the |
j Jewish community, and searched his j
! house. They found nothing and left.
] A little later another group of sol
| diers came. One of them plantad a
| revolver in the house, then started
j to ask the doctor how he happened
; to be in possession of ammunition
i The doctor demanded that the sol?
dier go with him to the commandant
i to make explanations. The soldier
! replied that he was in sole authority,
; and demanded that the doctor give
| him money or he would be shot. Dr.
! Kagan surrendered to the soldier
! several thousand marks which he
| had in the house.
"The soldier and his companlons
| subsequently were arrested for this
robbery and confessed. They were
discharged, and Dr. Kagan never
got his money back.
"There are arrests by the score
daily. Whoever does not lift his hat
to a Polish soldier is beaten. Any
one appearing in the street after 8
o'clock is beaten by the military.
The Jewish population is extremely
poor, as the city had gone through
two severe fires recently, but it must
pay a contribution of 125,000 marks
to the Polish military authorities.
"Into the home of a tailor, Alter
Litwak, soldiers came the other day
and searched the house. They found
a pair of German pants which a
Christian named Muczkowski gave
him to make over for himself. The
tailor and his son were thereupon
arrested. At first Muczkowski, who
was called as a witness by the tailor,
denied that he gave him the pants,
but upon seeing thc soldiers beat the
Jew mercilessly Muczkowski con?
fessed. He was given the pants and
told to go home. As a punishment
to the old Jew, however, it was de?
cided to give him thirty strokes with
a whip. After the punishment was
administered the man was unable to
raise himself. It soon became clear
that he was dying, but the Polish
soldiers refused to let a physician ex
"KALISCH.?At noon on Wednes?
day, March 12, about 400 Com?
munists among the workers em
ployed in removing the debris in
this city marched down in a body
to the magistracy (City Hall).
Along the way they were joined by
onc hundred Jewish workmen, and
together they sent a delegation to
the President of the city asking
that he permit the issuance of larger
portions of bread and that he re
duce the price of meat. The Presi?
dent promised to grant the request
of the workers and the demonstra?
tion started back, each group carry
ing its own banner.
"Suddenly a military automobile
laden with soldiers appeared. The
Jewish group was separated from
the rest of the workers and an at?
tack begun upon the Jewish work?
ers. The affair soon became an at
Jrtacis upon Jpm&cmttikfa Itetai
^?pfit.v.e^-:;:.vv; . ... ..... . -??? -s-:. ., -?
; of the city closed thei.- business and
j went home, preparing for the worst.
It came the next morning about 9
! o'clock. At that hour an attackwas
.made by young boys upon the Jew?
ish meat markets. The butchers
gathered and dispersed the mob of
youngsters. A little later, however,
these youngsters came back, rein
forced by three hundred grown-ups
and started to plunder the Jewish
"As most of them were armed
with clubs and many with irons, the
Jewish butchers hid in the base
ments of their stores. Two Jew?
ish boys, Jacob and Salman Ansel,
were trying to save some of their
belongings and remained in their
store. The mob broke in the door
and it fell upon Jacob Ansel. The
crowd sat upon the heavy door,
which was already crushing the
boy, and the boy was begging for
his life. His father, Pinchas Ansel,
who was safe in the basement, on
seeing that his son would surely be
strangled, threw the door of the
basement open and rushed upstairs
to plead with the mob for his son.
Instead of helping his son, however,
.thc old man only hastened his death.
In response to the plea of the father
one man in the mob rushed up to
the struggling youth and stuck a
knife into his breast. The lad'ex
pired in a few minutes.
"The other brother had meantime
managed to eseape. He was fol?
lowed by a mob, and as it was fast
overtaking him he jumped into the
river. Being a good swimmer he
landed on the other side, where sev?
eral Christians helped him ashore
and spirited him away to a hospi?
"WIELUN.?Friday, March 14,
and Tuesday, March 18, pogroms
took place here. Stores were looted
by peasants and bands of unem
ployed. The police and soldiers at
first made an attempt to check the
pogrom, but some one shouted that
Jews were shooting from the win?
dows upon soldiers. This cooled the
ardor of the soldiers and the looters
were left alone. Three men were
"BUSK.?On Wednesday, March
12, peasants armed with clubs be
i of T
gan to gather here. There was talk
of starting a pogrom, and the Jew?
ish members of the council went to
the commissary of the city to ask
him that he take some measures to
prevent disorder. The commissary
said he saw no likelihood of disorder
breaking out and no reason for tak?
ing steps, then left town.
"At 2 o'clock in the afternoon the
peasants started assaulting Jews.
They entered one store and looted it.
The other storekeepers meantime
closed their places. Thereupon
gangs appeared with axes and began
breaking into stores and robbing.
"The Christians, fearing that the
mob might not distinguish their
homes from the Jewish home.s. put
icons and holy pictures in the win
dows, and thus saved themselves.
After an hour of intensive looting
the militia managed to check the
"An interesting feature in con?
nection with this pogrom is the fol?
lowing: A few days after the po?
grom two deputies from the peasant
group in the Diet, Alfons Erdman
and Jan Szafranek, came to Busk.
At the request of the Jewish mem
bers of the City Council these two
deputies made speeches, telling the
populace that pogroms are a blot
upon the honor of Poland. Several
( hristians thereupon. arose and said
the pogrom in Busk was not made
by Christians, but by Jews them- j
selves, dresscd like peasants and
Such is the life of tiie Jew in the
provinces of Poland. What the lives
of 350,000 Jews in the city of War?
saw are like was told by the Jewish
editor of the Warsaw Yiddish daily,
".Moment," in an open letter ad
dressed to Prime Minister Moraczew
ski just before the latter resigned in
favor of Paderewski. Conditions
have not improved since the letter
was written. In this letter Editor'
"Does the Minister Premier know
that the Jewish population of War?
saw is now living under conditions
which practically put it outsidc the
law? In a time when all kinds of
freedoms are in ihe air the Jewish
peopie have lost the most elementary
rights of men: the security of life
"I am purposely not going into a
description of conditions in the prov?
inces, in the small towns where the
agony of the murdered and the tor
tured cries to heaven, beeause you
have defended yourself recently by
saying that your government is too
weak, that you have not the power to I
en force all the laws everywhere.
But in Warsaw, in the capital of
Poland, where you have the means
to suppress a conspirney in a few
hours, do you know what hapnens in ,
"Do you know that every night
the Jewish quarter looks as if dead?
Peopie are afraid to venture out into
the streets. Those returning home
after dark walk stealthily through :
side streets. Do you know of the i
nightly shootings? Of the house-to-!
house searches? Do you know that!
there are streets in Warsaw where '
chronic pogroms upon Jews are go-'
ing on day in and day out? Where |
they are robbed and degraded?
Where they are dragged into sol- i
diers' barracks to do foreed and hu
miliating labor? And they must!
kiss the hands of those who torture ;
them for the privilege of being re- \
leased from such unjust detention!
"Is the Minister President aware
that such a horrible ghetto as that
which Warsaw has come to have,
such oppression, such uncertainty,
Jews have not felt in generations?
Indeed, we must go back not gener
ations but centuries to find a paral
iliar laawafaifftofrig ifrmmiff ftjjy
lel to such o^yression of thc Jewish
race anywhere in history.
"As in the middle ages, the War?
saw ghetto has her gates to-day.
The end of Bielanska Street is onc
gate, the military barracks in the
Pereyezd is the other gate. Here
is the frontier. On one side lives
the liberated Poland. On the. other
side live Polami's unprotected, op
pressed. awe-stricken Jews.
'?Commerce is dead. lf a person
still has a little something saved up
from the past, he is sure to have
it taken away from him by confis
cation. This, of course. is done in
the interest of the people: specula
tion must be checked. But the
cruellest of all speculations, th*'
speculation which is the cause of
all of Poland's evils, the specula?
tion in food, which causes the con
stant and arbitrary inflation of
prices?this speculation goes on
"Citizen Moraczewski, the co
tions which you tolerate in the Jew
ish quarter arc a crime against the
most elementary conceptions of
democratic government. They are a
crime against Poland, the !'
which is in the making. For il is im?
possible to believ ? that such <
tions can go on ^r anj length oi
time without s< . ethii ':
happening. The ( ln isl ian populatit a
is becoming accustomed to thc
thought that the Jew 3 of Polai ii ai
outside the law. The Jews arc be?
coming accustomed to the thi
that they have nowhere to lo li foi
heln, for protection. The Jewish
delegations return with insull fov an
answer. I look on these conditions
with fear and trembling. Such .-, ,
indifferencc on the part of govern?
ment toward them the Jew.s have not
had in their worst times?-nol in the
times of Russian rule. not in thc
time of German occupation. I know
it is a terrible thing to make such ?
statement, but what. is the profit in
my being silent when the facts them
selves cry aloud these truths'.'
"Citizen Moraczewski! Thc pres?
ent state of affairs cannot go 011.
The Jewish population of W ar^aw
demands protection of you. Givi 1: ,
safety. Three hundred and fifty
thousand Jews of the Polish capital
cry for it and you must give th< m ai
Editor Nomberg'o ' that
the Polish govermnent has work an !
opportunities for the people in tr."
"world of light" vt'iorr, to the fact,
which has caused much bitterness,
that the Polish government has not
only disregarded the Jewish popula?
tion in the appointment of men to
various city, state and natioi al
offices, but has even gone further
and has discharged practically every
Jew formerly employed in govern?
Investigation in Warsaw dh
closed that while there are in that
city about 12,000 communal workers,
the Jews as a class are excluded
from the^e positions. This despitc
the fact that the Jewish population
in Warsaw is 38 per cent of thc- en?
A similar situation prevails on
the railroads. Before the revolution
of November 11, which gave Poland
her independence, there were several
thousand Jews working on the rail?
roads in Poland. With the entry of
the new Polish government these
men lost their jobs and far less
efficient men wore put in their
places. Jewish engineers and sur
veyors are walking the streets ot
Warsaw, haggard and desperate. be?
cause Poland will not give them
work, and they cannot emigrate be?
cause the frontiers are closed. There
is not a Jew working on a 8treetcar
? Underwood & fnlwrwood. N. T.